The genus has 4 species, is a kind of Songbird . Size and plumage color slightly like Sparrow , male and female look alike. Take back brown and light yellow, white to dark brown chest and abdomen. abroad Tail White, brown tail. Head out Crest , adapted to terrestrial life, strong legs, feet, toe with 1 long and straight claw Tarsometatarsal trailing edge with peltate; scale ; to plant seeds and insects for food, often clusters; male reproductive period Song Loud sounds, is one of the few birds songbirds sing in flight. Courtship flight complex, can hover in the air; on the ground with grass stems and roots of series of bowl shaped nest eggs each 3 ~ 5, the incubation period of 10 to 12 days. Life on the grassland, Desert And semi desert etc.. The lark is Denmark, France National bird .

Lark Distinguishing features

The upper body is dark brown sand, with significant black vertical lines, a short Crest In general, only to see up to the outside; Tail A few pure white .

Lark Morphological character

Most of the sand body brown, with dark brown feather north-south wide shaft lines; on the back and tail. Tectrices The dark brown streaks is fine, brown and significantly. The first feather slightly extended, slightly into the coronary plume. The two wing coverts black and brown, with brown edge and apex; primary and secondary Feather Also some dark brown, brown and white feather end hanging outside, vane The edge with brown, brown feathers in the medial margin of the feather also wide and thick, and the three level flight is outside the margin of this wider color feather. One of the central Tail Black and brown, and wide margin to the outside of a light brown, almost white, the vane At the base of a wedge type with dark brown spots, one on its outer web and inner web white, dark brown, dark brown feathers were more than slightly brown and white, with narrow margin. Eye Brown and white supercilium; cheek and Auriculars Are light brown, and mixed with slender black lines; Zygomatic Small brown grain area. chest Brown white, densely dark brown coarse grain; Nakedness More than two white, slightly brown flank rendering, sometimes also with brown stripes. Similar to male and female.
Chicks: plumage color and similar birds, but the upper body black and Brown were fresh thick, dark brown markings are lower and more dense.
iris Dark brown brown; mouth; mouth margin and mouth base short leg meat brown, after the role; claw Later toe Long and slightly straight .

Lark Living habits

Happiness Habitat In the open environment, so in the Grassland Local and coastal Area Plain area Particularly common. many colony Running on the ground, looking for food and for play Chase activities, or erect and erect its crest, especially in spring. Never seen perched branches. Lark nest How to create in the open ground. They are not found in trees or buildings on the ground in the nest, choose slopes, wasteland, roadside cemetery, field and beach areas.
Singing Soft and loud, often suddenly from the ground vertically on the sky, it rose to a certain height, a floating Xiang in the air, and darting straight, innovative load Ming, and therefore to day birds sing with a resounding voice, said. Fly high, often only heard the song, but it is difficult to see a bird. The landing is like rising flight two went on a wing, then suddenly is folded, and straight to the ground, very interesting .

Lark The mode of reproduction

The lark in Hailar Area, starting from early May Lay eggs , until mid June, a month. According to Lou Juxian (1966) observed in the Longjing Jilin area of Yanji County, April 18th begins to lay eggs, 1 eggs were laid in the daily time between 5:30, 6:40, each nest egg The number of 3 - 5, 15 egg size averaged 16 (15 a 17) x 21.8 (20 to 23 mm), (19) the average egg weight is 2.7 grams (2.5 - 3). The egg is gray, mixed with brown or dark grey spots in the egg can blunt end especially dense, forming a circular ring. Brooding The female bear. After about 11 days.
Nestling A few whole foods of animal food, by inspection of 7 birds have stomach. beetle Fragment、 Moth Larva、 Grub , spider , Bug Insects and other debris.
Nestling growth to fourth days, to the visible plume area, fifth days, 9 days in eighth eyes, when the birds can stand that nest: but not foraging, need to accept The birds Feeding for 10 days to leave the nest after, can live independently. The distribution of the area in mid July the end of the second or late reproduction, this little song, and often a young more activity, began a wandering life in 10 months late, leave .

Lark geographical distribution

China segment Breed in: China Compared to the north and northwest. Xinjiang , Qinghai , Tibet , Hebei , Shandong And the Northeast Heilongjiang , Jilin Etc.. winter Migration to the south of northeast and Southeast, middle and lower reaches of the river, and Jiangsu, northern Guangdong and other places overwintering .
Distribution in the world Mainly in: Gubei area The scope of the state. From eastern Russia to Western Europe and Northeast Asia, Japan, Korea, Central Asia has been the west by Chinese to North Africa .

