Indians (Indians), is in addition to "Instead of.
The word "India" is referred to the European Native American, then prevailing in the world.
In 1492, Italian Columbus
Sailed to America, mistakenly think that here in India, so the place called "Indians" (native Spanish
"Indios"). They found Columbo's mistake, but because this call has been popular, so English and other European languages called Indians as "West Indian", said the real Indians as "East Indians", to make a difference.
Chinese directly to the "West Indian" the word into "Indians" or "Indians", eliminating the trouble of confusion.
But by twentieth Century, the Indian American country status has improved significantly, some government agencies or non-governmental organizations began to "Indians" in the name of "name", such as the Indians in Canada are often referred to as more politicized" The first nation
"(English:" First Nations ").
Indian appearance is prominent cheekbones, eyes suddenly and violently, often grasping food and hand cocoon, thick and hard.
Indian Arrived in America
The ancestors of the Indians from southwest Asia (You army deserter) across The first person. Then, due to the melting of glaciers, sea level rise, billowing waves flooded the re continental bridge, and isolation between the two links to the mainland, make these outsiders become independent of the American continent Aborigines
The ancestors moved to America and the time line, some scholars claim. No matter what kind of argument is correct, but one thing is certain, is definitely not an immigrant, but partial arriving in America, and then after a long time migration and eventually spread to the whole American advance. Resources, vast area, rich in America and pleasant climate makes the Native American ancestors lived in America. With the development of social economy and human evolution of organisms, batch immigration Indians from north to south across the Americas in established life and social system, created a lot of material and cultural wealth. But the American Indian is not a unified nation, they entered America at different times, different backgrounds, various aspects influence by the geographical environment, natural conditions, and gradually formed in many different languages, different customs, different cultures of ethnic groups.
Mongolia's experts believe that hunting in the Mongols with stone, after the land was still the Bering Strait or Aleutian Islands, the first arrival of america.
Many scholars believe that Russia and the United States, Asians first arrived in the American continent about 25000 years ago, one of them may be Asian hunters from the time of the land or the Bering Strait into the Americas, another possibility is to arrive by sea at the American continent.
The Mongols and Indian ancestry may have a blood relationship.
Indian ancient civilization Mayan Mayan
Is an ancient Indian, is the only national America left written records. they
A variety of American native people, living in the southern part of Mexico and in the north of america. "Maya" is a collective of their convenience from the title, this includes the area with a certain degree of cultural and linguistic heritage of the people. But it also includes many different population, social and ethnic groups, who have their own special cultural traditions, and historical characteristics of them.
At the beginning of twenty-first Century, about seven million of the maya. Southern Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula
There is also a lot of the legacy of the ancient cultural heritage. Some of the Maya has been quite into the modern culture, some people still continue to more traditional customs, these people in the Mayan language as the main language.
Most of the contemporary Maya living in Mexico, Yucatan, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco and Chiapas, Belize and Central America, Guatemala, Honduras and west of Salvatore.
Mainly engaged in agriculture, growing corn, beans, cocoa, pumpkin, sweet potato, pepper, tobacco and cotton.
The public ownership of land, assigned to each family, every 3 years, a redistribution of land. The year after, the division of free men and slaves, rulers called adults, hereditary position, grasp the political and military power. The Aztecs The Aztecs
(Aztec) the Aztecs, Aziz tecka, is a most number of Mexico indians. In the center of Mexico Tenochtitlan, it is also called the Mexicans or an animal. Mainly in Veracruz, Morelos, Guerrero state. Mongolia race America branch. Use nahuatl
The Aztecs first lived in the west of Mexico Island, in Eleventh Century began to migrate. According to legend, they get the revelation of God, if an eagle standing on a cactus eating a snake, it is a place to live. In 1325, their leader turnock led in the two Island Lake Texcoco was built on the city of Te Nochi Te Tran (Tenochtitl n, today Mexico City
) . Inca Inca
(Inca), or the Inca people, ancient South American Indians, the use of quechua. "Inca" (Inca) means "son of the sun". The main living in the middle of the Andes, the center in Peru city of Cuzco.
The Incas is a South American Andes Quechua family, speaking Quechua
The "King", they called the "Inca", the early Spanish colonists when in contact with them, the wrong "King" of the title refer to the tribe, therefore, the Incas the name has survived. As with the Aztecs, Incas is a fairly young tribe, they began to expand in thirteenth Century, and set up the history of the study said" Inca Empire
Indian The destruction of the disaster
In sixteenth Century America came to the European settlers to the local Indians is a devastating disaster. According to statistics, during the colonial period, the Spanish territory has 13 million Indians were killed in Brazil, about 10 million were killed, the westward movement and there were about 1 million Indians were killed. A large number of Indians were enslaved or slaughtered. By twenty-first Century, about 30 million indians. Male Indians in Latin America basically no pure series of male offspring, the hybrid offspring are mostly male Mestizo settlers and local female offspring. North American situation worse, the Indians were driven into Indian territory, the proportion of less than 5% in the local population. In the United States, the Indians accounted for only about 1% of the total population.
