Colorado River

The Colorado River (Colorado River) is the American Southwest, northwest Mexico river. The length of about 2333 km, there is a part in the United States The Rocky Mountains West disappeared. The Colorado river river most into the The Gulf of California That is California The main source of fresh water, the other part is south to Mexico, but not to the sea.
Colorado River
1540. The Spanish explorer Melchior Diaz was the first to explore and record of the Colorado River explorer. The Colorado river is one of the main rivers of North america. Originated in the western United States The state of Colorado North of the Rocky Mountains, a large area of thick snow melt with water, flows southwest, opening up a 2330 km meandering channel, injection The Gulf of California .

Colorado River geographical position

Colorado River (Colorado River) is a is located in the southwestern United States Mexico, northwest of the river. The length of approximately 2333 kilometers (1450 miles), its watershed covers seven states and two states in Mexico.
The Colorado river river most located in the United States, mainly originated in the Americas watershed - Rocky Mountains West River originates from The state of Colorado Rocky mountain national park In part, a tributary of the source Wyoming , Nevada and The state of New Mexico Less, part of the source in Mexico Sonora . From the state of Colorado through the river The state of Utah , Arizona Then, as the Arizona Nevada and arizona- California The Boundary river .
Flow to the United States and Mexico border, as Arizona and Mexico Under the state of California The border, South to the territory of Mexico has become the border California and Sonora, eventually joining The Gulf of California .
In 1540, the Spanish explorer Melchior Diaz (Melchior Diaz) is the first to explore and record of the Colorado River Go!Explore .

Colorado River River Basin

The valley area of 637 thousand square kilometers, flows through 7 states Wyoming , The state of Colorado ,
 Sketch map of Colorado River location Sketch map of Colorado River location
The state of Utah , The state of New Mexico , Nevada , Arizona and The state of California . 27 km river between Arizona and Mexico borders. The river flows through the vast arid and semi-arid regions of North America, by vigorously developing, "called" the lifeline of the south-west.

Colorado River hydrographic features

Upstream water is abundant, more in the middle and lower reaches of tributaries; through the arid and semi arid regions, water gradually less, not many tributaries, near the mouth of the average annual flow of 311.5 cubic meters / sec. Seasonal changes in 4-5 months, the flood period and winter dry season flow is nearly 30 times.
The silt content of river water is high, dark brown. " Colorado "Is Spanish for" red ". The annual sediment into the massive 1.63 tons, "America the Nile" said. Dry tributary Canyon, gradient, rich water resources, development is mainly used for irrigation and power generation.

Colorado River River Development

Colorado River Distribution agreement

Colorado River Basin in the early application of legislative development and management of water Resources。
In 1922, 7 states signed the first of the basin water resources allocation protocol. In agreement with the standing Buddha to the Colorado River Basin artificially divided into two districts, and the runoff control station standing Buddha in the annual runoff as a benchmark for water allocation. First meet in Colorado under the district distribution of 9 billion 250 million cubic meters of water, and then meet on the Colorado River 9 billion 250 million cubic meters of water distribution. After the water is allowed, more assigned to the Colorado River 1 billion 230 million cubic meters, to ensure that the Colorado river 10 years moving average of not less than 9 billion 250 million cubic meters of water distribution (when the calculated average annual runoff of 21 billion 580 million cubic meters).

Colorado River River Reservoir

A large reservoir has been built on the dry tributary of the: Marshall Ford Travis (
 Colorado River Map Colorado River Map
MarshallFordLakeTravis), Shuangfeng (TwinButtes), Fisher (O.CFisherLake), Buchanan (LakeBuchanan), Brown Wood (LakeBrownwood), Coleman (LakeColeman) etc.. The reservoir is mainly used for irrigation and flood control.

