Diatomite is a kind of Siliceous rock
Stone, is mainly distributed in the United States, China, Japan, Denmark, France, Romania and other countries. Is a kind of biogenic silica sedimentary rock
It mainly consists of the ancient. diatom
The remains. The chemical components in SiO Two
Mainly by SiO Two
O said that the mineral composition is Opal and its variants. Our diatomite reserves of 3.2 tons, Prospective reserves
Up to about 2000000000 tons, mainly concentrated in the eastern and northeastern regions, among the larger, more reserves of Jilin (54.8%, of which Jilin Linjiang City proved reserves accounted for first in Asia.) Zhejiang, Yunnan, Shandong, Sichuan
So, the distribution is wide, but the quality of soil only focus on the Jilin Changbai Mountain area, most other deposits is 3~4 soil, due to high impurity content, can not directly use of deep processing.
diatomite chemical composition
The chemical composition of diatomite is mainly SiO Two
Which contains a small amount of Al Two
MgO, CaO, and organic matter etc..
diatomite physical characteristics
Diatomite density of 1.9 - 2.3g/cm3, the bulk density of 0.34 0.65g/cm3, the specific surface area of 40 65m/g, pore volume of 0.45 0.98M, water absorption rate is 2 - 4 times their size, the melting point of 1650C - 1750 C in electronics Microscope
Can be observed under special porous structure.
diatomite Ore properties
Contains a small amount of Al Two
CaO, MgO, K Two
O, Na Two
O, P Two
And organic matter. SiO Two
Usually accounted for more than 80%, up to 94%. The quality of Diatomite Ferric oxide
The content is generally 1~1.5%, alumina
The content of 3~6%. Is the main mineral composition of Diatomite Opal
And its variants, followed by clay minerals- Hydromica
And detrital minerals. Detrital minerals are quartz, feldspar, biotite and organic matter etc.. The content of organic matter from the trace to more than 30%. Diatomite color is white, gray white, gray and grayish brown, with delicate, loose, lightweight, porous, absorbent and strong permeability. The majority of diatomite is non silicon oxide crystals, soluble in alkali silicate content for 50~80%. Amorphous SiO Two
When heated to 800~1000 DEG C into crystal, soluble in alkali silicate can be reduced to 20~30%.
The molecular formula (Formula):SiO Two
The molecular weight (Molecular Weight):60.08
CAS No.:61790-53-2 diatomite is a kind of siliceous rock, mainly distributed in Chinese, America, Denmark, France, Romania, etc.
China. Our diatomite reserves of 3.2 tons, long-term reserves of about 2000000000 tons, mainly concentrated in the eastern and northeastern regions, among the larger, more work has been done in Jilin, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Shandong
Sichuan Province, the distribution is wide, but the quality of soil is not concentrated in Jilin, Yunnan Changbai diatomite mining, particularly rich in resources, most other deposits is 3~4 soil, due to high impurity content, can not directly use of deep processing.
Diatomite by amorphous SiO Two
Composition, and contains a small amount of Fe Two
CaO, MgO, Al Two
And organic impurities. Diatomite usually pale yellow or pale gray, soft, porous and light industry often used as insulation materials, filtration materials, filler
Water, abrasive materials, glass raw materials, and bleaching agent Diatomite filter aid
, Catalyst carrier
The microscopic structure of special porous diatomite, this is the reason of diatomite microporous structure has the characteristics of physical and chemical properties.
The main component of diatomite as carrier is SiO Two
. Such as industrial vanadium Catalyzer
The active component is V Two
And as the co catalyst carrier for alkali metal sulfate, refined diatomite. Experimental results show that the SiO Two
The stabilizing effect of the active component, and with K Two
O or Na Two
The content of O increased. The activity of the catalyst is also related to the dispersion of carrier and pore structure. Diatomite with acid treatment, reduce the oxide impurity content, SiO Two
Content increased, the specific surface area and pore volume
The carrier also increases, so refining effect of diatomite diatomite well.
Diatomite is generally referred to as after death by single cell algae diatoms of the silicate
The remains of the formation, its essence is the amorphous hydrous SiO Two
. A lot of diatoms in fresh and brackish waters can survive, species, generally can be divided into "eye" and "plume" diatom diatom, each eye, and there are many species, quite complex.
The main component of natural diatomite is SiO Two
High quality, color white, SiO Two
The content is often more than 70%. Single diatom is colorless and transparent, color depending on Diatomite clay mineral
And organic matter, different components of different ore source of diatomite.