"World history" is full of such words: "at that time in the world of" civilization "of the country (here refers to the thirteen colonies before the independence of the United States), the policy of genocide, more cruel. They repeatedly improve the massacre of Indians reward. The strict Protestant masters, Puritan New England, 1703 in the Legislative Council on their decision to peel a Indian head and obscure each capture a red man to the bounty of 40 pounds; in 1720, to improve the skin of each skull to 100 pound bounty; after a tribe of Massachusetts Bay by 1744 the rebels declared, provides such reward: "peel a 12 years old male skull skin have new currency one hundred pounds;...... Peel a woman or child with Peter fifty pounds! ""
In 1783, after the independence of the United States of Indian massacres and abuse and not the slightest convergence. With the rapid development of the capitalism, in order to explore the territory, the U.S. government expelled from the ancestral home of the indian. In 1830, the U.S. government through the "Indian Migration Act" provisions, the eastern Indian reservation as they all moved to the designated west of the Mississippi River to apartheid and persecution. These "Indian reservation" is the most remote barren mountainous or desert. One is called the Cherokee tribe, was forced to move to Indian in the territory "(now Oklahoma State) migration, which lasted 3 to 5 months, about 4000 people were killed, the tribal population of 25%. This tragedy came to be known as the "trial of tears". The Indians were massacred, long siege, driving, forced migration and other persecution, sharply reduce the number of. To the early twentieth Century, only about 300000 people. Until 1924, the U.S. Congress passed the "Indian citizenship law", who was born in the United States announced per capita for U.S. citizens. In 1934, according to U.S. President Roosevelt's "New Deal" by the "Indian reorganization law", allowing the Indians to establish their own government, no longer assigned reserve land, stop forcing Indians to give up the traditional culture and religious policies, the Indian situation was improved. It was not genocide.
Before the settlers in the new world before, America has had slavery Empire established four indians. Unfortunately, the historical fact that the budding American civilization was destroyed by settlers from Europe, it is difficult to tame Indians as one of several people on the whole are basic human extinction, so that the colonists had to lower the degree of civilization from Africa to more manageable blacks as slaves.
Indian North America
West The Great Plains
And the ancient Indians of eastern North America (Paleo-Indian), although the environment is different, there is a similar economic activity. In the western United States -- from Oregon
To the north of Mexico, from the Pacific coast to The Rocky Mountains
The East - scattered desert culture of the Indians, to hunting and gathering the fruit for a living, but the original agricultural technology development.
With the progress of the development of the late Archean tools in technology, such as the trench axes and stone hammers, and trade system in different geographic regions between tribes. 3000 BC - before 2000, the climate became warm, so some Indians as bison graze, enter Saskatchewan
(Saskatchewan) (Alberta) and Alberta river area, also further north into the Arctic tundra.
Before 2000, the southwestern United States have started planting corn native. In 200 to 700 years, is a cold period, hindered the development of agriculture. From 700 to 1200, the development of a village based culture of the Mississippi Valley, is characteristic of farming methods progress and complex rituals. This period in the southwest throughout the diaspora as Aboriginal people. Anasazi
(Anasazi), Mogolon (Mogollon) and Hohokam (Hohokam) are the former F Webb Lo Society (pre-Pueblo). Mogolon is the Anasazi agricultural technology improved, utilization of rainwater and guide the river water to irrigate crops; Arizona
The southern part of the Hohokam culture is based on irrigation to sustain their agricultural economy. In 1000 after the first period, F Webb Lo culture has developed technology room with a stone built, and a great progress in ceramics. From 1300 to 1700 decline during the period of F Webb Lo, the residents to the East and south migration, so many stone waste. The modern F Webb Lo era began in late sixteenth Century, when the Spaniards came to settle. Some features of F Webb Lo culture and farming methods still exist.
In the colonial era, European countries adopt different policies to deal with the North American indians. The absorption of indigenous people become Christians, and to live in designated areas. The French and Indians to establish trade relations. Britain announced in 1763 will be the Appalachian Mountain West area to the aborigines, valid until the end of British rule ended, followed by the United States to adopt. The discovery of gold in California in 1848, many whites moved westwards, then the outbreak of the European whites and Indians to land for a long war, including the 1876 Sioux
(Sioux), Cheyenne nationality
(Cheyenne) (Custer) of the Custer massacre. In 1887 the majority of Indian reservation, is the year of "Dawes land distribution law" (Dawes General Allotment Act) the Indians lost nearly 348100 square kilometers (134400 square miles) of land. In 1934 the "Indian reorganization law" (Indian Reorganization Act) to improve the implementation of the measures of Aboriginal life. Since 1950s, due to the new policy and society on civil rights, the Indians set up many organizations, and attracted national attention to their problems.
