U.S.A

United States of America ( Also, Fully deserve The first in the world, enrich the research funding of research universities, enterprises, scientific research achievements of the world model.

U.S.A History

Early civilization
 The British colonies in North America The British colonies in North America

In forty thousand years ago, Indian The ancestors through North America reach Central America and South America When; Columbus He believes that the arrival in the new world, living in America Indian There are about 30 million. While living in the United States, Canada today Indian These people about 1 million 500 thousand people; Indigenous people The composition, whether from genetic, linguistic and social point of view, there are great differences; it is estimated that in fifteenth Century The Rio Grande To the north there are at least 400 unrelated, distinctive cultural patterns, has a variety of body types and languages.
About ten thousand years ago, another group of Asians, moved to the northern part of North America, later Eskimo . The earliest to America White person Probably The Vikings In 1000, some people think that they had visited the east coast of North america.

U.S.A During the colonial period

In 1607, one of about 100 people Colonization Group, established in the Chesapeake Beach Jamestown And this is the first permanent British built in North America Colony . In the next 150 years, many have come The colonists That settled in the coastal areas, many of them from the UK, but also from a part of France, Germany, Holland, Ireland Italy, and other countries. Through the mass slaughter of European immigrants Indian The occupation of Indian, seizing property, large scale
 The United States -- the Ministry of foreign affairs of special administrative division The United States -- the Ministry of foreign affairs of special administrative division
People of the land.
The middle of the eighteenth Century, 13 Britain The colonies formed gradually, they have their own government and parliament under the sovereignty of britain. The 13 colonies due to differences in climate and geographical environment, resulting in local economic patterns, political systems and conceptual differences.

U.S.A War of independence

 The American scene The American scene
The middle of the eighteenth Century, the British colonies in the Americas and the UK have a rift. With the continuous expansion of the colonies, serious gradually and make them aware of developments, so the idea of an independent. 1773, Boston tea. The British colonists, anti dumping.
In 1774, representatives from 13 states gathered in Philadelphia And held the first Continental Congress, hoping to solve the problem with the British peace. However, the king insists the colonies must unconditionally succumb to the king, and accept the punishment. In 1775. Massachusetts The Lexington flames of war, The American War of independence The outbreak.
In May 1776. Philadelphia The Second Continental Congress convened, a firm commitment to the war and independence, and in July 4th signed the famous " The declaration of independence ". With this opportunity, the "Declaration of independence" is considered to be the beginning of the establishment of the United States, today (July 4th) was also the United States as the national day.
February 1778, Benjamin Franklin Persuaded bourbon dynasty So, France and the United States signed a military alliance treaty, France officially recognized by the United states. France , Spain , Netherlands After the war.
1781, Battle of Yorktown US military victory, to win a decisive victory. Then in addition to engagements on land and sea are still sporadic fighting outside North America The mainland has basically stopped the war.
In 1787. Philadelphia At the federal conference meeting Washington Was elected as the chairman. The meeting decided to state government tax and currency adjustment, casting business, and war conclusion The treaty powers, at the same time take Montesquieu The The separation of the three powers In principle, legislative, administrative and judicial institutions three checks and balances.
1812~1815, the britishinvasion was founded in the United States, known to history The second American War of independence . The United States more united.

U.S.A westward movement

 American territorial expansion American territorial expansion
The United States in 1783 obtained the land east of the Mississippi River, from 1803 Napoleon Bought in 1819 from Louisiana, Spain captured Florida, by 1845~1853 The Mexican American War New Mexico, Oregon, the acquisition of Texas and California, 1867 from the hands of Russia Alaska purchase annexation of Hawaii in 1898.
The beginning of the nineteenth Century, American territory attracted immigrants to the West over the Appalachian Mountains continue to migrate to the west coast, participating in the construction of transportation and development of agriculture and animal husbandry, exploitation of natural resources, promote the industrialization process. The negative impact is westward movement Expelled and wiped out local Indians, also known as Trail of Tears .

U.S.A The Civil War

The contradiction between the North American industrial bourgeoisie and the Southern plantation owners gradually intensified, resulting in the The Civil War The outbreak. The focus is on the abolition of slavery. The slave system hinders the economic development of the north, and the North's economic policy has hindered the Southern plantation owners interests.
In early 1860s, 11 Southern states seceded to form Confederate States of America The north; said, in order to unify will pay all costs.
In 1861, the Southern plantation owners to Lincoln He became president of the United States on the grounds of a civil war, civil war broke out. This is a bloody war the Americans face to face. New year's day in 1863, Lincoln issued the " emancipation proclamation "And" homestead law "A lot of black slaves, to join the North Camp, north to get abundant manpower, to reverse the unfavorable situation.
In April 9, 1865, the southern government ended in failure. The victory not only makes us unity was restored, but also from all over the country no longer carry Slavery . In April 15th, President Lincoln The assassination at the Ford theatre.

U.S.A Transformation and development

At the beginning of nineteenth Century, the United States began after the civil war into the mature industrialization.
 Martin Ruud Kim speech Martin Ruud Kim speech
Stage. From the civil war to the first World War in 50 years, the United States from a rural Republic became City The country. From 1890 to 1917 during the past 30 years is called progress period.
1914, The First World War In 1917, the United States broke out; drawn into the whirlpool of war, and try to play a new role in the world.
In 1929, the Capitalism Great Depression The great depression, affecting not only the United States, all countries in the world have been implicated. The economic panic of the millions of unemployed workers, a large number of peasants were forced to abandon the land, factories closed shops, bank failures, a recession.
1932, Franklin I (1882 ~ 1945) was elected president, to the full implementation of government intervention in the market as the main means" Roosevelt's new deal ". He advocated that the government should take action to end the economic panic, then launched a series of policies to alleviate temporarily solve many difficulties, but the U.S. economy is still going to the Second World War after waking up.
1939, The Second World War The outbreak. Japan in December 7, 1941 The attack on Pearl Harbor After the war the United States, for The Pacific Ocean The main force.
After the Second World War, with the The axis The decline of defeat, the British and French strength, the United States and the Soviet Union became Superpower , the world is divided into two camps. The Soviet Union and their respective camps were in the military, political and economic aspects of a comprehensive publicity, as in wartime, known as confrontation " Cold War ".
1950, Korean War The outbreak of the U.S., and the newly established The People's Republic of China The volunteers were at war, both sides of the war with the 38 line for the signing of the armistice agreement in the world. The escalation of the cold war.
1962, The Cuban Missile Crisis The horrors of the cold war peak. 1969, Appollo No. 11 The first man on the moon, the United States in the space race gradually beyond the Soviet union.
The middle of 1960s, Vietnam war The outbreak, many Americans were dissatisfied with the government's foreign policy, anti war demonstrations with various civil rights movements raging like a storm. In addition, due to the concentration, industrial development and population in the late 60s, the ecological environment pollution wide attention. In early 70s, due to the energy crisis of the recession was the most serious one. In mid 70s, the U.S. economy was recovering, but at the end of 70s appeared. Inflation .
In 1976, the 200 anniversary of the founding of the United States, the country held various celebration activities. With science and technology aspects of the global political, military, economic, highly developed comprehensive advantages, the United States in the cold war eventually caused the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Dissolution of the Soviet Union The United States won. Cold War The final victory, the bipolar pattern is gradually A super strong Instead of the new international situation, the United States has become Superpower .

