antimony

Silver white glossy hard and brittle Metal (often made of sticks, block, powder and other shapes). A flake crystal structure. Gradually lost luster in the humid air, strong heat is burning white antimony oxide. freely soluble to Aqua Dissolve in, concentrated sulfuric acid . relative density 6.68, melting point The boiling point of 630 DEG C, 1635 C, 1.28 a atomic radius, electronegativity 2.2.
antimony
Antimony (English: Antimony, Latin: stibium) is a toxic Chemical element , Element symbols Sb, Atomic number 51. It is a kind of metallic Metal In nature, mainly exists in sulfide minerals Stibnite (Sb Two S Three In). Known in ancient times as a cosmetic antimony compound, Antimony also recorded in ancient times, but it is mistaken for lead. About seventeenth Century, people know that antimony is a chemical element.
Since the end of the twentieth Century, China has become the world's largest producer of antimony and its compounds, most of which are produced Hunan province Lengshuijiang City The Tin Mine . Industrial process for production of antimony is roasting, and carbon reduction at high temperature, or is the direct use of metal iron reduction.
Lead acid battery Lead antimony alloy plate used in the. Antimony and lead and tin alloy can be used to enhance the welding materials, and bullets Bearing The performance. It is widely used for containing antimony compounds chlorine And bromine Flame retardant An additive, antimony in the emerging Microelectronic technology It also has a wide range of uses, such as AMD Card manufacturing.

antimony History

A kind of antimony alchemy The symbol for female shape
In the early era of former Egyptian Dynasty in 3100 BC, was just the invention of cosmetics, Antimony trisulfide It is used as a cosmetic powder eye shadow.
stay chaldea Teloch (now Iraq ), had found a block can be traced back to 3000 BC for prehistoric antimony vase fragments; and in 2500 BC to 2200 years before the plating of antimony bronze was found in egypt. Austen said in a 1892 speech by Herbert Glaston: "we only know that now is a very fragile antimony metal, it is difficult to be shaped into practical vase, found that it is worth mentioning (i.e. above vase fragments) showed that antimony has been lost with method of plasticity." However, Murray (Moorey) don't believe the pieces really come from the vase, published in 1975 of his thesis, that Sri Mika Hanno J (Selimkhanov) to the metal and Transcaucasia natural antimony together, but made of materials that are small ornaments. This greatly weakened antimony has plasticity this argument in ancient technology credibility.
Europeans Vanojo Billinghurjo in 1540 at the earliest "flame" ( De La pirotechnia Describes the methods of refining antimony), which in 1556 Agricola Published works "on mining" ( De re Metallica ). In this book Agricola mistakenly credited for the discovery of antimony metal. In 1604, Germany has published a book called "Currus Triumphalis Antimonii" (literally translated as "triumphal chariot antimony") of the book, which describes the preparation of antimony metal. It is said that in fifteenth Century, Brazil Cornelius, pen name Valentinus the Benedictine monks referred to the preparation of antimony, if this is true, as early as in Goodchild.
Generally, is made of pure antimony Jaber (a bir J Ibn Hayy a n) in eighth Century at the earliest prepared. However, the dispute continued, translator Marcelin Berthelot claims Jaber book did not mention sb, but other people think that Berthelot only translated some important works, and the most relevant (who might describe sb) no translation, their content is still unknown.
Nature exists in the crust of pure antimony is the first by the Swedish scientists in the UK William Henry Bragg In 1783 recorded. Samples collected from varieties Sweden Seaman orchid Province Sara, Sara silver.

antimony Physicochemical properties

antimony Physical property

State solid state
density (close to room temperature )
Six point six nine seven G A. CM
melting point When the density of liquid 6.53 G - CM
melting point Nine hundred and three point seven eight K , 630.63 ~ C, 1167.13 ~ F
boiling point One thousand eight hundred and sixty K , 1587 ~ C, 2889 ~ F
Melting heat 19.79kJ - mol
The heat of vaporization 193.43 kJ - mol
Specific heat 25.23 J - mol - K