Indian Central America
Million years ago, Indian
People enter Nicaragua
Between the northern region of Mexico in America, the development of farming technology can be traced back to 4500 BC or so, due to the stability of agricultural technological progress leads to 2000 after the establishment of the agricultural society, due to the food supply is stable, the smaller settlements evolved into large towns, and stimulate the growth of pottery and other works of art. In 1000 after the first call is the classical period. The Mayan civilization
The rise of people at that time by the monks of the ruling class. They are the most important God is the harvest God Kurt Lalo (Tlaloc), it is marked Jaguar
That is a common theme in the existing sculpture. Later in the culture to a more traditional militant hawk to replace the Jaguar, at the same time, the people have to sacrifice as a common religious act. Around 1000, Toltec
(Toltec) and Aziz Turk
(Aztec) the two Empire replaced these religious based societies, the Spanish invasion until sixteenth Century so far. aztec empire
In the peak period, almost controlled the whole of central america.
The earliest immigrants to the race can be divided into several different branches of the culture in the residential area. One in Mexico, northwest coast, desert and mountainous areas to make a living. Another Tarasco
(Tarasco) settled in Michoacan
(Michoacan) in mountain area. The Mayan people occupied the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala and Mexico Chiapas
(Chiapas) a part of the. The Aztecs are concentrated in the central part of Mexico plateau and today Mexico City
. The fifth branch in the southern Mexico coast and highlands. In American Indian culture, is a small community settled by individual families as the basic unit, the male leading and the elderly. The community activities in the market as the center, a center for government agencies, government officials also presided over the religious ceremony. Although the introduction of the Spanish Catholic Church as the main way, but the elves worship, divination and superstition still exist.
European industrial technology and tools with the Catholic Church and the Spanish conquest was in America, then mines, farms, cattle became the economic center of the colonial society. The revolution of 1821, the Mexico and Guatemala local born Spaniards and other Europeans from the offspring control and composition of the new government of the Republic of china. 1910 Mexico another revolution, remove the exclusive social and economic policy, beginning with the Indians in the political, cultural and economic contribution. In late twentieth Century, in Mexico city and rural society, have a more complete non discriminatory treatment of indians.
Indian South America
According to the archaeological record, the South American civilization began in ten thousand BC, the first settlers arrived in North America and china. They settled in Tierra del Fuego
Argentina, Chile, south of the Grand Canyon area, South Central Plains and the central part of the Andes mountains. Their group is based on kinship, with gender and age to class. These nomadic groups were later replaced by the height of the development of agriculture society. The farming community in Brazil and the greater Arawa grams (Arawak) of coastal and inland forest area. Because their food is abundant, so it can maintain stable and great social unit. In the other Caribbean
Dwelling people and the Andes to the northern coast, military and religious ceremonies as the foundation, in the agricultural technology support, more complex forms of social organization. South American Aboriginal civilization around 2300 BC in the mountains of the Andes rooting, followed by rapid progress in agricultural technology, thousands of years have carried out. After about 1000, with Tiwana Cu (Chimu), chimor Kingdom (Tiwanaku), and later Inca Empire
. The boom in sixteenth Century until the Spanish invasion was fading down the inca. It's the area stretching from Peru to northern Chile, had developed an efficient irrigation system and complex control of grain production, storage and distribution system. The largest population reached 3 million 500 thousand. The social class is divided into the royal family, artisans and farmers in the hereditary aristocracy. The most significant Inca civilization innovation, is to replace the legal practices to develop products of social organization and a high standard of art. In sixteenth Century the European conquest of South America, the agricultural and political habits of the Inca Empire completely replaced by the Spanish Catholic way, will replace the Inca religion. The artisan class into the Inca nobility and colonial caste system, while farmers become their labor. In the less developed regions, the Inca people still keep some of their cultural traditions, and maintain the economic transaction and modern industrial center. Like other South American Indians Araucanian
(Araucanian) has successfully resisted Spanish rule until late nineteenth Century before they were sent to suppress, assimilation or reservation.
In agriculture, the leading corn.
Corn is one of rice and wheat, including the world's three largest food crop, is cultivated by the Indians, and then spread all over the world. According to archaeological data show that, as early as 5000 years ago has Indian wild corn cultivation become artificial cultivation of crops. The Indians cultivated corn more than and 20 varieties, growth period short length, as long as 3 months to mature. Since the beginning of sixteenth Century the Europeans took corn from American Indians, because of its strong adaptability, high yield, early sowing and harvesting season, soon in the world grow up. Especially in the plateau, dry and sunny area, corn is the main crop.
In the world production of various kinds of grain, the corn yield occupy large proportion. Indians cultivated corn is a great agricultural experiment. Botanists believe that the cultivation of wild plants as corn crop is the most difficult test of agricultural history, but the Indians in 5000 years ago, it will succeed, it has made great contributions to the development of human society.
As we all know, the corn is high and low Wo plants, beans, bluegrass and vines, Indians will interplanting corn and beans, the first plant intercropping technology, fully rational use of land, this is a remarkable achievement.
Corn is rich in nutrition, high yield and strong adaptability to various environments make it become the material basis of civilization in Indian. Therefore, American Indian civilization known as "corn civilization".