U.S.A geographical environment

U.S.A Location condition

 The map of the United States - the latest version of erlinyou The map of the United States - the latest version of erlinyou
The United States is the second largest country in the Americas, including the United States, the territory of northwest North America Alaska And the central Pacific Hawaiian Islands . Area of 9372610 square kilometers (including land area of 9 million 158 thousand and 960 square kilometers, inland water area of about 200 thousand square kilometers), if the United States sovereign on the part of the five Great Lakes of about 170 thousand square kilometers, estuaries, bays and coastal waters and inland sea area of about 100 thousand square kilometers, an area of 9 million 630 thousand square kilometers, if only the total land area, the United States ranked third after. Russia , China In. Canada Before.
The Central Intelligence Agency " The World Factbook "From 1989 to 1996 the initial version of the United States a total area of 9372610 square kilometers out. In 1997 changed to 9629091 square kilometers, in 2004 changed to 9631418 square kilometers, 9631420 square kilometers in 2006 to.

U.S.A topographic features

The land and be the most changeful terrain topography from west to East. The east coast coastal region has a wide narrow coastal plain, South North, has been extended to the New Jersey In. Long Island And there are also some glacial deposits plain . In the rear of the coastal plain is the terrain in the piedmont zone extends to North Carolina and New Hampshire 1830 meters high, The Appalachian Mountains Until。
West of the Appalachian Mountains is the Great Plains, the terrain is relatively flat, The five Great Lakes and The Mississippi River - The Missouri In the world the
 The topographic diagram The topographic diagram
Four large rivers are also located here. In the west of the Mississippi River, within the plain terrain began to rise, and finally into the central area of the vast and sparsely terrain characteristics The Great Plains .
In the Western Great Plains are towering The Rocky Mountains From the south to the north, in the continental United States One divides into two.. The state of Colorado The highest peak at 4270 meters. West Coast Area The Sierra Nevada And the coast mountains. Before the Rocky Mountains and frequent volcano activities; there is only one area ( Wyoming Yellowstone National Park The super volcano - could be the largest in the world Active volcano ). The United States is the highest mountain Mckinley Hill , 6193 meters above sea level, is the highest peak in North america.

U.S.A climate

Belong to the most parts of the United States Continental climate The south. Subtropical climate . A large North Central Plain of Chicago in January the average temperature difference, temperature -3, July 24 C; the Gulf of Mexico in January the average temperature of 11 degrees, 28 degrees Celsius in July.

U.S.A time zone

The United States across the west district to the west area ten, a total of six time zones. Each zone corresponds to a standard time, from east to west, respectively. Eastern time (EST, West District, including 19 states along the coast of the Atlantic and near the mainland and Washington The SAR, on behalf of the city of Washington, (central time) CST Six, the western region, including Chicago and New Orleans The two area, mountain time (MST), seven West District), Pacific time ( PST Eight, the western region, including 4 states along the Pacific coast, there are Los Angeles City) etc., Alaska Time (AKST, Nine West District), Hawaii Time (HST, ten West District). In accordance with the "west east early late" rule, the decline of one hour. The so-called western Pacific time refers to the time.

U.S.A natural resources

The United States is rich in natural resources, mineral resources, the total proven reserves ranked first in the world. Coal, petroleum , Natural gas , Iron ore , Sylvite , phosphate , sulfur The mineral reserves are in the world. Other minerals copper , lead , molybdenum , uranium , Bauxite , gold , mercury , nickel , potassium carbonate , silver , tungsten , zinc , aluminum , bismuth Etc.. Strategic mineral resources titanium , manganese , cobalt , chromium Mainly rely on imports. Forest area of about 4 billion 400 million acres, coverage rate reached 33%.
As of the end of 2010, the United States has proven reserves of 20 billion 680 million barrels of crude oil, ranking thirteenth in the world. Proven Natural gas Reserves of 7 trillion and 716 billion cubic meters, ranking fifth in the world; proven coal reserves of 491 billion tons, ranking first in the world. The United States in 2011 crude oil The 2 billion 65 million barrels, 4 billion 146 million barrels of imports, exports 1 billion 67 million barrels. 28 trillion and 580 billion cubic feet of natural gas production, imports of 3 trillion and 460 billion cubic feet, exports 1 trillion and 510 billion cubic feet.

U.S.A administrative division

The United States States and capital (sorted by state initials)
Alabama
AL
Montgomery
Alaska
AK
Juneau
Arizona
AZ
Phoenix
Arkansas
AR
Little rock
California
CA
Sacramento
Colorado
CO
Denver
Connecticut
CT
Hartford
Delaware
DE
Dover
Florida
FL
Tallahassee
Georgia
GA
Atlanta
Hawaii
HI
Honolulu
Idaho
ID
Boise
Illinois
IL
Springfield
Indiana
IN
Indianapolis
Iowa
IA
Des Moines
Kansas
KS
Topeka
Kentucky
KY
Frankfort
Louisiana
LA
Baton Rouge
Maine
ME
Augusta
Maryland
MD
Annapolis
Massachusetts
MA
Boston
Michigan
MI
Lansing
Minnesota
MN
St. Paul
Mississippi
MS
Jackson
Missouri
MO
Jefferson City
Montana
MT
Helena
Nebraska
NE
Lincoln
Nevada
NV
Carson City
New Hampshire
NH
Concord
New Jersey
NJ
Trenton
New Mexico
NM
Santa Fe
New York
NY
Albany
North Carolina
NC
Raleigh
North Dakota
ND
Bismarck
Ohio
OH
Columbus
Oklahoma
OK
Oklahoma City
Oregon
OR
Salem
Pennsylvania
PA
Harrisburg
Rhode Island
RL
Providence
South Carolina
SC
Columbia
South Dakota
SD
Pierre
Tennessee
TN
Nashville
Texas
TX
Austin
Utah
UT
Salt Lake City
Vermont
VT
Montpelier
Virginia
VA
Richmond
Washington
WA
Olympia
West Virginia
WV
Charleston
Wisconsin
WI
Madison
Wyoming
WY
Cheyenne