Lark The level of protection

This species has been included in the China State Forestry Administration Released August 1, 2000 " The list of countries to protect the beneficial or of important economic or scientific value of terrestrial wild animal ".
All included in the " The World Conservation Union ("IUCN") in 2012 The IUCN Red List ".

Lark Subspecies differentiation

There are 6 subspecies in China
Xinjiang Alauda arvensis dulcllvox Hume.
Breed in Xinjiang area of Kashi, Yecheng, Junggar China basin, Fuyun, Tori, and Feng, balikun. In the Soviet Union abroad found in Western Siberia, from Ural to the southeast along the Meuse to the north about from the leaves. North latitude Sixty-one 66 In the south, along Kazakhstan adopt Aletai The western and central, Western tianshan, The Pamirs reach Pakistan Northeast, Iran Khorassan west. Winter migration to Southeast Iran, Baluchistan Sistan Pakistan, India, Arabia Bay, northwest.
The morphological and northeast subspecies are similar, but the upper body plumage, including black rachis wing coverts with fewer lines, and a wide margin to brown, slightly stained gray gradually outward, so the upper body is lighter.
The Alauda arvensis kiborti Saleskij.
In the China breeding area is very narrow, only in the northeast of the Inner Mongolia Hulun Buir League and central Jing Gong; winter in Fujian Fuzhou (Vaurie, 1959), foreign distribution in the Soviet central Siberia east of Yenice (Yenisei), about Lena (Lena) and Zeeya (Zeya) River, South to Central Aletai and east of Mongolia, North korea. The distribution area of the northeast and Southeast boundaries are not very clear, because these places are dangerous; there are I and Mr mid west state hoe wart 4 middle type. Similar to the Xinjiang subspecies, but the body color is dark, a dark, little sand color, rachis upper body also thicker lines .
Alauda arvensis intermedia Swinhoe northeast subspecies
Gansu The northwest of Jiuquan, Zhangye, central Lanzhou, southern Maqu, Shaanxi, Qinling Mountains north and south slope around Ningxia, northeast Inner Mongolia, Hulun Buir union BUGT southeast of Chifeng, Hebei, Henan, northeast Xingan, Wusuli middle small Ling and Changbai Mountain; to Jiangsu in the South Sha Weishan Island (autumn, winter birds); the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Fujian, Guangdong (northern winter birds). Some winter birds belonging to the northern subspecies.
Beijing Alauda arvensis pekinensis Swinhoe.
In China are Travelers and Winter birds In northern Manchuria, Greater Khingan Range, northeast of Qigihar River, south of Yingkou, the northeast, southwest of Suizhong and Hebei. Located in the northeast of Siberia foreign Soviet Union, from Jahner Lena River middle reaches, the river, India Deger River middle and lower Colima River to the Zeya River, along the coast of the Okhotsk Sea, Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril, migration and winter cloth in the northeast region of China, the lower reaches of Heilongjiang and the Soviet Union, Ussuri Sakhalin Island, Japan, North korea. Spring regularly migrate north, but not in the island, Dole Koeman breeding vagrants in Irvine, arad. This subspecies color is deep, rich brown and black; the new feather edge is broad, pale yellow; the size of the largest subspecies, the male wing length can reach 124 mm (Vaurie, 1959) .
Japan's Alauda arvensla japonica Temminek et Schlegel.
In Chinese for Travelers In Jiangsu, the coastal zone _. Abroad, mainly distributed in Japan, breeding in Hokkaido, Honshu, Sado, kyushu. Hokkaido and Kobe in northern Japan to winter groups of central and southwestern lowlands in winter. Southern Kobe groups do not migrate. Some near the island also has a record.
The color and pekinensis. Similar, the difference is significantly smaller in shape; the wing end changes, but the majority of round .
Alauda arvensla lonnbergi Hachisuka Sahalin subsp.
I have a Zhenjiang in Jiangsu in December. Foreign distribution in the Soviet southwest to the Gulf Islands, the sea of Okhotsk Sakhalin Island, in the mouth of Heilongjiang region. Winter migration to Korea and japan. Compared with the Japanese subspecies is similar, but larger, upper body slightly heavier stripes; compared with the Beijing subspecies, the upper body should be darker .

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