Diatomite is known as unicellular diatom death after 1 to 20 thousand years of accumulation, the formation of a fossil diatom accumulation soil deposit. Diatom is one of the earliest appeared on earth protists, survival in the sea or lake.
The diatomite is formed from the remains of diatoms from single celled aquatic plants, the unique performance of the diatom is the bone formation of free silicon can absorb water, when the end of life after deposition, formed under certain geological conditions diatomite deposit
. It has some unique properties, such as porosity, low density, large surface area, relatively incompressible and chemical stability
And in distribution and the surface properties of the original soil crushing, sorting, calcination, air classification to miscellaneous processing procedures to change its size, can be used in paint additives and other industrial requirements.
diatomite Method for the purification of diatomite ore
Diatomite purification method is mainly divided into: physical, chemical and physical chemical method. 1, Scrubbing
The premise of scrubbing purification of diatomite by scrubbing method is the raw material of fine particles, try to make out in the shell on the consolidation of diatom clay and other mineral impurities, create the conditions for the separation and purification, then according to the nature and scope of the different mineral particles, including clay, iron minerals, quartz sand particles, the first settlement due to fast separation of montmorillonite clay impurities and stirring have been dispersed into very small particles, and with the same negative charge and diatomite, each other repel, so it has good suspension and dispersion, so it can add oxygen sodium as dispersing agent to enhance the suspension of montmorillonite and dispersion of montmorillonite particles in slurry. It is difficult to precipitate, and diatomite particle settling velocity in slurry and Beamon stone particles much faster, the suspension to separate MONTMORILLONITIC, can obtain diatomite diatomite based.
Kong Wei by scrubbing to remove some clay minerals such as montmorillonite and coarse sediment, the diatomite specific surface area and pore volume increased slightly. Ai Xiansheng in Inner Mongolia Chifeng Low Grade Diatomite as raw material, studied the effect of concentration, time, scrub scrub scrub times and dispersant on the physical purification.
Cleaning method can remove the impurity of diatom shell outside, but not for the removal of impurities within the pores of the role of diatoms. Scrubbing method purification of diatomite has the advantages of simple process, less equipment investment, easy implementation of industrial production, but a large area, large water consumption, long production cycle, diatomite drying energy consumption is larger.
2, 2.2 acid leaching method
By stripping after pickling, remove the pulp in most iron and aluminum impurities, sedimentation second times by the silicon content of diatomite concentrate 91.27%, concentrate after roughing, stripping, acid leaching treatment reached the expected requirements, the silicon content increased from 71.86% to 91.27%, effectively remove impurities, enhance the ratio of the surface area of the whole process, the yield is about 40%.
Guilong Zhang of the acid leaching for modification of diatom pore structure, that not only improve the content of diatomite acid leaching method, you can also be modified to diatom pore structure; Osman San of the acid leaching effect on the filtration performance and the porosity of diatomite, and the preparation of acid diatomite filtration material and porous ceramic material for diatomite leaching.
Wen Fei et al by stripping after pickling, remove the pulp in most of iron and aluminum and other impurities, and then by a classification by diatomite concentrate the silicon content of 91.27%, after the final concentrate roughing, stripping, acid leaching after the treatment reached the expected requirements, the silicon content increased from 71.86% to 91.27%, can effectively remove impurities. Have greatly improved over the surface of the whole process, the yield is about 40%. Guilong Zhang et al studied for acid leaching modification of diatom pore structure, acid leaching method that can not only improve the diatom content, you can also be modified to diatom pore structure; Osman San et al studied acid leaching effect on filter performance and porosity of diatomite, and the preparation of acid diatomite filtration materials and leaching diatomite porous ceramic materials.
But the conventional acid leaching purification time, acid consumption, high cost, environmental pollution, is not conducive to industrial production, greatly influence its application prospect, microwave-assisted acid leaching purification of diatomite can effectively shorten the extraction time, and can improve the leaching rate.
diatomite The application of Technology
Diatomite is a city sewage treatment technology of wastewater treatment technology, efficient modified diatomite water treatment agent is the key of the technology, process and facilities with the basis of this, this technology can realize the efficient, stable and inexpensive treatment of city purpose. But because this is a new technique. In theory and engineering applications there are still some problems to be solved.
diatomite The scope of application
Diatomite industrial packing application of pesticide industry: wettable powder, dry land herbicide, paddy herbicides and various biological pesticides.