Alabama
Alabama
AL
Montgomerie
Montgomery
California Alaska
Alaska
AK
Juno
Juneau
Arizona
Arizona
AZ
TRABTECH
Phoenix
The state of Arkansas
Arkansas
AR
Little Rock
Little rock
The state of California
California
CA
Sacramento
Sacramento
The state of Colorado
Colorado
CO
Denver
Denver
connecticut
Connecticut
CT
Hartford
Hartford
Delaware
Delaware
DE
Dover
Dover
The state of Florida
Florida
FL
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Georgia
Georgia
GA
Atlanta
Atlanta
The state of Hawaii
Hawaii
HI
Honolulu
Honolulu
Idaho
Idaho
ID
Boise
Boise
Illinois
Illinois
IL
Springfield
Springfield
The state of Indiana
Indiana
IN
Indianapolis
Indianapolis
Iowa
Iowa
IA
Des Moines
Des Moines
The state of Kansas
Kansas
KS
Topeka
Topeka
The state of Kentucky
Kentucky
KY
Frankfurt
Frankfort
louisiana
Louisiana
LA
Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
The state of Maine
Maine
ME
Augusta
Augusta
Maryland
Maryland
MD
Annapolis
Annapolis
Massachusetts
Massachusetts
MA
Boston
Boston
The state of Michigan
Michigan
MI
Lansing
Lansing
The state of Minnesota
Minnesota
MN
St Paul
St. Paul
Mississippi
Mississippi
MS
Jackson
Jackson
The state of Missouri
Missouri
MO
The city of Jefferson
Jefferson City
Montana
Montana
MT
Helena
Helena
Nebraska
Nebraska
NE
Lincoln
Lincoln
Nevada
Nevada
NV
Carson City
Carson City
New Hampshire
New Hampshire
NH
Concord
Concord
New Jersey
New Jersey
NJ
Trenton
Trenton
The state of New Mexico
New Mexico
NM
Santa Fe
Santa Fe
The state of New York
New York
NY
Albany
Albany
North Carolina
North Carolina
NC
raleigh
Raleigh
North Dakota
North Dakota
ND
Bismarck
Bismarck
The state of Ohio
Ohio
OH
Columbus
Columbus
Oklahoma
Oklahoma
OK
Oklahoma City
Oklahoma City
Oregon
Oregon
OR
Salem
Salem
The state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
PA
Harrisburg
Harrisburg
The state of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
RL
Providence
Providence
South Carolina
South Carolina
SC
Columbia
Columbia
South Dakota
South Dakota
SD
Pierre
Pierre
The state of Tennessee
Tennessee
TN
Nashville
Nashville
Texas
Texas
TX
Austen
Austin
The state of Utah
Utah
UT
The city of Saline Lake
Salt Lake City
Vermont
Vermont
VT
Montpelier
Montpelier
Virginia
Virginia
VA
Richmond
Richmond
Washington State
Washington
WA
Olympia
Olympia
The state of West Virginia
West Virginia
WV
charleston
Charleston
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
WI
Madison
Madison
Wyoming
Wyoming
WY
Cheyenne
Cheyenne

U.S.A population

U.S.A Number

The total population of 310 million (as of February 2012), accounted for 80% of whites (including Hispanic whites), The rest were African American, Asian etc.. From the view of state, The state of California Is the most populous state, 37 million 200 thousand; Wyoming The smallest population, only 564 thousand; Texas The absolute number of the largest population growth, increased by 4 million 300 thousand compared to 2000, reaching 25 million 100 thousand. The United States census data in 2006, German American The United States accounted for 17% of the total population, the ethnic Americans ranked first. U.S.A Black and Asian Other minority population has reached 50 million people (as of July 2006), the U.S. Hispanic population exceeded 50 million, accounting for about 1/6 of the population of the United States, the United States continues to dominate the top position of ethnic minorities. The Chinese American population of about 4 million (as of 2011). 51.3% of the residents believe Protestant Other residents believe, Catholicism , Judaism So, do not belong to any denomination for 4%.
Human Development Index 0.937 (high, in 2013, third countries and regions in the world, next to Norway And Australia).

U.S.A Life

The average American life in 2009 for the first time in 78 years, reaching the age of 78.2. population The mortality rate is a record low.
In 2009 the United States male life expectancy increased by 0.2 years old, reached the age of 75.7, women increased by 0.1, reaching the age of 80.6.
In addition to the average life expectancy increased, the U.S. population mortality rate dropped in 2009 for the tenth consecutive year, 741 deaths per 100 thousand people in 2009, record the number of deaths of about 2 million 436 thousand and 700 people, 36 thousand fewer than in 2008.

U.S.A The symbol of the nation

U.S.A National flag

The stars and stripes (Stars and Stripes). A horizontal rectangle, length and width ratio of 19:10. main The body consists of 13 red and white wide strips, 7 red, 6 white flag; the upper left corner for the blue rectangle, which is divided into 9 rows of 50 white five pointed star. Red symbolizes strength and courage, white symbolizes purity and innocence, the blue symbolizes vigilance, firm and indomitable and justice. Road width of 13 represents the first launch of the independence war and 13 state victory, 50 stars represent the state of United States of America number.
In 1818 the United States Congress passed a bill, the red flag on the fixed width of 13 star, the number should be consistent with the United States State number. Each additional state, increase a star on the national flag in NSW joined second years after the July 4th implementation. So far has been the national flag to 50 stars, representing the 50 state of the United states. June 14th of each year as "flag day". On this day, all over the United States at the commemoration of the national flag to show respect and love for america.

U.S.A National Emblem

 Great Seal of the United States Great Seal of the United States
The subject of a chest with a shield shaped pattern The bald eagle (Tu Ying). The bald eagle is the national bird, it is the strength, courage, freedom and a symbol of immortality. Half face shield blue horizontal rectangle, the lower half red and white bars, its meaning with the national flag. Eagle on the top of the symbol of the sovereignty of countries in the world and the birth of a new independent country - United States of America crown; there are 13 white five pointed star, the first 13 states on behalf of the United states. The two Eagle Claw were holding olive branch and arrows, a symbol of peace and force. Olecranon dangling from a yellow ribbon with the Latin words "united as one", meaning United States of America by many states, is a complete state.

U.S.A national anthem

The National Anthem of the United States : "the Star Spangled Banner" (The Star-Spangled Banner)
Oh, can you see, by the dawn, we at what, cheers sound? Who Kuo star, braving the night of fire, still carve wind breeze in the bunker on the army? Gun sparkling, bomb the rumbling sound, they are our flag safe and sound. You see the flag is flying high in the free state, the home of the brave?

U.S.A National flower

Rose , a symbol of beauty, fragrance, enthusiasm and love. In 1985 by the Senate as National flower .

U.S.A China Stone

Sapphire

U.S.A National bird

The bald eagle ( The bald eagle ).
 The United States national bird The United States national bird
The United States is the world's first identified National bird The country. Bald eagle First appeared in the United States flag is in the war of independence. In July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress issued " The declaration of independence "And decided the new United States must have a special National Emblem . In June 20, 1782, Congress passed a resolution, the unique North American bald eagle as America's national bird, and the bird as the emblem of the main body. Bald eagle Beautiful appearance, ferocious temperament, full of feathers on the head, it is the biggest characteristic of two white, or white headed white tail. It represents bravery, strength and victory.

U.S.A image

American Nickname Call" Uncle Sam ("Uncle S
 Uncle Sam (Uncle Sam) Uncle Sam (Uncle Sam)
Am). The legend of 1812 The Anglo American War During the United States New York Troy businessman Sam Wilson (1766.9.13--1854.7.31) in the supply of beef barrels army wrote "U.S.", said this is the property of the United states. This exactly with his nickname " Uncle Sam "(" Uncle Sam ")" ("U.S.") the same, so people call these with the "U.S." marking materials are "Uncle Sam". Later," Uncle Sam "Gradually became the nickname of the United states. In 1830s, American cartoonist and "Uncle Sam" painted a head wearing a star hat, wore a beard hair tall old man. 1961 The United States Congress Passed a resolution formally acknowledged" Uncle Sam "As a symbol of the United states.

U.S.A capital

Washington Full name. Washington District of Columbia , located in the northeastern United States, 1790 capital.

U.S.A Politics

U.S.A congress

The U.S. Congress is the highest legislative body, by the The United States Senate and The United States House of Representatives Coalition. The main functions of the congress: legislative power , administrative supervision Right, the treaty and the power to approve the appointment of officials ( senate ) and the constitutional amendment. Check on the president and vice president right. Members of both houses directly elected by voters states. 2 senators from each state, a total of 100 for a term of 6 years, the election every two years 1/3. All the members according to the proportion of state population quota allocation selected a total of 435 for a period of two years, the expiration of all elections. Members of both houses can be re elected for a term of no limit. The members were full-time, shall serve as the government positions.
In addition, the Congress does not need the president signed the resolution, they have no legal effect. Congress has the power to impeach the president, vice president and officials proposed impeachment trial right belongs to the house of Representatives, the right to belong to the Senate impeachment. The United States. The Federal Supreme Court And the federal and state courts and special courts. The Federal Supreme Court by the chief justice and 8 Associate Justices, tenure. The Supreme Court has the power to declare any federal and state law is invalid.