Potato, sweet potato (also known as sweet potato, sweet potato) is a very important food, also bred indians.
Indians also cultivated cassava, yam, etc..
European researchers believe that, in addition to Chinese soybean, European beans, such as mung bean, pea, cowpea, beans, beans, beans, beans, lentils, beans, beans, tea and so on all edible legumes are cultivated by indians. This is because the Europeans got the beans from there in the discovery of America, and it spread in eurasia. But China beans and red bean in "Shen Nong Materia Medica" has been recorded in the Han Dynasty, Shen Nong's herbal book or earlier. The Tang Dynasty "herbal supplements" "Qian" in black beans, peas, beans, mung bean. But in any case, these Indians planting edible beans.
In addition, peanuts, tomatoes, cucumber, pumpkin, pumpkin, pepper, pineapple, avocados, strawberries, cocoa (can be made of chocolate) are originates from the Indian culture.
European scholars believe that the world's plant food, more than 50% are from the hands of the indians.
Indians also cultivated rubber, tobacco and other economic crops.
Long ago, the Indians will apply to rubber rainproof cloak. With the Indians cultivated rubber to human can be said to be immeasurable, rubber comes from the Indian word cauuchu, meaning "tears of the tree".
The development of modern industry and American rubber are inextricably linked. Rubber is the basic raw material industry, widely used in the manufacture of tires, rubber hose, rubber belt, cable and other rubber products, almost all of the industrial sector cannot do without rubber. Indian culture has great influence on the development of rubber industry in the world.
If the iron and steel industry is the west of the old continent pride, then the contribution to the rubber match.
In addition, the Indians contributed most of the world's cotton varieties.
Indians cultivated many kinds of medicinal plants and fuel plants, such as extraction quinine
The anesthetic, extraction Kogan
As for the dye plants), is more than a dozen .
Indian The gaming industry
In 1988, Congress passed the "Indian Gaming Regulatory Act", states shall not prevent the Indians on the reservation in state legislation does not prohibit gambling activities. Since then, the Indian gaming industry, from a few isolated cards'is box office to the huge scale of the gambling industry.
The National Indian Gaming Commission statistics, Indian responsible for the reservation of gambling and gambling tribes project approval in 1990, Indian reservation in casino revenue of only $570 million, and now has more than 10 billion U.S. dollars; in the federal government to recognize the 558 tribes in Indian, there were 188 tribes operates 285 casinos in the country 28 state.
The gaming industry is the Indians in twentieth Century made the most successful economic development. Casino of poor Indians benefit. Their gambling revenue in turn invested in school education and health care and other public facilities.
The Indian reservation of the gaming industry get unexpected success, some with state governments began trying to reach out to the indians.
In 1993, Connecticut signed a contract with the local gambling tribes, tribal requirements to the state government tribute 1/4 slot machine revenue. In exchange, the slot machine state allows the tribe of the state monopoly. In 1997, the New Mexico Indians regardless of opposition, signed a contract in the gambling with tribal chiefs, insisted on for 16% of revenue.
Indian handicraft industry
They use earthenware utensils, made of a variety of tools and weapons using flint and obsidian, cotton woven cloth, with elements of gold and silver, copper and tin alloy, and the alloy made of various utensils and ornaments.
In the United States, the overall income level of Indians is far below the national average, annual income below $25 thousand accounted for 41.7%, two times the average poverty rate; the lowest level of education is also the American Indians, above college culture is 7.6%, half the national average; the highest unemployment rate is less than the United States 1% Indians have their own land.
Indian Marriage custom
An Indian wedding with a strong national colors.
The wedding venue selection in the Indian community held in public buildings, is generally a larger wooden houses. When the wedding, friends and family, residents of the village came to next door neighbours, wooden house, and sat on the floor, greet each other. Men and women, old and young dressed in national costumes, fashionable, bright color. Although the Indian cheerful temperament, but the weddings have become very quiet, even if the speech is also a whisper.
Indian marriage is very simple, when combined, only need parental consent.
The Indians not in property to measure, the richest man is the strongest hunter, a woman's dowry is health and most willing to help her husband to do the housework. When they don't want to temperament to live together, as long as have a simple ceremony and marriage can not break up, what issues such as the division of property.
Indians in the unmarried and married couples have no obvious boundaries, nor chastity is regarded as a basic moral standard. In addition, in a very friendly friend, but also to exchange his wife overnight, it was considered a strong friendship.
Some families of the host or hostess after death, their children sometimes think parents had friends as parents, as Christians considered the godfather or godmother.
In the Indian tribes, men always through marriage to strengthen the "main" political status and prestige. For example, the ancient tribal Xin allowed polygamy, because more than one wife is more of a "union", more of a labor force. A man can marry a sister or sister people, can marry a wife of the daughters of other tribes, the polygamist family wives also try hard to extend her husband's authority and status, and thus feel proud and proud.
Sometimes to the harmony of the family, his wife suggested that her husband can marry certain women, as "husband" matchmaker "".