Colorado River basin geomorphology

Colorado River Canyon Area

(1) and the Colorado River Green River The interface is the American West Valley, valley landscape is one of the most spectacular in the world.
Because for a long time, the formation by strong winds weathering and erosion by water in different weather conditions, the final cut out on the landforms colorful, it attracted a lot of love. In the Paria plateau (Paria) on the Colorado River, the river view was relatively tame, until after entering Marble Canyon Marble Canyon, with a total length of 96 km, severe drop is nearly 1524 meters.
(2) after the green river to the south of Marble Canyon, originally called The little Colorado River .
 The Colorado river scenery The Colorado river scenery
In the Paria Plateau on a total of 11 rivers into the river, with the steep canyon system cutting out. The little Colorado river near the Colorado River in the last 4.3 kilometers, 548.64 meters deep to the Paria plateau. Finally, with the altitude of 800 meters away in the Colorado river.
(3) since the Colorado River from the west, diagonally across the plateau on the formation of folds and faults, cut Grand Canyon That is about 349 km, width from the valley to the edge of the plateau above about 6 to 32 kilometers.
The canyon section cut, about 1219-1828 meters. The cutting surface is 152-488 meters high slope continuous, these slope full of winds, magnificent colors, with V type down narrow valley is dark, narrow river in Colorado.
(4) the confluence of the Colorado River and then a Nevada Viking River, and suddenly turned to the south, forming a part of the state of Nevada and Arizona today; and California With the Arizona border.
Black Canyon, Colorado River gradient becomes smaller, the height is also greatly reduced after the river, from the city of Yuma Gila river began to join, formed the broad valley plain. This is a broad alluvial valley formed as plain ditch like water, when the flood came out from the flooded small trickle, finally cut out the southern California region of the United States well-known river sedimentary terrain, such as Salton Sink or CoahuilaVallery, the regional gap is even larger than the Yuma River to the Gulf city drop a lot.

Colorado River Water.

The Colorado river rises in the Texas The source said Salf Lamesa West (Sulphur) River, river flows to the southeast, the bay city south of 40 kilometers into the Gulf of Mexico. The river length of 1387 km, the basin area of 109 thousand square kilometers. Holden (Wharton) station to control the drainage area of 79 thousand square kilometers, the average annual flow of 76 cubic meters / sec. The main tributary of the Beals River, river, river, Pakistan Pedernales River, llano River, Kong Qiaohe River, San Saba pecan etc..

Colorado River topographic features

The boundary of the Colorado River Basin three mountains, East and north to form The continental divide The mountains, West to the Rocky Mountains, the whole basin topography of the north south high low. The origin is located on both sides of the mountain height of 4270 meters above sea level, from cradle to ferry (Ellis
 Colorado River Colorado River
Lees Ferry, at an altitude of 940 meters high) for the upstream river, about 1030 km long. Because of the higher terrain, snow, water more, water cut down obviously.
From the ferry to Bill in the middle reaches of the Leith Williams (Parke River dam, flows through the reservoir area) Colorado Plateau And because the area is arid area, the runoff increases not much, the valley is not easy to spread, forming a lot of Canyon terrain, the upper and middle reaches of the total 1600 kilometers, accounting for more than 2/3 length of the Colorado River, one of the most famous is the Colorado Grand Canyon The canyon, east of the little Colorado River confluence, near the west shore of the Nevada border Gelandewashen, a total length of 350 kilometers, the maximum depth of 1740 meters, meandering river, river bed slope is 1.5 meters / kilometers, fast flowing, flow rate of up to 6.9 M / s, the depth of 10-15 meters. The lower reaches of Colorado river basin is low-lying, mountains, desert, etc..

Colorado River climate

The upper reaches of the Colorado river is affected by elevation and topography, climate changes,
 Colorado Grand Canyon Colorado Grand Canyon
The minimum temperature -46.7 degrees, the highest temperature reached 42.8 degrees, the average annual precipitation is 200-500 mm. The autumn winter spring season precipitation as snowfall in late spring and early summer when temperatures rise, rapidly melting snow, river flow increase, the annual runoff concentration of about 70% in 4-7 months. The Rocky Mountains and more precipitation, snow melt water supply, so the Colorado river dry tributary water resources are extremely rich. According to the statistics of the Leith ferry station, station for many years the average measured runoff is 18 billion 600 million cubic meters, the maximum runoff of 29 billion 600 million cubic meters (1917), the runoff is 6 billion 900 million cubic meters (1934).
The middle and lower reaches of most arid and semi-arid climate, the average annual rainfall of less than 100 mm, with great amount of evaporation, seepage and irrigation, water consumption, water consumption decreased gradually. Between years and between the wet and dry season vary greatly, 4-5 months of flood flow up to 1982-3115 cubic meters / sec (maximum flood flow of 8500 cubic meters / sec), the dry season flow is only 85 cubic meters per second (low flow only 20 cubic meters / second), there are 23-26 times. In late spring and early summer floods in autumn and winter, the river dried up.