U.S.A President

The United States presidential elections are held every four years, person could only either two (due to the causes of World War II, won 12 term Franklin Delano Franklin Delano Roosevelt The president is an exception). Although the president and the vice presidential election is held by universal suffrage, but the way is by the electoral votes (electoral elected) determined except The state of Maine and Nebraska Two, according to the popular vote the proportion of votes allocation of electoral votes, and the other 48 states Washington DC Are the "winner take all" system, that is the state's electoral votes given to all get the relative majority of the popular vote in the state's presidential candidate, the national electoral votes for 538, at least 270 votes to elect a candidate. Elected The election of people In the electoral vote to vote for the win in the state's presidential candidate, the election results usually vote in the general election day can be calculated according to the state election results. Most of the population of the United States The state of California Have as many as 55 electoral votes, and smaller population California Alaska Only 3 electoral votes. In view of this situation, the American presidential election in the previous, population states have become a presidential candidate for the To target. The history of the United States several times that happened, although some presidential candidate obtains in the election of the votes less than the opponents, but for getting enough electoral votes and was elected, once this occurs George W. Bush The president for reelection.
According to the constitution of United States of America, the first paragraph of article second, the president must be at least 35 years old, living in the United States for more than 14 years, it must be "natural born citizen of the United States" (usually interpreted as a birth for the citizens of the United States) or when the constitution was adopted by a citizen of the United states. The only official in the United States and vice president of two duty "was born when serving as elements of a citizen of the United States". Other members of the government appointed by the cabinet minister and the president of the. cabinet In fact only presidential aides and advisers, no collective decision-making power.
In November 9, 2016, the Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump was elected president of the United States, the Republican vice presidential nominee, Indiana governor Mike Burns was elected the new vice president.

U.S.A government

The American political system as a constitutional federal republic (Federal constitutional republic). At the same time take The separation of the three powers The principle of the administrative, legislative and judicial delegated to the president, the parliament, the federal court.
The 44 president of the United States (fifty-sixth, 57) President Barack Obama Vice President (Barack Obama); Joseph Biden (Joe Biden); the speaker of the house of Representatives John Boehner (John Boehner); Provisional Senate Patrick Lesthy (Patrick Leahy); Chief Justice John Roberts (John Roberts); Secretary of state John Kerry (John Kerry); the Minister of Finance Jacob Lew (Jacob Lew); Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel (Chuck Hagel); the Minister of Justice Eric Holder (Eric Holder).

U.S.A Law

The laws of the United States Inherited the British case law The traditional American court, inherited the doctrine of precedent and belongs to The Anglo American law system An important part of the. Before the mid nineteenth Century, early American cases are still often cited in the British case, then as the United States gradually developed their own legal system, to the vast majority of the United States now quote from domestic judicial cases.
The constitution of the United States is the most important source of law, all other laws are derived from the Constitution and under the effect of the constitution. Any law shall not contravene the constitution. Based on the constitution of the highest, if Congress passes the conflict with the constitutional law, the Supreme Court ruled the law unconstitutional, any one of the courts of the United States can hear the case according to the constitution. The United States Supreme Court to Marbury v. Madison (1803) in the establishment of the authority of the court, the United States has become the world's first Judicial review system The country.

U.S.A Constitution

The United States is the oldest constitutional constitutional republic, is the earliest in the world and is still in operation and the written constitution, the legislature approved production. In some states, the judicial system by majority elected officials. In July 4, 1776 established a constitutional document, "federal regulations". In May 1787 formulated the draft constitution in March 1789, the first Congress declared effective. It is the world's first as an independent, unified state constitution. In 1865 and 1870 through on the abolition of slavery and that black civil rights thirteenth and the 15 amendment of the regulations by 1951; if he cannot exercise the authority by the vice president was promoted to President of the twenty-fifth amendment. The main contents of the constitution is to establish a federal state, states have more autonomy, including the legislative power; implement the separation of the three powers of the political system, legislative, administrative and judicial separation of the three sector, and restrict each other. According to the constitution, the executive power to the president, heads of state and government centralized authority the president, the president as commander in chief of the armed forces, the president not parliament. The executive order of the president and the law have the same effect.

U.S.A Court

The basic framework of the courts of the United States Agency is divided into federal court and the state court two completely independent System. By the federal court The Federal Supreme Court The federal court of appeal (i.e., 94 federal district court is divided into 11 zones and the assizes The District of Columbia The federal circuit, a circuit, a federal appeals court in each district), a federal district court and the Federal Court (i.e. special bankruptcy court, International Trade Court and the federal court for compensation etc.). The Federal Supreme Court established by the constitution of the United States, is a federal appeals court of the court and the American justice system the highest court.
The United States judges can not replace the system, professional system, salary system, retirement system. The United States is not a unified administrative court; administrative dispute cases in addition to the ordinary courts, independent institutions also have the right to accept and award.
The standard mode of organization and management system of the United States Court of diversity. The court has a unified model is the traditional goal of court organization and management, but there are also many problems. The United States Court of unified organization and management model in the disputed, and later appeared in the new mode of the ideal goal: decentralization, consultation and emergency.

U.S.A party

The Republican Party in the United States
The Republican Party in the United States (Republican Party) was founded in 1854. In 1861 Lincoln became president, the ruling Republican Party for the first time. Since 1933 to more than 70 years, except for 16 years, the Republicans have ruled the white house. After 1933, there have been Eisenhower , Nixon , Ford , Reagan , George HW Bush and George W. Bush Be in office。 The chairman of the Republican National Committee of the Rains Pribas (Reince Priebus). In the general election voters vote for party candidates or their party members.
The United States Democratic Party
The United States Democratic Party (Democratic Party) is the predecessor of 1792 Jefferson The creation of the Democratic Republican Party, the main representative of the early founding of southern slaveholders, western agricultural entrepreneurs and Northern middle bourgeoisie interests. At the beginning of nineteenth Century, the Democratic Republican Party split, a group claiming to be the National Republican Party, later renamed the Whig party. with Andrew Jackson As a representative of the school in 1828 to establish the Democratic Party, officially named the Democratic Party in 1840.
At the end of 1850s, the Democratic Party had a split, part of the Northern Democrats involved in the formation of anti slavery Republican party. In 1861 to 1885. In 1885 to 1933 48 years, the ruling party for 16 years, has the Cleveland , Wilson As president. The beginning of 1933, the Democrats Franklin Delano Roosevelt , Truman , Kennedy , Johnson , Carter , Clinton , Obama Has elected president. The Democratic Party is the candidate votes of voters election vote. The current chairman of the National Committee for Debbie Schulz (Debbie Schultz).
The other party
United States Green Party (United States Green Party), United States (Reform Party of the reform United States of America), The Communist Party of the United States (Communist Party of United States of America).