Application of diatomite advantages of neutral 1:pH suspension performance is good, non-toxic, strong adsorption, light density, oil absorption rate is 115%, fineness of 325 mesh ---500 mesh, good mixing uniformity, the use of agricultural machinery will not plug the pipeline, can play a moisturizing, loose soil, prolong the therapeutic time in the soil and fertilizer effect, feed crops growth effect. Compound fertilizer industry: fruit, vegetables, flowers and compound fertilizer and other crops. Application of diatomite has the advantages of strong adsorption, light weight, uniform size, pH value of neutral non-toxic, good mixing uniformity. Diatomite can be highly efficient fertilizer, promote crop growth and soil improvement. Rubber industry: filler tyre, rubber hose, V-belt, rubber roller, conveyor belt, car mats and other rubber products. Application of diatomite advantages: can obviously enhance the product's rigidity and strength, and sedimentation volume was 95%, and can improve the product performance, heat resistance, insulation, anti-aging and other chemical action. Business: building insulation insulation, roof insulation brick, calcium silicate insulation materials, porous stoves, insulation fireproof decorative plate heat preservation, heat insulation and sound insulation of building materials, wall insulation decorative board, floor tile, ceramic products, etc.;
Application of diatomite diatomite in 2 advantages: cement
As additives, and 5% diatomite in cement production, can improve the strength of ZMP in cement, SiO Two
Variable activity can be used as rescue and cement. Plastics industry: the product life of plastic products, plastic products, plastic, plastic windows, all kinds of plastic pipe and other light industrial plastic.
Application of diatomite 3 advantages: excellent extensibility, high impact strength, tensile strength, tear strength, soft light in grinding, make pressure strength etc. high quality. Paper: Office paper, Industrial paper
All kinds of paper; application of diatomite advantages: the body soft, fineness of 120 mesh to 1200 mesh range, diatomite can make smooth paper, light weight, good strength, reduce caused by changes in humidity adjustable, can adjust the burning rate in the cigarette paper, without any toxic side effects, in the filter paper can improve filtrate clarifying degrees, and the filtration speed is accelerated. Paint industry: furniture
Office, paint, building paint, machinery, household appliances, paint, asphalt, mimeograph ink and other automotive paint paint filler;
Application of diatomite advantages of neutral 4:pH non-toxic, fineness of 120 mesh to 1200 mesh, the body soft, belongs to the quality of paint filler. Feed additives industry: pig, chicken, duck, goose, fish, birds, aquatic products such as all kinds of feed. Application of diatomite advantages: pH value neutral, non-toxic, diatomite ores with unique pore structure, the weight light, high porosity, strong adsorption, pale colour and lustre downy, block can be evenly dispersed into the feed, and mixed with feed particles bonded, not easily separated out, livestock and poultry feed after digestion, and the adsorption of bacteria in livestock and poultry the gastrointestinal tract after discharge in vitro, enhance physical fitness, to qiangjinjiangutang, aquatic products put in the pond pool water clean, good air permeability, improve the survival rate of aquatic products. Polishing grinding industry: in the vehicle brake plate, mechanical polishing, wood furniture, glass and other advantages; application of diatomite: Lubricity
Can be strong. Leather and synthetic leather industry, leather products such as leather.
Application of diatomite 5 advantages: strong physical sunscreen, soft light, can eliminate the pollution of high quality leather packing balloon products: the capacity of light, pH value is neutral, non-toxic powder, soft smooth, good performance, high temperature strength sunscreen. Application of diatomite in coating, paint, sewage treatment and other industries.
diatomite The main advantage
Additive products, has a large porosity, strong absorption, chemical stability, abrasion resistance and heat resistance characteristics, can provide excellent surface properties, coating capacity, thickening and improve adhesion
. Because it has larger pore volume, shorten the drying time can make the film. Can also reduce the dosage of the resin, reduce the cost. The product is considered a good cost-effective and efficient coating with extinction powder products have been numerous international large paint manufacturers as the specified products, widely used in water diatom mud.
diatomite Not toxic
A lot of diatomite as raw material for a new type of interior and exterior paint, decoration materials, more and more consumers at home and abroad. In Chinese is a kind of natural material a room development potential of diatomite inside and outside paint, does not contain harmful chemicals, in addition to having no burning, sound insulation, waterproof and heat insulation, light weight and other characteristics, as well as dehumidification, deodorization, purifying indoor air, material is environmentally friendly indoor fine decoration.