Steam pressure
  
Press /Pa One Ten One hundred 1 K 10 K 100 K
Temperature /K Eight hundred and seven Eight hundred and seventy-six One thousand and eleven One thousand two hundred and nineteen One thousand four hundred and ninety-one One thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight

antimony Chemical property

Sb is Pnictogens (Group 15), Electronegativity 2.05. According to the periodic law, its electronegativity than tin and bismuth Larger than tellurium and arsenic Small。 Antimony is stable in air at room temperature, but when heated to reaction with oxygen generation Three two antimony oxide .
Antimony is a gray metal with a silver luster, the Mohs hardness 3. Therefore, pure antimony could not be used to make hard objects: China. Guizhou province has issued the antimony coin in 1931, but because of antimony is easy to wear in the process of circulation loss. Sb under normal conditions and acid reaction.
There are four known species of antimony Allotropism A stable and metastable metallic antimony three antimony (antimony, antimony explosive, black Huang Ti). Metal antimony is a brittle silver white lustrous metal. The molten metal antimony antimony slow cooling, will be formed The three party system The crystal, and the arsenic The grey allotrope allomerism. The explosion of antimony rare by electrolysis Three antimony chloride Prepared by sharp instruments, scratch it exothermic The chemical reaction, release and formation of metal antimony white smoke. If in Mortar With a pestle to grind it, there will be a violent explosion. Black antimony is formed by steam metal antimony rapid cooling, and its crystal structure Phosphorus The same black and arsenic in oxygen oxidation and spontaneous combustion. When the temperature drops to 100 degrees, it gradually transformed into a stable crystal form. Yellow antimony is one of the most unstable, only by the Stibine At -90 deg.c and oxidation. In this environment under the effect of temperature and light, Metastable The allotropism experience into a more stable black antimony.
The structure of layered structure (metal antimony The space group R3m No.: 166), and each layer contains six membered ring linked fold. And in the recent formation of the antimony atom deformation of eight sides, three antimony atom in the same bilayer than the other three are slightly closer. This distance is relatively close to the metal antimony density To reach 6.697g/cm, but between layer and layer of bonding is weak also cause it is very soft and fragile.
isotope
Antimony has two stable isotopes, the natural abundance of Sb was 57.36%, and the natural abundance of Sb was 42.64%. There are 35 kinds of antimony radioisotope, the longest half-life of Sb for 2.75 years. In addition, it has been found that 29 Metastable . This is one of the most stable Sb, the half-life of 60.20 days, it can be used as neutron source . Ratio of stable isotope Sb light isotopes tend to occur Beta decay However, the heavier isotopes are more susceptible to Beta decay . Of course, there are some exceptions.

antimony production

antimony Production in China

According to the British geological survey report in 2005, The People's Republic of China Is the production of antimony in the largest country in the world, accounting for 84% of the world, far beyond the South Africa , bolivia and Tajikistan . Hunan province Lengshuijiang city is the world's largest antimony tin mines, estimated reserves of 2 million 100 thousand tons.
In 2010, according to the The United States Geological Survey The report, Chinese antimony production accounted for 88.9% of the world.
In 2010 the production of antimony
Country
Yield (ton)
The proportion (%)
One hundred and twenty thousand
Eighty-eight point nine
Three thousand
Two point two
Three thousand
Two point two
Three thousand
Two point two
Two thousand
One point five
Other countries
Four thousand
Three
Global
One hundred and thirty-five thousand
One hundred

Country
Yield (ton)
The proportion (%)
The People's Republic of China
One hundred and twenty thousand
Eighty-eight point nine
South Africa
Three thousand
Two point two
bolivia
Three thousand
Two point two
Russia
Three thousand
Two point two
Tajikistan
Two thousand
One point five
Other countries
Four thousand
Three
Global
One hundred and thirty-five thousand
One hundred
However, the British Loski mining consulting estimation formula of primary production of antimony production in People's Republic of China in 2010 accounted for 76.75% of the world (the world's total 120462 tons, 90000 tons of which are publicly reported, 30462 tons, not reported) followed by Russia (4.14%, output 6500 tons), Burma (3.76%, output 5897 tons), Canada (3.61%, yield 5660 tons), Tajikistan (3.42%, yield 5370 tons) and bolivia (3.17% of the total, 4980 tons).
Loski estimates that global production of antimony in secondary production was 39540 tons in 2010.
The British geological survey in the second half of 2011 will be listed in the list of the first risk of sb. This list indicates if the chemical elements can not be stable supply, the relative risk will result in maintaining the British economy and way of life. According to the report of the company in 2014 Chinese loskey, antimony production decreased, and unlikely to rise in the next period of time. Chinese has no important antimony deposit developed about ten years, the important economic resources will be quickly depleted reserves.
At the same time, the EU in a report in 2011 will also be antimony as one of 12 key raw materials, mainly because Chinese from antimony production outside the few.
The following are the main producers of laszki provided by the 2014 World antimony:
The main producers of antimony in 2014
Country
company
Yield (Dun /nian)
China
The flash of antimony (before mining Shanxing antimony industry)
Two thousand seven hundred and fifty
many
Five thousand four hundred and sixty
Bif Brooke
Six thousand
Brook Investment Group
Fifty-five thousand
China
Hunan Chenzhou Mining
Twenty thousand
China
China Tin Group
Twenty thousand
China
Shenyang Huachang Antimony Industry
Fifteen thousand
Kazzinc
One thousand
Kadamdzhai
Five hundred
SRS
Five hundred
The United States antimony industry
Seventy
many
Six thousand
GeoPDroMining
Six thousand and five hundred
Murchison United Company
Six thousand
YUnzob
Five thousand and five hundred
Unknown
Six hundred