U.S.A Military

According to the 1973 "War Powers Act", the president of the United States must notify Congress within 48 hours to carry out military action in the former. Without congressional authorization, foreign military operations shall not exceed 60 days, but allow an additional 30 days withdrawal time. Strategic offensive weapons and nuclear weapons, the right to the use of centralized control in the hands of the president. By the national military command system The National Security Council The Department of defense, and Joint Chiefs of Staff Form。 The U.S. had practiced in the civil war, the two World War and during the period from 1948 to 1973 Compulsory military service .
In 1973, when he was president Nixon The abolition of compulsory military service, the army has been implemented Voluntary service system (to hire mercenary army supplement) so far. The United States is the world's first military power, U.S. forces number about 1 million 400 thousand people, of which 500 thousand were in the army, navy and air force 350 thousand people, 180 thousand marines. The United States has hundreds of military bases in the world in dozens of countries and regions, about 287 thousand and 800 people stationed overseas. Overseas military base in the United States roughly divided into Europe, Asia Pacific and India ocean, the Middle East and North Africa and the Americas four strategic areas.
January 2011 The United States Department of Defense That will start to reduce the number of U.S. ground forces from 2015, the highest total disarmament will reach 47 thousand. In addition, the Defense Department will also cut a series of weapons.
As of 2009, the U.S. commander of the six war zone is in the world, are the Northern Command, Pacific Command (command Locklear As of March 9, 2012,), central command, European Command, Southern Command and Africa Command, the local base 871, the naval base 242, 384 air force base. In May 2010, U.S. cyber command, coordinated to protect U.S. network security, network warfare and computer network operations.

U.S.A International Relations

U.S.A foreign policy

 American diplomacy American diplomacy
The United States has economic, political and military influence worldwide, its foreign policy direction has been the focus of world attention and discussion. The scale of diplomatic relations between the United States is the world's largest. Almost all the countries in Washington with the embassy and ambassador. Israel , Britain , Canada , Australia and Japan Be regarded as America's closest ally. Only a few countries have established formal diplomatic relations with the United States, including Bhutan , Iran , North Korea , Somalia and Sultan .
With the power increasing, the United States turned their attention overseas, especially in foreign trade to develop. To this end, the United States occupied many Pacific territories, including Hawaii and Philippines, forcing Japan to open trade and competition with European powers in Chinese influence. After the Second World War, the United States has played an important role in the creation of the United Nations, and become Security Council One of the five permanent members.
During the cold war, the United States initially tried to limit the Soviet Union's influence around the world. In order to contain the Soviet Union, the United States, Canada and 10 western European countries established The North Atlantic Treaty Organization , referred to as "NATO", to the joint allied against any military invasion of North America and Europe, and later the 14 European countries have joined the mutual defense alliance, including Turkey and some of the former The Treaty of Warsaw Member States as well as some Soviet Republic .
The Obama administration After taking office, continue to implement the global strategy of "rebalancing", consolidate relations with traditional allies, to enhance relations with emerging powers, to promote the construction of the "multi partner world". Increase input in the Asia Pacific region, the Middle East countries to promote democratic transition, maintain stable relationship across the Atlantic. Continue from Afghanistan The withdrawal, advance non-proliferation. Vigorously implement the "export" plan, carry out economic diplomacy, expand the global market, deal with The European debt crisis .
In December 17, 2014, the United States decided to resume normal relations with Cuba, and to relax a number of 50 years of implementation of sanctions. On the same day, two people were detained in Cuba for the United States citizens released. In exchange, the United States announced the release of three Cuban agents.

U.S.A external relations

Relations with the EU
The United States and the European Union are generally allies in major international affairs, the United States and the European Union's principled stance is consistent. The Obama administration said that NATO's eastward expansion, Russia , Afghanistan And Iraq will further carry out diplomatic activities, more willing to listen to the views of europe.
Relations with Russia
The United States and The former Soviet Union Once was two Superpower In international affairs, and military field competition. The change of relations between the United States and Russia occurred after the cold war, major issues in nuclear non-proliferation, and the Iran nuclear issue, the United States needs Russian cooperation. The Obama administration, relations between the United States and Russia experienced "restart", and continuously improve the relations between the two countries. In March 2014, affected Ukraine, US Russian relations tense.
Relations with Japan
The United States continues to consolidate the alliance with japan. March 11, 2011, earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster in Japan, President Obama and Secretary of state Hilllary Clinton speech, expressed sympathy for Japan, and sent warships, rescue teams, nuclear experts to help Japan disaster relief, promised to establish a "public-private partnership" with Japan, to help the reconstruction of japan.
The relationship with Chinese
In December 16, 1978, the two countries issued the "People's Republic of China and United States of America on the establishment of diplomatic relations Joint communique ". In January 1, 1979, the two countries formally established diplomatic relations.
In April 2009, Hu Jintao and U.S. President Obama met for the first time, the two sides Agreed to work together to build a positive cooperative and comprehensive relationship in twenty-first Century.
In December 2013 at the invitation of vice president Li Yuanchao, vice president of the United States Biden on an official visit to China. President Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang and vice president Li Yuanchao Biden and the Sino US relations and other major issues of common concern, the two sides to strengthen dialogue, exchanges and cooperation between China and the United States, efforts to promote the construction of new relations between China and America reached important consensus.
Relations with North Korea
Since 1953 Korean War After the armistice in 2014, North Korea and the United States through the relationship between multiple contact and negotiation basically no progress. In February 2013, North Korea's nuclear test, headed by the United States triggered widespread international condemnation, and decided to terminate the Korean Armistice Agreement signed in 1953, announced that not subject to non aggression treaty. The relationship between the international media as "basketball diplomacy".

U.S.A Economics

U.S.A Survey

The US economy in 2001 after ten years of growth after a brief recession, after entering a new round of prosperity. In 2007 the United States increased the economic downturn, the outbreak of the subprime mortgage crisis in July. In September 2008, with the Lehman brothers and many other financial institutions went bankrupt one after another, merged or taken over by the government, the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis escalated rapidly evolved into the most serious since the Great Depression of the international financial crisis. The financial system losses, credit market is shrinking rapidly, the depth of the real economy recession, market confidence has been seriously affected. The Obama government came to power after the implementation of the economic program, a massive stimulus, the second half of 2009 the United States economic and financial situation began to improve, restore the GDP growth. In 2010 the U.S. economy continues to recover, the annual GDP growth rate of 3%, the total economy recovered to pre crisis levels. In 2011 the U.S. economy continues to maintain a moderate recovery trend, the four quarter economic growth rate was 0.1%, 2.5%, 1.3% and 4.1%, the annual economic growth rate of 1.8%. Since 2012, the U.S. economy continues to maintain moderate growth, industrial production, retail, household income, real estate prices have rebounded, but the overall economic growth below market expectations. The first and two or three quarter GDP growth rate were 2%, 1.3% and 3.1%, the unemployment rate in December was 7.8%, the four consecutive month below 8%. In 2013, U.S. GDP reached $16 trillion and 800 billion, ranking first in the world first countries and regions. The per capita GDP of $53142.89, ranking first in the world tenth countries and regions.

U.S.A Agriculture

Highly developed agriculture, a high degree of mechanization. In 2009 there were 2 million 200 thousand farms and 920 million acres of arable land. In 2010 the United States food production accounts for about 16.5% of total world production. Agricultural products in total exports of $137 billion 400 million in fiscal year 2011, Chinese first became the largest export market for U.S. agricultural products, exports of nearly $20 billion, the export products include soybean, cotton, nuts and fur. In 2011, agricultural output accounted for 1.2% of gdp. The employment of agriculture, forestry and Fisheries sectors accounted for about 0.7% of the working population.

