Red deer

Red deer (scientific name: Cervus elaphus Only) Moose The large deer, a total of 10 subspecies, because the shape like a horse named, the body is dark brown, back and both sides have some white spots. The male angle, generally divided into 6 forks, up to 8 of the second fork fork, antlers close to the brow tine. Summer hair is short, no hair, usually brown, on the back of the deep, shallow ventral, so it is called the "red deer".
Red deer
Red deer living in alpine forest or grassland area. Love gregarious. Summer in the early morning and at night, winter in the daytime. Good at running and swimming. With a variety of grass, leaves, twigs, bark and fruit for food, love to lick salt alkali. 9-10 month estrus, pregnancy 8 months, every child 1 son. Distributed in Asia, Europe, North America and North africa.
(Note: in 2005, research by scientists, DNA mutation will belong to the European red deer subspecies elk Disaggregated into separate species).

Red deer The history of species

Red deer ancestors first appeared in In the new century During the period of the Eurasian continent, Fossil The record in 12 million years ago. From an extinct species known as Irish elk (Megaloceros) species. Know from the fossil record, red deer is the largest member of the deer family in animal. Early phylogenetic analysis support fallow deer And Irish elk are the sister group relationship. However, the morphology of the new proof, Irish elk and red deer are more closely related to the geographical area of modern correspondence. Therefore, in some publications is used" Julu Named "(Giant Dee).
The earliest red deer in southwest Asia (Asia Minor and the Caucasus), North Africa and europe. In Holland, the UK and Ireland, is still the largest wild non domesticated mammals. Barbary stag "Barbary stag" (similar to the Western European red deer) is the only member of the African representative Cervidae animal, mostly concentrated in the The Atlas mountains The mainland in Northwest china. Until the middle of 1990s, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria are red deer distribution of African countries.
In Holland, a huge Ma Luqun (about 30 thousand, to the end of 2012), living in East Fuld Sprason (Oostvaarders Plassen) nature reserve. Ireland has its own unique. In the UK, the local red deer living in Scotland lake, and southwestern England (mainly Moore Eckes Exmoor). Not all of these red deer is completely pure blood, so as to increase the size and weight of the red deer antler, some by wornum (Warnham) (Woburn Abbey) or Woburn Abbey park is artificially released. University of Edinburgh study found that in Scotland, the hybrid with close range of Sika deer. Several other species originated from hunting or hunting after the end of the cold, escape from the red deer farm, or deliberately released. A large number of red deer herds originated in England and Welsh are scattered throughout the forest, mountain, Suffolk, Lancashire, Brecon and Keith than farms in North Yorkshire, due to escape or deliberate release, and many other smaller groups, their number and scope are generally increased. The number of deer in 2007 to the 2011 census, red deer has continued to expand in England and Welsh, in the middle and East Anglia expansion was most significant.
The number of red deer in Africa and southern Europe are generally declined. Red deer in New Zealand, together with other domesticated deer, the introduction of social game types. The arrival of the first New Zealand horse is 1851, by Lord Petre into his Thorndon Park, Essex to the south to send a. After 1861, these red deer have been released into the nearby Nelson, quickly spread from there. The arrival of the first Australian red deer may be introduced from Prince Albert Windsor Great Park Thomas in 1860, in the Vitoria times, at Werribee Park moved to Melbourne southwest 6 horses. Further introduction to the state of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. Now, the distribution range of red deer in Australia South from Queensland via New South Wales to Vitoria and the entire South Australia, increasing the number of. Queen Victoria's New South Wales population can be traced back to the earlier period, but the red deer in South Australia, now basically is to escape from the farm. This adversely affects the integrity of wild populations.
In Argentina and Chile, red deer has on local animal species, such as Hippocamelus bisulcus (South Andean deer) caused by potential adverse effects, in " The International Union for conservation of nature "Has been affixed to the animal kingdom, as the 100 most invasive species of the world.

Red deer Morphological character

Red deer is large deer Class, body length of 180 cm, 110-130 cm tall at the shoulder, adult males weighing about 200 kilograms, about 150 kilograms of female. Because of different origin, there are some differences between the morphology of red deer, all over the world were differentiated into 24 subspecies, China The red deer subspecies of about 7-9, most of the products China subsp. Females are smaller than males. The head and face a long, infraorbital gland, large ears, conical. The nose is exposed, and both sides of the lip is pure brown. The forehead and head to a dark brown cheek is light brown. A long neck, long legs. Hoof, short tail.
Red deer angle is very large, only males have more weight, but the individual angle is greater. She only has raised ridge in the corresponding position. The male angle is generally divided into 6 or 8 fork, individual fork up to 9-10. On the base that give birth to the eyebrow fork, inclined forward, and the main trunk is longer, almost at right angles; backward tilt, second fork fork close to the eyebrow, because the distance is very short, known as the "portal fork". And this is different from the angle of sika deer and white lipped deer. The trigeminal and second forked larger space after the trunk to distinguish the 2-3 fork. The bifurcation of the base is flat, the main surface with small protrusions and a few shallow groove.
Summer short hair, no hair, the reddish brown; on the back of the deep, shallow ventral, so it is called "deer"; winter dense villi, thick, gray brown hair color. Hip spot larger, brown, white or yellow ochre. The red deer subspecies, back grain black, buttocks have large yellow white spots, a few cover the whole hip, unlike other subspecies of red deer, it is also known as "hip white deer".