Diatom is one of the most early in the earth Single cell algae
In the sea or lake, survival, the body is extremely small, generally only a few microns to several micrometers. Diatoms can carry out photosynthesis, self-made organic matter. Often at an astonishing speed growth. It remains the deposition of diatomite formation. The main component of diatomite is silicate, the surface has numerous pores, adsorption and decomposition of odor in the air, air humidity, deodorizing function. Using diatomite as raw material to produce building materials, not only has no burning, dehumidification, deodorization and good permeability characteristics, but also can purify the air, sound insulation
Waterproof and heat insulation. Advantages of this new type of materials, the cost is not high, so it is widely used in a variety of renovation works.
The last century since 80s, Japanese residential Interior decoration
The use of a large number of chemical substances containing many decorative materials, led to the "interior decoration pollution syndrome", affects some people's health. In order to reduce the negative impact of this for residential decoration brings, a Japanese government changed the "Building Standards Law", strictly limit the dissemination of harmful chemical substances Building material
Used in the interior, and strict rules of the room must be equipped with mechanical ventilation equipment, mandatory ventilation. On the other hand, the new interior decoration materials actively encourage and support enterprise development does not contain harmful chemicals.
diatomite Humidity control
The research achievements of Kitami Institute of Technology in Japan showed that indoor and outdoor paint, decoration materials in addition to diatomite production does not emit harmful chemicals, and improve the living environment of the.
First of all, can automatically adjust the indoor humidity. The main component of diatomite is silicate, interior paint, wall material with its production of super fiber, porous properties, the superfine charcoal rate more than 5000 to 6000 times. In the indoor humidity rises, Diatomite wall materials
The super fine pores can automatically absorb moisture in the air, storing it. If the indoor moisture in the air, reduce the humidity drops, diatomite wall materials can be stored in the pore water in the ultra released.
Secondly, the diatomite wall material also has the function to eliminate odor, keep the room clean. Research and experimental results show that diatomite can play the role of deodorant. If adding diatomite made Compound material
Long time, can eliminate odor and absorption, decomposition of harmful chemical substances, and can keep the interior wall clean, even if a smoker, not the Yellow wall.
Third, research report that diatomite decorative material can absorb and decompose the cause allergy, produce medical effect. Diatomite wall materials on moisture absorption and release can produce waterfall effect, water molecules into positive and negative ions. Because the water molecules were wrapped, the formation of positive and negative ion group, then with water molecules as the carrier, floating around in the air, with sterilization ability. Floating in the air around the positive and negative ions in the group encountered allergens and other bacteria, fungi and other harmful substances, can immediately be surrounded and isolated. Then, the positive and negative ions in the most active group of hydroxyl ions and properties of these harmful substances were violent chemical reaction, finally they will be completely decomposed into harmless water molecules.
With the diatomite added to extinction and odor absorption used in the coating, has been applied for many years abroad, domestic enterprises have gradually realized to the excellent performance of coating and application of diatomite in diatom mud.
For indoor and outdoor decoration materials, production of diatomite coating, Diatom mud
In addition do not emit harmful chemicals, and improve the living environment of the.
After adding diatomite diatomite coating, have been numerous international large paint manufacturers as the specified products, widely used in diatom mud, latex paint, wall paint, alkyd resin paint and polyester paint and other coatings, especially suitable for Architectural coatings
The production. The application of paint, paint, can control the surface gloss of coating film balance, increase film Wear resistance
And scratch resistance, dehumidification, deodorization, but also purify the air, sound insulation, waterproof and heat insulation, good permeability characteristics.
diatomite Classification and nomenclature
Genus of siliceous rocks of diatomite, siliceous rocks according to the origin, divided into two categories: biological or biochemical origin, diatomite, tripolite, protein, soil radiolarites, Sponge rock
Abiogenic (chemical, Volcano
And the secondary origin)- Jasperite
Si hua, quartz
Associated minerals are mainly in Diatomite clay mineral
And carbon (organic matter), when the mineral content is more than 50% Clayrock
Carbonaceous shale, named as X X in diatom rock. When the mineral content is less than 50%, it is named as X in diatomite, X diatomite.
diatomite Mineral composition
Environmental protection wall material diatomite
The main mineral composition of diatomite for Opal
Containing, and clay
(kaolinite and water and a small amount of the parent class Montmorrillonite
Class), carbon (organic matter), iron (hematite and limonite, Pyrite
Carbonate minerals (calcite), dolomite
A small amount of quartz, siderite), Muscovite
1, opal SiO Two
N H Two
Department of mineral group hydrogel standard, is the formation of hydrated silica gel and water, commonly known as aqueous colloidal minerals or mineral colloid.