Indian Festival celebration
Indian festivals in particular, the ancient Indian religious ceremonies and special complex related. India
Anne people believe everything has spirit totem belief, the tribes are held every year all Totems
The worship of religious rites, rituals spread down evolution has become a very unique lingering charm strange holiday. Indian festival together with many religious festivals, such as Mexico, Peru, the day of the dead Indian Sun Festival, at the same time the Indians still keep some unique festivals, such as the Brazil Indians, the Bolivia Indians JiangMo Chuaner Festival festival. Many Indian festivals today is still the nation's own festival, but some festivals have become the local people's common holiday.
The funeral can not only reflect the human understanding of their own, but also can reflect the different concept of life, human life idea and the concept of soul. There is a direct relationship between the Indians and the funeral custom of religious belief, reflects the Indians dominate in the different world view, the reality of social life attitude and vision for the future. Indigenous people
Indigenous people are American Indian traditional festival. Held on the second Saturday of May each year and the fourth Friday of September. In the festival, the United States should be held around the rich Indian traditional ethnic and cultural characteristics of the celebration. The day of the dead The day of the dead
Indians in Mexico pay homage to the dead people's holiday. The festival is held annually in November 1 to November 1st 2, pay homage to the "young spirit", "spirit Memorial in November 2nd". During the festival, the national authorities to stop the morning office. People use a variety of the dead from the shops to buy his love to play and eat the skeleton like toys, sweets and pastries, put up altars in the house, the sacrifice. Some have to tidy up the bed, let the dead go home. In addition, people will go to the cemetery grave, they came to the ceremony activities of the cemetery, wear all kinds of masks and Carnival dance, to awaken the dead and buried dance. The most distinctive is the east of Mexico Nanmisijike town "to commemorate the dead of the night". When night falls, the town is in flames. Every house lit a stack of firewood for the dead, go home the way. The ancient cemetery, each headstone lit several candles, placed flowers of different colors, the dead man's family in the wake. When November 1st comes, the church clock struck 12, and then set off firecrackers, announced the child back dead, arrives in November 2nd, the church clock struck 12 again, announced off the child dead, ushered in the adult dead. Today, the festival has become the whole nation to celebrate the festival of Mexico. Goraksa Festival Goraksa Festival
Is one of the traditional festivals of the Mexicans pay more attention to the last Monday of July every year, the people of Oaxaca city was gathered at the foot of the hill with the singing and dancing to celebrate the "goraksa Festival". This is a non religious folk festivals. It is said that in ancient Mexico, told Aztecs during the day to be held in ceremony, will they make small products to the earth, and wish the harvest. Later, the ritual became the goraksa Festival ". This day early in the morning, the altar was ringing the bells. Then a small walk on folk band with six string guitar up high streets and back lanes, "goraksa" festival overture. Dressed in festive costumes from from all sides to gather the men and women, old and young was at the foot of the mountain, with the cheerful music dancing. People sing and dance, and frequently around the audience to scatter their homemade small gift. In the evening, the celebration of the climax, people dressed in gorgeous clothes, dance. Folk Festival
Peru folk festival is a festival of Puno Indians, is the best embodiment of the people of Indian wind festival. The folk festival is a celebration of the local people's reproduction of Puno Inca antiquity, to commemorate the ancient Inca Manco founder Capac built the city of puno. Lake Titicaca is located in the northwest corner of the city of Puno, founder of ancient Inca legend Manco Capac was born in the Titicaca lake, and the construction of the city of Puno as he later started the expedition. Puno is always the Indians inhabited land. City architectural style and life style of residents in Indian is rich in color, which is known as "Indian folk have name. In order to commemorate the founding of the Manco Capac foundation Xunye, Puno to celebrate the folk festival in the first week of November each year. The festival, Puno people wearing old style ancient Inca clothing, in strict accordance with the Inca custom greetings, the way of getting along with people and dealing with all the problems. On Manco Capac's honor and praise of nature is the theme of the festival, every family elders to other family members about the founder of the heroic. At the same time, a variety of theatrical performances, the theater on the street are the performance of the outstanding figures of the legend. The Sun Festival
The Sun Festival is the Peru Indian Folk festivals. In the southeast of Peru, the capital city of the ancient Inca Empire near Cuzco huaman Sark Zaire, was held in June 24th every year the sun open up a fresh outlook Festival, which lasted 9 days. The festival originated from the worship of the sun god of the incas. In the southern hemisphere, June 24th is the day after the start of North south. Figure 2-10 Sun Festival as the Indians dressed as "Inca King" performer Javal Festival Javal Festival