U.S.A Industry

In 2011, U.S. industrial production growth rate of about 4.1%, accounting for 19.2% of GDP in the United states. Industrial employment accounted for about 20.3% of total employment. Manufacturing industry occupies the leading position in the industry, the output value accounted for about 11% of GDP in the United States, is an important pillar of American economy. The United States accelerated industrial restructuring, the share of manufacturing declined, labor-intensive industries to be eliminated or transferred abroad. At the same time, biological information, the rapid development of high-tech industries, using high-tech transformation of traditional industries has also made new progress. The main products are automobile industry, aviation equipment, computer, electronic and communications equipment, iron and steel, petroleum products, fertilizer, cement, plastics and newsprint, machinery etc..

U.S.A Service industry

In 2011 the output value of the service industry accounted for 79.6% of gdp. It is estimated that about 120 million of the service industry employment, the total employment population of 79.1%, of which the number of field management, professional and technical employment accounted for 37.3% of total employment, the number of sales and other areas of employment accounted for 24.2%, other service industries accounted for 17.6%.

U.S.A Finance

From twentieth Century 60 to 70s, the U.S. government adhere to the "Keynes doctrine" deficit fiscal policy, a substantial increase in military spending and social welfare. In 80s, the Reagan administration tax relief on the one hand, on the other hand, the expansion of government expenditure especially in military spending, the federal budget deficit led to the rapid expansion of. In 1992, the federal budget deficit of $290 billion 400 million, accounting for 4.9% of GDP in the United States. In 1993 Clinton came to power after the government deficit reduction as a policy focus
 dollar dollar
A. In 90s the United States sustained economic growth that the tax revenue increased significantly, while the Clinton administration strengthen the tax administration, the federal fiscal turnaround in fiscal year 1998, $69 billion 200 million of earnings. During the Bush administration, on the one hand, through tax cuts to stimulate economic recovery, on the other hand, a substantial increase in terrorism and military spending, from fiscal year 2002 federal fiscal deficit to reproduce. The Obama administration took office, to get rid of the economic crisis, launched a large-scale economic stimulus plan and the financial aid measures, 2010, 2011, 2012 fiscal year federal budget deficits were as high as $1 trillion and 290 billion, $1 trillion and 300 billion and $1 trillion and 100 billion.
Since 2006, the U.S. housing market downturn and rising mortgage rates, subprime mortgage defaults rose sharply. The subprime mortgage refers to the financial institutions to the poor, the repayment ability of the weaker credit records of the customer payment of high interest loans. In March 2007, more than and 30 large subprime mortgage institutions due to the high default rate filed for bankruptcy and other financial institutions to purchase a large number of subprime mortgage bonds then suffered huge losses. 7, August, the U.S. stock market, bond market volatility, the outbreak of the subprime crisis. In 2008 3, April, the fifth major U.S. investment bank Bell Sten was forced to purchase as a symbol of American subprime crisis crisis by the local real estate sector for the sudden escalation of the US financial system affect the normal operation of the system of crisis.
After September 2008, with the Lehman brothers and American International Group and many other heavyweight financial institutions within a short period of time from bankruptcy, merger or takeover by the government, the most serious since the subprime crisis quickly evolved into the Great Depression of the financial crisis. The second half of 2009 the United States financial system gradually stabilized.
In July 2010, the Obama administration signed the "Dodd Frank Wall Street reform and Consumer Protection Act", the most stringent financial regulation since the reform and open the United States since the "Great Depression".

U.S.A foreign trade

The United States is the world's largest importer and third largest exporter. In March 2010, Obama signed executive order "national export initiative", to increase exports to the United States enterprise support. The United States is the main export commodities: chemical products, machinery, automobile, aircraft, electronic information equipment, weapons, food And medicine, beverage etc.. The main imports are: food, clothing, electronic equipment, machinery, steel, textiles, petroleum, natural rubber and tin, chromium and other metals.
In 2011 the top five U.S. goods trading partner for the Chinese, Canada, Mexico, Japan and germany. The top five U.S. export markets for Canada, Mexico, China, Japan and britain. The top five U.S. imports of goods market for China, Canada, Mexico, Japan and germany. The goods and services trade amounted to $4 trillion and 770 billion, compared with 2010 growth of 14.2%; of which exports $2 trillion and 110 billion, an increase of 14.6%; imports of $2 trillion and 670 billion, an increase of 14%; a deficit of $560 billion, an increase of 12%. According to Chinese statistics, in 2011 the Sino US trade in goods amounted to $446 billion 650 million, an increase of 15.9%. The China exports to the U.S. $324 billion 500 million, an increase of 14.5%; Chinese imports from the U.S. $122 billion 200 million, an increase of 19.6%. The Chinese trade surplus of $202 billion 300 million, an increase of 11.6%. Each other's second largest trading partner. The United States is the China largest export market and the sixth largest source of imports.

U.S.A traffic

U.S.A Survey

The United States has a complete and convenient transportation network, a variety of tools and means of transport
 The New York Times Square The New York Times Square
Sample. Compared to other western countries, due to the development of the automobile industry in the United States quite early, the development of many city in the United States in advance to design concerns the city and the residential area road network collocation. In order to maintain land, highway design and construction for high volume and high speed, the national transportation system of the United States is mainly dependent on the highway network. The most important is Interstate highway The construction of the system. The highway in 1950s by the then president Dwight Eisenhower Authorized construction.
In 2011, the U.S. Transportation and warehousing industry output value of $418 billion 800 million, accounting for about 2.8% of the U. S. economy, absorb about 3% of employment.

U.S.A metro

New York city subway network is the world's capacity is one of the most heavy MRT network. While the area is extended to the railway and bus network Long Island And the state of New York, New Jersey and connecticut , have become one of the world's transportation network is the largest passenger volume. But generally speaking, the city public transportation relative to other developed countries is relatively weak, people travel more use of private cars.

U.S.A Railway

The United States built the transcontinental railway network, used to carry goods between the 48 states. The American Railway Company ( Amtrak The construction of the railway network) across 46 states in 48, specially for passenger use. Railway freight transportation system of the United States is the world's busiest and advanced, and the total length of the railway in the United States ranked first in the world. According to the data of 2007, the total length of 226427 km of railway. However the passenger is not developed in Western Europe and Japan, partly because of the vast land from the United States; to reach the city thousands of miles, aboard the aircraft will save time than by train. Analysis of American government thought is the main reason causing air passenger passenger railway company collapse in 1970s.

U.S.A Highway

U.S. highway and highway system covering the whole country by the end of 2014, the total length of over 6 million 510 thousand km national highway. About 140 million vehicles using the highway system. The highway is by the local, state and federal government construction. Since 1811, the federal government for the first time to assume its responsibility for highway construction. In July 6, 2012, President Obama signed the "forward" in twenty-first Century in the transportation bill in fiscal 2013 and fiscal year 2014 appropriation of $105 billion for the land transportation construction.

U.S.A Cargo

In 2004 the world's top 30 busiest airports in 17 in the United States, including the top ranked Atlanta Hartsfield Jackson International Airport (Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport). The freight amount, in the same year, the world's top 30 busiest cargo airport in 12 in the United States, including the top ranked memphis international airport (MEM).