Opal is colorless and translucent, produce an opalescent, due to impurities and ion adsorption with color, which showed various shades of opal. Such as iron contamination makes opal brown, brown, grayish black carbon contamination.
The secondary filling stone become massive protein stalactitic, nodular masses, nodular and spherulitic structure and various sedimentary rock. When Opal and aging effects or dehydration stress, produces electrical crack and brecciated appearance, converted into colloidal mineral quartz, chalcedony, or opal shows heterogeneity in local inhomogeneity under polarized light.
2, clay mineral and charcoal
The clay mineral and carbon is mainly associated minerals in diatomite. The clay minerals in microscope scaly distribution in the diatom grains around, when the content of clay minerals as the main ingredient, it plays a role in cementing diatom. Carbonaceous matter into punctate, massive or layered carbon and diatomite symbiosis, are very low degree of metamorphism, peat and lignite plants still retain structure.
diatomite Mineral characteristics
Environmental protection wall material diatomite
Diatomite is a kind of Biological structure
Rock. Mainly by 80~90%, some up to more than 90% of the composition of diatom shells. The main consumption of silicon dioxide in the sea lake is composed of diatoms. Diatomacae
. stay Diagenetic process
In the stage of formation of petrochemical diatomite.
By the diatom shell Opal
Composition of diatoms in the growth and reproduction in the process of water absorbing gel Silicon dioxide
, and gradually transformed into opal.
The more the content of diatomite diatoms, less impurities, the color is white, the more light quality. proportion
In general 0.4-0.9g/cm3, the diatom shell has many holes, made out of diatomite porous structure, the porosity of 90-92% diatomite, strong water absorbability, sticky tongue, because diatom fine particles, the diatomite is exquisite, smooth. Diatomite in acid (HCl, H Two
) is not dissolved, but soluble in HF and KOH
diatomite Mineral properties
Diatomite is a kind of biogenic silica sedimentary rock
Mainly, from the ancient diatom remains, its chemical composition is mainly SiO Two
That contains a small amount of Al. Two
CaO, MgO, K Two
O, Na Two
O, P Two
And organic matter.
Diatoms in diatomite have many different shapes, such as disk, acicular, cylindrical and pinnate etc.. The loose density is 0.3-0.5g/cm3, Mohs hardness
1~1.5 (4.5-5mm, diatom skeleton particles) porosity up to 80-90%, can absorb its own weight of 1.5-4 times of water, is a poor conductor of heat, electricity, sound, the melting point of 1650-1750 deg. C, high chemical stability, in addition to dissolve hydrofluoric acid
Besides, do not dissolve in any strong acid, but soluble in alkali solution.
diatomite Market status
The use of environmental protection wall material of Diatomite
Diatomite decoration materials Japan building materials market there are 3 main categories: one is containing impurities Natural drying
Cheap goods. The other is the ordinary kiln products. It is the first to use diatomite into various shapes of plate and brick material, and then after 800 degrees Celsius temperature firing, a bit like ceramic tile
The general price. The third is to add a variety of additives in the kiln products. This kind of high-end products added with special materials using high-quality diatomite, and add salt, soda
Grey or light catalyst additives, remove the impurities of organic compounds, carbon and other substances at about 1100 degrees Celsius temperature of the kiln, firing into a variety of high-grade, gorgeous diatomite Interior decoration materials
. Diatomite decoration materials on the market are mainly in Japan Wall material
(plate), flooring materials, sanitary ware, ceiling materials, etc.. On market of Tokyo building materials general diatomite wall material price per square meter of more than 2 thousand yen ($l $110 yen). Some companies also developed a diatomite water-based paint, using this coating to further strengthen the environmental protection effect of diatomite decoration materials.
In October 2003 the closing of the second session of the Chinese Green Building Materials Expo, diatomite wall materials listed in Beijing, this kind of new material formulations and inherited the wall facing material function of the traditional construction method, can effectively remove the air of free formaldehyde, benzene, ammonia, VOC and other harmful substances and pet odor body odor, smoking, life the garbage generated by the comprehensive solution of indoor air pollution, improve indoor living environment.