Peru is the Indian folk festivals, held annually in late July. Javal Festival is the meaning of "blood Festival" or "the blood of the carnival". In Fourteenth Century, in the brutal oppression and slavery under the Spanish colonists, Peru Indians continue to resist, but bloodily failed. Indians think of unyielding desire and the vulture Condor revenge brave together, thus the rise of the Condor "Javal bullfight festival". Condor is the Andean foothills of the king of birds, with a wingspan of up to 3 meters, weight 10~12 kilograms, of fierce fight. The representative of the heroic and unyielding Indians to the people of Indian, and cattle was the incarnation of colonialism. Every time the vultures and cattle duel always ended up with the Condor victory, performance will struggle and win the confidence of the Indians refuse to be cowed or submit. During the festival, huge crowds of people around the bullring. People give the vulture and cattle filled with liquor, and then the Condor rope cattle body, drove them in the bullring. The vultures riding on the cattle back, cattle will bite up roar, don't stop running. Finally, cattle in support not to live, screamed and fell to the ground. At this time, the eagle catching hand into the pit, untie the rope tied to the eagle in people's cheers. The sky, with the victor fly away. People danced the dance as cheerful as a lark. At dusk, people also held a banquet to celebrate the victory. According to local customs, the holiday is a new starting point in life, it is often the young men and women as the best date for the wedding. Aracy Tasmania Festival Aracy Tasmania Festival
Bolivia is a traditional festival of the Imam pull Indians, held annually in January 24th ~30. In a word "Imam, Aracy," "please buy my stuff.". Therefore, during the festival, Bolivia is full of hawkers selling goods high streets and back lanes. People buy all kinds of gifts, to the idea of "God of the happiness -- Aikeke, expect God to bless them in a stable life, a bumper grain harvest more than auspicious, happy. Held a grand celebration to the folk festival, the dance ended, has always been the women wearing skirts dance in a circle, the men are wearing masks, wearing costumes and dance dance. Now, Aracy day is not only a pull called Indian festivals, has gradually become the people of Bolivia traditional festival. JiangMo Festival
It is held annually in Bolivia section of Indian Oruro province holiday, many areas around the miners are willing to attend the festival. Because this is a major holiday in Indian miners for peace. Indians believe that people find the source of ore, mining underground mine, violated the AWU Ali Lord, so the devil to use "ghost cough" (that is, silicosis), explosion, roof collapse and other cruel disaster to punish miners, this superstition and instinctive self-defense psychology have gradually evolved into a fixed holiday. To day before, mining city stores everywhere selling all kinds of masks and costumes. The miners are often in order to participate in this day to spare neither labor nor money, fancy festivals, spent a year savings to buy a set of their own ideal masks and costumes. During the festival, people disguised as every kind of solidarity with the "devil" struggle, finally conquer the devil. Chuaner Festival Chuaner Festival
Is the Brazil Indian Folk festivals. Held once every 7 years, each time lasted for half a month, the specific time to training as "Putnam and tile". Chuaner Festival is also called the "festival of sacrifice", a peculiar custom originated from the Brazil sand people wonder.
Maya is good at architecture and art, they used stone built many very splendid temples, tombs and grand monuments. In these buildings, the Maya have given us a variety of colors and beautiful carving vivid picture. Parke is so Bonan fresco murals, nobles of the guard of honor ranks, war and triumph, the prisoners, captives of war parade and was paid tribute and other scenes. The characters in different poses and with different expressions, true to life. Colorful murals, clear lines, exquisite portrait, rigorous composition, become one of the world famous mural art treasures. No vault housing
The form of the human living is changing with the human ability to transform nature of the. The first people lack the ability to transform nature, can only borrow natural barrier in, with the evolution and human reproduction, natural caves and other living forms has been unable to meet the needs of human habitation. Thus, the use of natural materials to build houses. However, human's building, especially in ancient times, and cannot do without the natural environment and use of natural conditions. For this reason, it produces a variety of living forms. This point in the middle of the American Indians especially reflect: the Indians in the Americas to facilitate the life of the plain area with grass and soil built huts; while living in mountainous Indians using stones and adobe building houses; hunting in Indian people more is the use of the roof and the surrounding skins; engaged in agriculture the Indians use crops straw cover roof; agricultural people to build a permanent residence, and the hunter is easy to build, demolition of people carrying tents. The Indians created a grass shed, Maoan, cottages, tents and civil structure houses living form, these characteristics are not living form is the biggest vault, because the Indians do not understand the knowledge of the vault.
Due to historical reasons (mainly the persecution of Indians, colonists) still live in remote rural areas. Like the Mayans, other nationalities in Indian are mostly retained their traditional customs. Many Indians still live in the original house. In the Yucatan Peninsula, smart Indians out a flat in the woods, the thick branches of a root fixed on the ground, a big circle, the Palm tree
The large leaves take in the above, the house was largely built.
Indian Clothes & Accessories
The mention of Indian costumes, the most impressive is that the unique headdress of Eagle Crest, this is indeed a major feature of Indian clothing. Indian dress decoration is very simple, even without clothes, but many Indian clothing colors, different styles, materials, a variety of styles of decoration diversity, full of national characteristics, also called colorful.