U.S.A water transport

Many of the world's major port is located in the United States; Losangeles and the port of long beach are the busiest in the state of California, and the port of New York, all of them are the busiest ports in the world. The five Great Lakes (Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario) also has a lot of shipping traffic, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River are each river wide network connection, the most downstream river through the Atlantic. The first connecting the five Great Lakes the Atlantic and Erie Canal (Erie Canal) contributed to a rapid agricultural and industrial development in the Midwest, and New York has become the economic center of the United states.

U.S.A Culture

U.S.A Overview

The United States is very flourishing of the cultural industry, the output value accounted for Gross domestic product About 20% of its overall competitiveness ranked first in the world.
From 1930s to second before World War II, the United States formed the basis and framework of the cultural industry; the middle of twentieth Century, the cultural industry has entered a rapid development period; after 80s, with the deepening of cultural products, the United States by virtue of economy, technology and knowledge advantages began to other countries, especially in the world Developing country Dumping of cultural products; in 90s, with the economic globalization The deepening of cultural barriers of industrial countries being broken, surging wave of corporate mergers and acquisitions in the United States, there have been a number of super international cultural industry group, leading the development of global cultural industry.

U.S.A language

Because there is no federal status Official language Part of the state, English as the official language, but English is the official language, in fact, the federal, and no official language unified. For many years to promote English as the official language movement, has 50 states in 31 states through the legislation of English is the official language, there are also other states put forward related to the motion, however, face considerable resistance. There are 3 states recognize other languages and English have a parallel position: louisiana French, The state of Hawaii The Hawaiian and The state of New Mexico Spanish.

U.S.A literature

American literature has gone through more than and 200 years of development since the colonial period to take shape until 2013, has become increasingly mature. As a reflection of the historical trend of social development, a mirror of social development direction that the American literature also reflects the American unique philosophy and values. Early settlers in the US are from the UK or Europe to the new world, they want to get rid of the old feudal tradition, the pursuit of freedom and democracy. These requirements are reflected in the literature, individualism became a feature throughout the early American literature. With regard to the development of American literature, is the past, very consistent.

U.S.A The American dream

The American dream Is a belief that as long as the United States after a hard struggle will be able to achieve the ideal of a better life, that people must work through their own hard work, courage, creativity and determination to move towards prosperity, rather than rely on specific social classes and other assistance. Usually this represents the people in the economic success or entrepreneurial spirit. Many European immigrants hold the ideals of the American dream to the United states.

U.S.A festival

The United States federal holiday
A holiday
English name
Date,
New year's Day
New Year's Day
In the first year of January 1st
Birthday of Martin Luther King
The third Monday of January
Washington's Birthday
The third Monday of February
Memorial Day
The last Monday in May
Independence Day
July 4, 1776
Labor Day
The first Monday in September
Columbus Day
The second Monday of October
Veterans Day
November 11, 1918
Thanksgiving Day
The fourth Thursday of November
Christmas
Christmas Day
In the first year of December 25th

A holiday
English name
Date,
New year's Day
New Year's Day
In the first year of January 1st
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Birthday of Martin Luther King
The third Monday of January
Washington's Birthday
Washington's Birthday
The third Monday of February
memorial day
Memorial Day
The last Monday in May
American Independence Day
Independence Day
July 4, 1776
Labor Day
Labor Day
The first Monday in September
Columbo day
Columbus Day
The second Monday of October
Veterans Day
Veterans Day
November 11, 1918
Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving Day
The fourth Thursday of November
Christmas
Christmas Day
In the first year of December 25th

U.S.A Sociology

U.S.A science and technology

At the beginning of nineteenth Century, the United States in the study of science and technology aspects of product and technology innovation is one of the most influential countries. The United States government has always believed that science and technology are spending on the country's investment, and standards as science and technology policy. The United States has always attached great importance to national defense science and technology policy research and basic research, the former is mainly in order to maintain a military advantage, while the latter is based on long-term development of the country to consider.
Many of the most important inventions of human industry history, including the gin, common parts, production lines are from the United States, and one of the most important industrial production line, it makes a lot of industrial production from the dream into reality. Other important inventions including aircraft, light bulbs and telephone.
The planning of the Manhattan atomic bomb program in twentieth Century, Appollo moon and Human genome project . During the Second World War, the United States is the earliest developed Atomic bomb Human, science and technology into a new era of the atomic age. After the start of the cold war, the United States in the field of space science and technology success, lead in the space race, which leads to significant progress in rocket technology, weapons research, materials science and computer science, the United States in the history of the development of computer and network contribution, including the military application of early invention of two war in the computer. The personal computer and the development and reform, the United States Department of defense was founded ARPA Network is the Pioneer Network technology.
In scientific research, has won a large number of American scholars Nobel The prize, especially in the fields of biology and medicine. The National Center for health research is the focus of biomedical, and has completed the human genome The plan of human tumor, Alzheimer's disease The cure of diseases such as entering an important phase. Government agencies and aerospace research is The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration . The Boeing Company and The Lockhead Martin company A class of private enterprises have played an important role. The United States National Academy of Sciences , The United States National Academy of Engineering , The United States Institute of medicine. And the National Science Foundation, the United States is the scientific community the highest level of four academic institutions. In addition to the natural foundation, other hospitals were awarded the title of academician.

U.S.A education

Elementary and Secondary Education
In the United States, the education administration is the state or local government responsibility,
 Harvard University founded in 1636: one of the world's most outstanding university Harvard University founded in 1636: one of the world's most outstanding university
Rather than the federal government. But the effect can be controlled by the Federal Ministry of education education fund to apply to a certain extent. The United States Department of Education Published data show that in 2008 the United States at all levels of education expenditure of approximately $10930, accounting for 7.6% of GDP. Among them, 60.5% for middle school and Primary School of basic education, 39.5% for higher education and related research projects.
The students have Legal obligation To receive education from kindergarten to grade 12 in public schools: five years of primary school, junior high school for three years, four years of high school, public schools, private two, most public schools, free compulsory education system. Schools generally free or half price lunch, students from the school bus shuttle.
In the United States, must be in the school before the age of 16-18. Many states require must attend to the age of 18. Some states only provisions must attend to 14 years. Students can enter the public schools, private schools and home schools. In the majority of public and private schools, education is divided into 3 levels: primary school, middle school and high school.
Higher Education
In the United States, 18 years after graduating from high school students do not need to pass the college entrance examination will be able to enter institutions of higher learning, students can give priority to get into a good college learning.
  
Many universities in the United States, from immigration to the United States Puritan Create the first university -- Harvard University After the higher education in the United States inherited the ancient European University in Britain University of Cambridge and Oxford The traditional. As of 2014 there have been 2615 bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in four year university. The two-year community college is up to 3400.
The level of education in the United Nations Economic Index Survey ranked as the world's first, many American colleges and universities are very competitive, including Stanford University , Yale University , Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Columbia University Etc.. In the world's top 500 universities in the United States accounted for 168 of the top 20 in the United States accounted for 17.

U.S.A Sports

Sports culture is an important part in the United states. Some Americans love sports especially popular in the United States, for example, and American football Baseball, basketball, and ice hockey Compared to football is a popular sport in the United States, but as more and more young in the world's most popular sport, football is also considered to be the most potential development of sport in the United states. Reflected in the sports virtues such as justice, team spirit, discipline and durability in American society has the very high prestige.