Country
company
Yield (Dun /nian)
China
The flash of antimony (before mining Shanxing antimony industry)
Two thousand seven hundred and fifty
bolivia
many
Five thousand four hundred and sixty
Canada
Bif Brooke
Six thousand
China
Brook Investment Group
Fifty-five thousand
China
Hunan Chenzhou Mining
Twenty thousand
China
China Tin Group
Twenty thousand
China
Shenyang Huachang Antimony Industry
Fifteen thousand
Kazakhstan
Kazzinc
One thousand
Kyrgyzstan
Kadamdzhai
Five hundred
Laos
SRS
Five hundred
Mexico
The United States antimony industry
Seventy
Myanmar
many
Six thousand
Russia
GeoPDroMining
Six thousand and five hundred
South Africa
Murchison United Company
Six thousand
Tajikistan
YUnzob
Five thousand and five hundred
Thailand
Unknown
Six hundred

antimony reserves

according to The United States Geological Survey The statistical data of world antimony reservoir will be depleted in 13 years. But the United States Geological Survey to find more antimony during this period.
The world antimony reserves in 2010
Country
Reserves (ton)
The proportion (%)
The People's Republic of China
Nine hundred and fifty thousand
Fifty-one point eight eight
Three hundred and fifty thousand
Nineteen point one two
Three hundred and ten thousand
Sixteen point nine three
Fifty thousand
Two point seven three
Twenty-one thousand
One point one five
Other countries
One hundred and fifty thousand
Eight point one nine
Global
One million eight hundred and thirty-one thousand
One hundred

Country
Reserves (ton)
The proportion (%)
The People's Republic of China
Nine hundred and fifty thousand
Fifty-one point eight eight
Russia
Three hundred and fifty thousand
Nineteen point one two
bolivia
Three hundred and ten thousand
Sixteen point nine three
Tajikistan
Fifty thousand
Two point seven three
South Africa
Twenty-one thousand
One point one five
Other countries
One hundred and fifty thousand
Eight point one nine
Global
One million eight hundred and thirty-one thousand
One hundred

antimony Production process

The quality and composition of the ore extraction method on antimony ores. Most of antimony sulfide ore exists in the form of. Low grade ore available Foam flotation The method of enrichment, and high grade ore is heated to 500 DEG C to 600 - and from stibnite melting. gangue Isolated. Can use iron from natural antimony antimony sulfide reduction and separation:
Sb Two S Three 3Fe + - 2Sb + 3FeS
More than three oxidation two antimony antimony trisulfide is stable, so it is easy to transform, and after calcination again into sulfide. This material is directly used for many applications, impurities may produce arsenic and sulfur. The extracted from antimony oxide using carbon thermal reduction method:
2Sb Two O Three 3C + - 4Sb + 3CO Two
Low taste reduction of ore in the blast furnace, and high taste in Reverberatory furnace Reduction.

antimony Chemical compound

Antimony compounds are usually divided into +3 price and +5 price two. With the same main group arsenic Like, it's +5 Oxidation state More stable.