The Eagle Crest with the development of society the Indians living standards are rising, some social economy developed and a large number of Indian branch in part to keep their customs and traditional culture. Some living in remote mountainous forest Indian tribes still retains the unique customs and traditional culture. In many parts of the Indians still retains the ancient Indian clothing custom, they still love wearing rich ethnic characteristics of the traditional costumes, with rich ethnic characteristics of the traditional ornaments.
The Indians brought feather as a symbol of courage, honor symbol, often inserted in the hat to showing off. Has the bird feather symbols of courage, beauty and wealth.
In addition, according to the color and wear style, also a symbol of social status and the feathers of birds in different emotional states. For example, in the Kaxinahua tribe, the man in his loving woman wearing feather ornaments to express keen emotion, effectively prevent hostility. The eagle feather reminiscent of power and death, while the South American parrot Hongyu expressed in good faith, ability and rich. If the local residents are eligible to wear the red, then black will highlight its noble.
They have to wear hi rich ethnic characteristics of the traditional clothing. Yucatan Peninsula Mayan women of all ages are dressed in loose white embroidered skirt, wearing colorful flowers; and men dressed in loose white clothes, wearing a straw hat, wearing straw sandals. And the central highlands of Indian women love to wear embroidered blouse and vertical stripes wide skirt, wearing a "reboco" multipurpose trotcozy, the sun, warm shawl, can also carry the child, package. The characteristics of high national costumes has become a visible symbol of the indians.
Indian Music Tune
It is emphasized that consists of La, do, MI and feather three chord is composed of do, MI, sol of the palace three chord tones, the two tones can be regarded as the core of the music tone of the Ecuador indians. Indian music mostly started from the treble, by gradually descending melodic lines (see example forty-two), jumped into the melody of more. Folk song lyrics are generally in native language, but also in the lyrics into Spanish vocabulary, but few with Spanish lyrics. Musical Instruments
The main flutes, Clarinet and drums. Using bamboo or reed flutes made of different sizes, is the Inca Empire has been popular in ancient musical instruments. There are two kinds of flute flute, clarinet, flute and flute China is similar, but no film; European Clarinet and soprano, sharp sound. They sound easy and pan fusion. The double skinned drum and single skin tenaya million Carle drum is the main Indian percussion instrument. Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia three countries the Indians often use the one or two guitar these kinds of instruments and components "Andean band", the "Andean band" often in the United States and Europe big city street performances, has become a scenery in Moscow, Paris, Rome, Berlin, New York and San Francisco city. "The main repertoire of Andean band playing and singing in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia three Indian folk songs and folk music, also have this several countries and Europe and the United States popular.
Music。 Indians also came with European harp, harp and the modern Symphony Orchestra with harp and different shapes, and the Spanish L6, seventeenth Century, in the shape of the harp is similar, tuning the structure, shape and strings are the same.
Indians believe in animism, they revere nature, for nature, every tree and Bush a mountain of stone with awe. Indians have been largely assimilated by the Christian faith in Europe, in the United States today most Indians to Christianity, but the original faith in Indian still exists, it is mixed with Christianity, become a kind of strange religion. Cayatte said that religion occupies a very high position in the Indian life, the most important tribal leader is a religious leader, he in the internal affairs of the power is higher than that of the tribal leaders. In most of the tribes, tribal leaders only responsible for foreign affairs, mainly dealing with the federal or local government, he represented the tribe, but his appointment in a religious leader, he On the internal affairs to listen to religious leaders.
The Mayan religion:
Primitive religion is the worship of the God of nature, then gradually evolved, with the rain god (called chuck), five corn, death, God of war, the North Star God, and God, Aeolus quartet. The highest god is the God of the sun Yichana - he is the emperor of the gods, the incarnation of God, is "day" and "night" and master of words and books creator.
The Maya also has "heaven" and "hell". In heaven, the heaven God lived in the ground, there is a hell of Ishtar; (as by the devil and death mitt), Wuhao rule. Maya's fate after death, mainly depends on the social status of the deceased, (for example, to sacrifice after the death of third days), depends in part on the way of death. The Aztecs
The religious belief:
I believe that the soul of eternal life and a supreme ruler of all by the ruling idea. They worship the God of nature, such as the God of the sun, the moon, clouds, rain god God, God, God of corn etc.. The Aztecs used "cross" as a symbol of religious ritual, as a prisoner sacrifice
"The king", as the incarnation of god.
The Aztecs believed that the world has undergone four stages of development, each stage by different gods rule. The universe is shaped like a cross, the center is a stove, from nine to thirteen days covered underground world divided into level. The whole universe is surrounded by water, by the high God Emodekute Li (meaning two) holding his hands. This dual nature of God fit for men and women, with life and reproduction.
Their religious mood is very strong, only in the capital, has built 50 large-scale temples, for With more than 5000 monks.
The special worship of the sun, with the typical The worship of the sun
The characteristics of. They called the sun god's children.
The capital of the temple of the sun is the largest religious service center.
Gold, as a symbol of the sun god, is widely used in mining, rulers and outstanding figures, they are not for exchange, and is mainly used for decorative or ceremonial purposes held.
The family ancestors are believed to have originated in the sun, the Inca King is the incarnation of the sun.