U.S.A public security

In 2007 the average every 100 thousand people have 5.6 murderers, this data is three times the neighboring canada. The murder rate in the United States increased by 42% from 1991 to 1999, the situation is stable. Therefore, gun ownership has become a major topic of political debate in the U. s..
According to the Ministry of Finance under the "tobacco and firearms Management Bureau 1998 statistics: about 2.5 million firearms in the folk diaspora, including about 73 million rifles, 66 million pistols, 62 million shotguns. The average family has nearly half of the gun, the gun in the southern United States 70% families. The United States has the world's highest record of the incarceration rate and the most number of prisoners. There are more than 2 million 300 thousand people in early 2008 A jail sentence In almost every 100 adults have more than 1 people were detained. Incarceration rate is seven times that of 1980. African American men's rate is three times 6 times, white male Latino men. In 2006 the United States detention rate is three times that of Poland, the highest state is the organization for economic cooperation and development in. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to the Federal Judicial sentencing guidelines for drug and crime policy, such as a large number of people because of the very small amount of the drug trade in prison.
Although as of 2009 more than 2/3 of the country the world has been in law or in fact abolished the death penalty, but the United States for some specific crimes (usually a murder) retain the death penalty, as of 2011 there are 34 states retain the death penalty system. To a criminal sentenced to the death penalty, the judicial process is very complicated, in order to reduce the miscarriages of justice and ensure the rights of prisoners, the United States invested a huge amount of judicial costs. A prosecutor must eventually won a death penalty case, it would cost more than $500 thousand. In domestic and international human rights organizations under the pressure of the death penalty in a downward trend, in 2006, the number of the implementation of the death penalty was ranked sixth in the world, in Iran, China, Pakistan , Iraq and Sultan After.

U.S.A welfare

The social security system was founded in 1935. Presided over by the federal government of the United States Department of welfare and health education. This system is widely accepted by Americans, and has become an important part of people's life. The United States social welfare, social insurance and social insurance two. Belongs to the social insurance benefits of the project are: Laocan insurance, unemployment insurance And the other belongs to non employment insurance; social insurance benefits are: to raise children in difficult family allowance, social security income, food stamps, Medicaid, housing subsidies and energy subsidies.

U.S.A Medical care

 Hospital equipment Hospital equipment
2007 data show that nearly 60% of the doctor has his own clinic. Buy medicine in the United States to go to the pharmacy to buy, some supermarkets and discount stores also has a pharmacy. Legally buy prescription drugs must have a doctor's prescription. The medical insurance organization of limited hospital, it was strictly regulated medical reimbursement standards, established a set of measure of medical resources is reasonable use of the evaluation standard. Because the hospital is expensive, the insurance company to control medical expenses, to reduce hospitalization days, for patients in the acute disease hospital (Acute Hospitalor Short-term Hospital (5-7) after the treatment, the average hospitalization days) into the recovery period, namely to the nursing home costs are relatively low ( SNFs ) or home care center, or directly in the doctor's clinic follow-up.
According to the WHO statistics, in 2011 the United States National Health Expenditure accounted for 17.7% of GDP, according to purchasing power parity, per capita health expenditure of $8467. 2006-2013 years, an average of 25 doctors per million people, 9 years of 2006-2012, the pharmacist; the average per million people have 29 beds in hospitals.

U.S.A media

The huge American newspaper system, ten English daily in 2004 the country's largest circulation as follows: " USA Today "," The Wall Street Journal "," New York Times "," Los Angeles Times "," Washington Post "," New York Daily News "," New York post "," Chicago Tribune "," Daily News "and" houston chronicle ". The United States of the three most influential newspapers as "New York Times", "the Losangeles times" and "Washington Post".
Associated Press The United States is the largest news agency, two foreign institutions broadcast maximum for the voice of America and American radio and television network, is the official radio station. The biggest national radio network is the U.S. National Broadcasting Company ( NBC ), cBS (CBS), ABC (ABC) (BBC, Wired News CNN And Fawkes (TV) FOX Etc.).

U.S.A Tourism

U.S.A Survey

The tourism industry is an important part of the American economy. In 2011, the U. s.tourism industry output value reached $1 trillion and 200 billion, supporting 7 million 600 thousand jobs, including international tourists in tourism and related industries to achieve a record $153 billion. The United States Department of Commerce predicts that the next 5 years, the tourism industry in the United States will be an average annual growth of 4% to 5%, the number of international tourists travel to the United States in 2012 will reach 65 million 400 thousand passengers. In January 2012, President Obama signed executive order to promote the development of tourism industry, and ordered the Secretary of Commerce and interior minister led the establishment of the working group, to promote the tourism industry strategic planning. The U.S. State Department announced that it will simplify the visa applicants to apply for visas, and provide free for qualified applicants for the first time The interview Treatment.

U.S.A natural heritage

The United States is rich in natural resources and diverse culture make it an attractive tourist country. The western United States famous Grand Canyon National Park and Yellowstone National Park ; have the scenery, sunny California on the west coast of the Pacific region, San Francisco and Losangeles is located here. In the north near the Canadian border near the famous five Great Lakes Resort, one of the most spectacular attraction is Niagara Falls . In addition, in the United States west of the Pacific Ocean Hawaiian Islands Is the world famous resort. There are risk takers for the Colorado Grand Canyon . The United States a total of 21 The world cultural and natural heritage (of which 2 and Canada total), including 8 World Cultural Heritage 12. The world natural heritage 1, heritage.

U.S.A Famous buildings

White House
 The United States presidential palace - the White House The United States presidential palace - the White House
North Lafayette Square, South by love lipushi Park, and towering The Washington Monument It is a white two storey building. White House The former is not white, not the White House said, and is called the "Presidential Building", "presidential palace". Built in 1792, is a gray sandstone building.
From 1800 onwards, it is the president of the United States in office and family office and living place. But in 1812 the second Anglo American war, British forces invaded washington. In August 24, 1814, the British burned the building, leaving only a shell of pay. In 1817 to repair in order to hide the marks of the fire, James Monroe The president ordered the gray sand painting on a layer of white paint. Since the presidential residence has been called "the white house". In 1901, President Theodore I officially named it the "White House" became synonymous with the U.S. government.
Capitol Hill
Capitol Hill It is often said that the Houses of Parliament,
 Houses of Parliament Houses of Parliament
As the United States congress Congress Office building. It is located on the top of the Capitol in Washington D.C., State Street east. Although is not geographically at Washington's center, but also because of its special status and become the focus of attention. The foundation in Washington in 1793 to the building, after the outbreak of the civil war, it is suggested that the construction of the building, President Lincoln insisted on the great circle 280 feet high top will be built. The dome of Houses of Parliament has become the best TV in the background of American political news reports, inside the dome is a beautiful decoration which can accommodate two thousand or three thousand people in the hall.
The Museum of natural history
American Museum of Natural History New York is located in the United States Manhattan Area, and Metropolitan Museum of Art County, covers an area of 7 hectares. Rome and the Renaissance style is the museum's architectural style, built in 1869.
The president of the mountain
The president of the mountain , full name Rush Moore Hill National Memorial Park, the president of the United States is a city located in the park, South Dakota The president of the United States of America memorial park near keystone. The park has four up to 60 feet tall, the former president of the United States head, respectively George Washington , thomas jefferson , Theodore I and Abraham Lincoln Four, the president was considered to represent the United States in 150 years of history. The park covers an area of 1278 acres, the highest elevation of 5725 feet. Park by the U.S. Department of the interior under a branch -- the National Park Service management.