Red deer Habitat

Red deer belongs to the North Forest Grassland animal, but because of wide distribution, habitat is also very diverse. Northeast Red deer habitat in the altitude is not high, a larger range of coniferous forest, forest grassland or woodland along the valley; Sichuan Hip white deer is the main habitat at an altitude of 3500-5000 meters in alpine shrub meadow and fir forest in the edge; Xinjiang , Tarim Red deer is perched on the Lop Nor West arid shrub water, populus euphratica With the sparse forest grassland environment.

Red deer Living habits

Red deer with different seasons and different geographical conditions and often transform the living environment, but generally not for long level migrate Selection of various elements in the habitat, species richness, cover, water and food is the most important index. It is especially love shrub, grassland environment, not only conducive to concealment, and food and shelter conditions are relatively good. But if the food is poor, but also in the desert, reed grassland and farmland habitat activities. Red deer in the daytime activities, especially around dawn activities more frequently, with trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants for food, as many as hundreds of species, often drink mineral water, salt lick in the low ground, and even eat the mud, sometimes in summer to the swamps and shallow water for bath.
Usually alone or in small groups, group members including females and cubs, adult male beast is alone, or just a few activities together. Red deer in the nature of natural enemies The bear , leopard , The Jackal , wolf , Lynx People, but due to temperament alert, fast, sensitive hearing and smell, and vigorously, and big horn as a weapon, so it can fight with the predator.

Red deer Distribution range

 Red deer distribution map Red deer distribution map
Red deer is widely distributed in the world, southern and central Europe, North America, North Africa and asia. Including Armenia, Afghanistan, Algeria, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland (Sardinia), South Korea, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Luxemburg, Mongolia, Holland, Montenegro, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Georgia, Uzbekistan, uk.
Regional extinction: Albania, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Mexico, Nepal, Syria, Turkmenistan.
The population recovered: Greece, Kazakhstan, Morocco.
Introduction: Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, portugal.
In the Chinese distribution in Heilongjiang Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hohhot, Ningxia, Helan, Xinzhou, Shanxi Beijing mountain; Gansu Lintan, Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai, Xinjiang and other places.

Red deer The mode of reproduction

Red deer estrus concentrated in 9-10 months each year, while males rarely eat, common hoof dig, frequent micturition, with angle against the trunk, bark or broken trees will break, and a roar, the early sound is not high, mostly at night, when the night yelling climax. During the rut fighting between rival males is fierce, almost day and night battle, but in the fight, usually does not persist in the weak unable to resist sustain the blows, but it also does not retreat, the chase, only the two sides will make well-matched in strength, one or both of the angle is broken, and even cause serious fatal trauma. Win male beast can occupy more than females, estrus duration is 2-3 days, 7-12 days of cycle. Pregnancy females for 225-262 days, in the shrub, high grass cover production, usually produces 1 young per litter.
Newborn pups hair was brown, white spots, weight of 10-12 kg, 2-3 days can only lie down, little action weak and feeble. 5-7 days later when she began to follow the activities. The lactation period is 3 months, occurred in January at the age of ruminant. Begin to grow not forked horns at the age of 12-14 months to third years, divided into 2-3 branches. 3-4 at the age of sexual maturity, life expectancy of 16-18.

Red deer Subspecies differentiation

Red deer (10 subspecies)

Chinese. Name
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Three Crimea red deer Cervus elaphus brauneri
Four Cervus elaphus corsicanus Cervus elaphus corsicanus
Cervus elaphus elaphus
Cervus elaphus hippelaphus
Cervus elaphus hispanicus
Eight Cervus elaphus maral
Cervus elaphus montanus
Ten Scotland red deer Cervus elaphus scoticus

Bactrian Wapiti
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
West African red deer
Cervus elaphus elaphus
C. canadensis canadensis
Cervus elaphus hippelaphus
Spanish red deer
Cervus elaphus hispanicus
The Caspian red deer
C. canadensis canadensis
Cervus elaphus montanus

Red deer Population status

There is a certain number of red deer in China, in Heilongjiang and Jilin There may be nearly 100 thousand, but due to excessive hunting and habitat loss of pups, have gradually produced a crisis, especially in Xinjiang, the wild population of Tarim has dropped to 4000-5000 by 15000; Altai wapiti falling from 100 thousand 1970s to 40 thousand or so; the wild is Tianshan Wapiti at a speed of about 3000 every drop. If this continues, the wild red deer soon will be in danger of being extinct in Yili valley.