Some other stars are also worship, but relatively minor position.
The Indians have a strange language. English often translated into continuous use of the same letter. For example, Massachusetts, named Massachusetts, is from the Indians in translation. Also, Indian said "I said" Doo "are". Among them, Washington has an Indian Museum, there are many explanations about the culture of Indian. Indian language is the world's most interesting and difficult language of. (in the Second World War II Pacific battlefield, in the Confederate Army serving in the Navajo, specifically responsible for the call, they use the language to convey the troops "command", and then translated into English or other text). This method is the most reliable, secure, because apart from them, who do not know the secret. See "Windtalkers"
The Indians have a very high attainments in astronomy, they created a fairly accurate calendar, the year is divided into 18 20 day months, plus five days as taboo, they know the cycle of the moon, Venus and the other planets.
Maya mathematics is a set of the most unique mathematical system, in this system, the most advanced part is "0" this symbol, it is the invention and use about 800 years earlier than in europe.
Application of scientific and mathematical system of Maya so that they can in many scientific and technological activities to solve various problems. In the ancient civilization of the world, in addition to Arabia digital originated in India, Maya digital is the most advanced. The Mayan civilization is the creation of a unique system of hieroglyphs, the text from complex graphics, usually carved in stone buildings such as the altar, stairways, pillars and so on, engraved, writing requires long-term training. Now known about more than 800 characters, but in a small number of symbols and names and objects outside the more reading is not successful. Mayan religious, they worship the sun god and the rain god, death, God of war, five corn, corn, such as God God aeolus. Living on the Titan gods, revered as the incarnation of god. In addition, the ancestor worship, believe in the immortality of the soul.
Indian cooking, still love the use of texture coarse pottery, stone bowl, spoon.
Someone sick, they pick the herbs, or will ignite the patient smoked, or soup for the sick bathe. Hospitality
Indian nation can be said to be the most hospitable people in the world, Lenovo to the origin of American thanksgiving. The first Thanksgiving is no fixed date, the provisional decision by the state, until after the American independence, Thanksgiving became a national holiday, Thanksgiving is not of course now thank Indians, but thank you for the gift of god. Thus, we can see that hospitality is a national tradition and national character of the indians. Moral
The Indians of integrity, guileless, brave, resolute, passionate, gentle, modest, speak, honest, generous, can be regarded as the most noble peoples in the world. Columbo in his diary "and" voyage to the king and queen of Spain in the report have noble moral description of the indians. Heroic
The Indians fought praiseworthy, especially living in the plains to hunting Indians with courage, fighting spirit. East of the Rocky Mountains to vast areas of the West Bank of the Mississippi, is the residence of the Plains Indians figure 6-4 brave Uppark cavalry, they basically to hunt for large animal. There are tens of thousands of bison, in the plain on the dash, and here a trend which cannot be halted, life is fighting the Indians by cattle and survive. They built a house with cowhide, tendon, making clothes and shoes; with cow dung as fuel; cow bladder to do apparatus and water kettle. In order to get enough food for the Indians to hunt bison. In the face of fierce bison and wild beasts, they accidentally ravaged suffers a herd, they can pray to the gods bless them from the ravages of asylum.
A school of thought: Indian society since the emergence of private ownership and class, slaves, city and the development of a high culture, "King" has great power. His enjoyment of life is very high, the big city reached more than 100 thousand people. Culture and cultural development to create calendar, surgery can be used to make drugs, metal alloy, can produce exquisite handicrafts, can build the grand scale of the Pyramid, and ahead of the old continent invented the mathematics of "zero" and so on, these are all other parts of the world The primitive commune
Not achieved, therefore, the society has gone beyond the primitive commune, into the early stage of slavery.
Another scholar believes that social form changes to another form of society, its main symbol is the material mode of production. The production method includes the production data of the ownership and control, including how to organize people and engaged in the production of material.
According to the research data, the existing Maya, Inca and Aztec Indians as the highest level of development of society, although the emergence of the phenomenon, but the social structure of the grass-roots organization is still the clan commune and production data, belong to the public. The collective productive labor and the average distribution of products is still an important feature of social relations. The production of the whole society is the main conscious labor members of society. Although the number of slaves, but mainly as domestic servants or other public slaves to use, not as the main labor material production to use this same slavery society by slaves bear burden of material production has a fundamental difference.
Moreover, the society mainly by tribal councils to rule. "The king" and the chief is relatively large power, but he is a Council of military leaders and the first monks elected, they can be removed and this form of slavery society entirely by the slave owners to impose an absolute rule, slaves were talking tools, to kill the slave owners have the right to seek, the slave society by the king hereditary or violence to gain power, the supreme position is essentially different. conclusion
The Indian society belongs to the tribal alliance is in the nature of tribal community to slavery society transition stage, Engels said military democracy
Stage. It is not beyond the scope of clan commune system. Some books in the so-called "kingdom", "empire", is also a kind of tribal alliance nature society, different from the class society in the country.