antimony Oxides and hydroxides

Three two antimony oxide Can be made of antimony in air combustion system. In the gas phase, the dimer of Sb Four O Six The form of existence, but the condensation will form multimers. Five two antimony oxide Only with strong nitric acid The oxidation of trivalent antimony compounds prepared. Antimony can form mixed valence compounds four - two antimony antimony oxide, which is Sb (III) and Sb (V). With different phosphorus and arsenic is that these oxides are Bisexual And they do not form a clear definition of Oxygen acid But, the formation of antimony salt and acid reaction.
There is no direct preparation of antimony (Sb (OH) Three ), but its conjugate base antimonious acid sodium ([Na Three SbO Three ] Four ) by melting Sodium oxide and Three two antimony oxide Reaction system. Antimonious acid salt of transition metal has also prepared. Only in antimonate hydrate HSb (OH) Six It is in the form of the formation of salt containing Sb (OH) - 6. The dehydration of salt mixed oxide.
A lot of antimony ore is a sulfide, such as Stibnite (Sb Two S Three ), Aerosite (Ag Three SbS Three ), zinckenite, Jamesonite and Jamesonite . Five two antimony sulfide Is a Non stoichiometric compounds In +3, the oxidation state and antimony containing S-S bonds. There are many thioantimonate are known, such as [Sb Six S Ten ] and [Sb Eight S Thirteen ].

antimony halide

Antimony can form two kinds of halide - SbX Three And SbX Five . Of which three halides (SbF Three SbCl Three SbBr Three And SbI Three ) space configuration are triangular cone. Three antimony fluoride By Three two antimony oxide and hydrofluoric acid Reaction system:
Sb Two O Three 6HF + - 2SbF Three + 3H Two O
This is a fluoride Lewis acid That can combine the fluorine ion complex ion formation SbF Four And SbF Five -. Melting Three antimony fluoride Is a kind of weak conductor . Three by antimony chloride Antimony trisulfide Dissolve in hydrochloric acid system:
Sb Two S Three 6HCl + - 2SbCl Three + 3H Two S
Five halides (SbF Five And SbCl Five The spatial configuration of the gas) Trigonal bipyramidal Shape. But converted to liquid, five antimony fluoride formation polymer Five, and is still single antimony chloride. Five antimony fluoride Lewis is a strong acid, can be used for the preparation of the famous Super acid HSbF (HSbF Six ).
Halogen antimony oxide ratio arsenic and phosphorus Is more common. Three oxidation two antimony dissolved in concentrated acid diluted form of antimony compounds, such as SbOCl and (SbO) Two SO Four .

antimony Antimonides, hydride and organic antimony compound

These compounds are often regarded as a derivative of Sb. Sb metal is not strong, and metal forming Antimonides For example, InSb (InSb), silver (antimony Ag Three Sb, stibiopalladinite (Pd) Five Sb Two Square), antimony Gold mine (AuSb Two ), breithauptite (NiSb) etc.. Antimony compounds of alkali metals and zinc, such as Na Three Sb and Zn Three Sb Two The above material is more lively than. These gases antimonides with acid treatment can generate instability Stibine (SbH Three ).
Antimonides general is covalently linked to. The electron cloud The classification of overlap, so the nature of covalent bond is their overlapping manner. A bond , pi bond , delta bond stay organic compound In usually the covalent bond with its common electronic log into Single , double bond as well as Three . One is a sigma bond; double and triple bonds with a sigma bond, the remaining 1 or 2 is pi bond. But not this method inorganic antimony compounds. The reason is that often appear in inorganic antimony compounds conjugate (system Delocalized Between the two atoms) of a shared electron pairs is difficult to determine, therefore inorganic materials often take Average bond order As. The key to A standard.
Sb +3H =SbH fand Three Arrows
Organic antimony compound can be Grignard reagent Of antimony halide Alkylation Reaction preparation. There are a large number of known trivalent and pentavalent organic antimony compounds -- including mixed chloro derivatives, and antimony as the center of the cation and anion. For example, Sb (C Six H Five ) Three ( Three phenyl antimony ), Sb Two (C Six H Five ) Four (containing a Sb-Sb key [Sb (C) and ring Six H Five )] N . Five Coordination Organic antimony compound is also very common, such as Sb (C Six H Five ) Five And some similar halides.

antimony application

60% for the production of antimony Flame retardant 20%, used in the manufacture of batteries in antimony alloy, sliding bearing and welding agent.

antimony Flame retardant

The main purpose of antimony is its oxide Three two antimony oxide For manufacturing Refractory material . In addition to halogen containing flame retardant polymer, it is almost always used together with a halide flame retardant. Three oxidation two antimony antimony halide formation can slow combustion, which is why it has the flame retardant effect. These compounds with hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms and hydroxyl free radical reaction, finally make out the fire. These commercial flame retardant used in children's clothing, toys, aircraft and car seat cover. It is also used for glass fibre Compound material (commonly known as the glass steel industry) polyester resin The additives, such as light aircraft engine cover. Resin burnt by fire after the fire was extinguished but it will stop burning.