Red deer The level of protection

Included in the " The World Conservation Union "(IUCN) ver 3.12008 annual red list of endangered species (LC) - low risk.
Chinese state class II protected animal.

Red deer economic value

Red deer Antler The yield is very high, is a rare medicinal herbs, Lutai , Deer whip , Luk Mei and Deer Is a rare tonic.

Red deer Breeding technology

Red deer A life habit

Living habits of red deer has 5 characteristics: (1) day activities, DOE 3-5 head groups, male deer usually live alone, the breeding season and deer herd together. (2) the action is very agile, olfactory and auditory visual acuity developed, but relatively poor. (3) the good run, like jumping, quiet, afraid of frightening. (4) to eat grass, summer and autumn harvest food plant of Gramineae twigs, buds, and feed a variety of shrubs, branches and leaves. (5) strong adaptability, domestication can be around minus 40 degrees, can be a normal life.

Red deer Two, production performance

1, the average length of the trunk antler is 60 centimeters, the trunk circumference of about 16 cm, fork at a depth of about 12 cm, the average fresh antler weight 3.7 kg, dry antler weight is about 1.3 kg, the average drying rate was 46%.
2, antler is also an important medicinal materials. An average of about 118 cm long antlers trunk, trunk circumference of 16 centimeters, the average weight of 3.4 kilograms per school.
3, red deer meat less body fat, high protein content, the meat is tender and delicious. Slaughter rate: the DOE were 54.89%, 51.22%, net meat rate were 39.02%, 38.91%, respectively 1:3.19 and 1:3.18 in osteosarcoma.

Red deer Three, reproductive performance

Red deer in captivity under the conditions of life for 25 years, reproductive life up to 15 years. Doe 1.5 mature, but at age 2.5 when mature breeding is appropriate. At the age of 4-5 in male deer breeding for good.
1, mating deer mating activities have obvious seasonal, often concentrated in 8-11 months. Doe uneasy in estrus performance labia swelling, vaginal mucus outflow, arch waist to male deer. The male deer first mating desire for DOE, called Chang Ming, a ferocious, restless, loss of appetite.
2, friendship period is about 21 days, duration of estrus time varies with species, individual, short for 18 hours, 48 hours old, generally in 20-36 hours. DOE is 240-250 days of pregnancy.
One is 3, the breeding way out every morning in the male deer DOE group, and DOE after mating, the male deer to another circle, then another male deer together. The two is a match in the end. In the 8-11 month, according to the DOE public than 1:15-18, to the end of the group, you may change 2-3 deer compound. The three is a hybrid.

Red deer Four, feeding and management

1, choose the deer house construction is flat, sunny, sunny leeward, high cool dry place to build homes. Two homes should be part of a deer, a barn, two is to be built around the stadium, to 3 meters of the fence. The sports venue design for food and water, the winter indoor sports venue mat grass, sand. Each deer covers an area of 6 square meters, feeding or semi feeding feeding can take.
2, feed to reduce feeding costs, from the local feed resources of diets. (1): male deer forage with weeds, crop stems and leaves, silage and poplar, willow, elm leaves, bean and sweet potato is very ideal forage. Feed formula: 50% corn, beans (diesel) 30%, bran (BRAN), 20% grams 30-40 grams of salt, calcium 20-30. (2) Doe: coarse material types and the same male deer. Feed formula: 30% corn, soybean meal (diesel) 20%, 50% grams of calcium, 30-40, bran 20-30 grams of salt. (3) Antlerogenic: forage with alfalfa, sweet potato, soybean seedlings, silage etc.. Feed formula: legume seed 55%, Gramineae seed 35%, bran 10%, calcium salt 30-40 g, 20-30 G.
3, the scientific feeding feeding to three: when fed 3 times a day, or as early as 7, at 12 am, 6 pm. Two quantitative crude feed ad libitum, general daily dosage of 12-15 kg, feed on feed quantity 1-1.5 kg. Three water must be supplied with clean drinking water, 2 times in a day, and 3 times daily to drink enough.
4, grasp the antler growing period of management to achieve three catch: catch a hybrid. Use of different varieties of red deer hybrids can improve the Antler Production 25%-30%. Two grasp cutting. When the antler grow to 3 cm, longitudinally from Antler cut at the top of 1.5 cm, the antler yield can be increased by 30%-40%. The three is to ensure that nutrition, feed feed.
5, to prevent disease is a disease prevention early. Daily cleaning of deer shed, remove waste, feed food and water for washing, drying, frequently change bedding, let more deer movement. No feeding rotten feed, especially in summer should pay attention to health. Two is the early treatment for the disease. Always observe the deer, once found the disease should be timely treatment.
6, timely slaughter sale deer can be 1-2 years old in the slaughter, timely elimination of antler, losing the ability to reproduce the deer.
Note: all the red deer atlas.