antimony alloy

With sb lead The formation of extensive use alloy This alloy, hardness and mechanical strength are improved compared to sb. Most of the use of lead occasions adding varying amounts of antimony alloy. stay Lead acid battery In the additive change of the electrode properties, and can produce the by-product hydrogen reducing discharge. Antimony is also used for antifriction alloy (e.g. Babbitt alloy ), Bullet , Lead bullet , Cable Loose coat、 Type metal (e.g. Linotype typesetting machine ), solder (some Unleaded The welding agent containing 5% antimony), tin antimony alloy, and sclerosis Organ Containing tin Less alloy.

antimony Other applications

Other antimony spent almost all of the following three aspects. The first application is the production of . Unfortunately, it is not only Release Gamma ray Beryllium, lead Photodisintegration . This release of the average neutron energy of 24 keV. Antimony sulfide has been proved to be stable automotive brake materials friction coefficient . Antimony also used in the manufacture of bullets and bullet tracers. The elements are also used in traditional decoration, such as painting and art glass. In 1930s before using it for enamel The Sunscreen However, many are no longer used after poisoning.

antimony security

Antimony and its many toxic compounds, the mechanism of inhibition enzyme The activity of this and similar with the same family of arsenic; arsenic and bismuth, trivalent antimony toxicity than pentavalent antimony big. However, the toxicity of arsenic antimony is much lower, which may be between arsenic and antimony in intake, The new supersedes the old Huge differences and the excretion process caused by: such as the absorption of trivalent antimony and antimony in the digestive tract of up to 20%; pentavalent antimony in cells was not quantitatively reduced to trivalent (in fact trivalent in the cell will be oxidized to pentavalent antimony antimony) because the body can not occur; Methylation The reaction, mainly excreted pentavalent antimony is urine. Acute poisoning symptoms with sb Arsenic poisoning Similar, mainly caused by cardiac toxicity (expressed as myocarditis ), but may also cause heart toxicity of antimony Adams strokes syndrome. There are reports from the enamel cup dissolved antimony equivalent to 90 mg of tartaric acid potassium antimony, antimony poisoning only short-term effects on the human body; but the equivalent of acid potassium antimony 6 grams of cream of tartar, can cause death in three days. Inhalation of antimony ash is also harmful to the human body, sometimes fatal: small dose inhalation can cause headache , vertigo and depressed In large doses, for example; long-term skin contact may cause skin inflammation, damage the liver and kidney, violent and frequent Vomit Even death.
Not with sb Oxidant , strong acid And halogen acid, chlorine or fluorine Store together, and with heat insulation.
In sb Leaching When will the Polyethylene glycol ester two (PET) into the liquid bottle. The concentration of antimony standard is detected Bottled Water Lower than Drinking water The British, concentrated production fruit juice (no standard) was detected with sb 44.7 g/L, far beyond the EU tap water The standard 5 g/L. These organizations are:
World Health Organization 20: g/L
Japan: 15 g/L
The United States Environmental Protection Agency Canada, the Ministry of health in Ontario province and the Ministry of environment: 6 g/L
The German Federal Ministry of the environment: 5 g/L
According to the "People's Republic of China national standard of integrated wastewater discharge standard" (Sb), which belongs to sb The first kind of pollutants , the maximum emission concentration is 0.1mg/L.
European Union Will antimony as high hazard toxic and carcinogenic substances and regulation.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency Limit into the lake, river Dump, and farmland cadmium The amount of pesticides containing antimony and banned. The United States Environmental Protection Agency allow Drinking water Contains 10 Ppb Sb, and intend to limit reduced to 5ppb. The United States Food and Drug Administration Regulations Edible pigment The antimony content is not more than 15 PPM . The United States occupation safety and health work environment in the air in the cadmium content smoke 100 G CD / m3, in the dust was 200 micrograms / cubic meter. The United States occupation safety and health plan will be in the air all cadmium compounds content is limited to 1 to 5 micrograms / cubic meter of the National Institute for occupation safety and health workers want to breathe as little as possible to prevent sb Bladder cancer .
Control information
According to the "product of antimony Regulations on safety management of dangerous chemicals "By the Department of public security control.
Safety measures
Sealed package and stored in dry and ventilated place. Keep away from fire and heat, avoid direct sunlight. Avoid and Oxidant Chemicals, acids, edible mix of reservoir.
Fire: dry powder And sand. Ban CO Two The pH and fire extinguishing agent.