Colorado River Sediment concentration

Colorado River, downstream sediment, sediment concentration is high, the turbidity of the river, the river was dark brown, the average sediment concentration up to 27.5 kg / m3. In Colorado, the Grand Canyon is measured at the average annual sediment amount of 1.81 tons, the average sediment concentration of 11.6 kg / m3. The Colorado river carries most of the sediment deposition in the estuary near downstream, forming a across the northern Gulf of California Delta, and the development of the south, occupying the head of the bay water area. Some of the larger tributaries sediment, such as the small Colorado River, per square kilometer per year to 688 tons of scouring sediment, the average sediment concentration up to 120 kg / m3.

Colorado River By the river

The Colorado river flows through the sparsely populated area in the southwestern United States, through the gorge, valley deep worry, suitable for dam construction construction of large hydropower stations, provide favorable conditions for the development of hydropower resources.

Colorado River resource development

The Colorado river is the comprehensive development and utilization of water resources (i.e. each project with comprehensive benefits of power generation, irrigation, flood control, tourism and shipping etc.) the first is the development of water resources in river basin, the basin is full, the most controversial. The river is the first large-scale development activities began in 1928, was built by the Bald Gorge (i.e. Hoover Dam Engineering) Ordinance, the project started in 1931, built in 1936, is a comprehensive benefit of flood control, irrigation, power generation and water supply in urban and rural areas such as water conservancy project.
Since then, the Colorado River Basin in the construction of a series of water conservancy project, river has built 11 reservoirs, 95 reservoirs on tributaries, dry tributary reservoir with a total capacity of about 87 billion 200 million cubic meters, the total installed capacity of more than 5 million 240 thousand kilowatts. In addition, planning in the dry and its tributaries were building 5 large hydropower station, including more than 1 million kilowatts installed capacity of power plant has 2. The hydropower station after the completion of the Colorado river basin water resources will be fully developed and utilized.

Colorado River Irrigation project

Because of the western United States drought, most of the Colorado river basin water used for agricultural irrigation (about 9 billion 500 million cubic meters), city water supply and industrial water is about 2 billion 800 million cubic meters, therefore, in the Colorado River and tributaries on the construction of large water diversion project.
Upstream: Pan Vrain River - Arkansas River Diversion Project (Fryimg Pan-Arkansas Project), San Juan Chama Engineering (San Juan-Chama Project, irrigation 37 thousand hectares), Navalho (Navajo India Irrigation Indian Irrigation Project Project, irrigation of 45 thousand hectares), Colorado
 Colorado River Colorado River
Multi - big river Thompson River Engineering (Clolrado-Big Thompson Project);
Downstream: South Dakota Engineering (South Dakota Project), the Colorado River Water Diversion Project (Colorado Aqueduct), America (All American Canal), in the central Arizona Project (Central Arizona Project, 149 thousand hectares of farmland irrigated), The Salt River Engineering (Salt River Project, and 107 thousand hectares of irrigation) Sheila River Engineering (Gila Project, 43 thousand hectares of farmland irrigation).
The Colorado River - Thompson river water diversion project started in 1938, completed in 1959, upstream of the Colorado River Granby Eizan lake reservoir, willow river reservoir and Grand Lake Water by the 21.1 kilometer long tunnel, across the Rocky Mountains to the East, the annual water diversion 380 million cubic meters, 80 million cubic meters of water in the city, 280 thousand hectares of farmland irrigation. The water diversion project has built 10 reservoirs (the total storage capacity of more than 1 billion 225 million cubic meters), 4 pumping stations (total lift of 187.5 meters), power station 7 (184 thousand kilowatts, the annual generating capacity of 759 million kwh). After years of operation, the actual water transfer 284 million cubic meters.

Colorado River Rivers

From 1905 to 1907, The state of California The south of the Lille River flood pod, causing heavy losses to the coastal people's lives and property, people called for governance of the river. Through years of development and comprehensive management, basically control the flood and sediment, and control of water pollution and land salinization.

Colorado River The background of governance

(1) the Colorado river surface water, mostly used for agricultural irrigation, the annual water volume of about 9 billion 500 million cubic meters, 7 State irrigated land. Because of the state of Colorado with Coase shale The weathering layer exposed uplift and contains a lot of salt, water is repeatedly attracted a lot of salt in the soil irrigation, irrigation water was dissolved again into the river. Because the water salinity is increasing, resulting in irrigated land salinization, bring great harm and economic loss to the basin's agricultural and domestic water, salt water for irrigation, drainage pipeline from corrosion, the crop composition changed, resulting in crop production, processing cost of living water increased. It is estimated that the salt content of the Colorado river each increase of 1 mg / L, direct and indirect economic losses caused by $108 thousand a year.
(2) Colorado river water quality deterioration has become an international problem, severely affected is located in the downstream of the Mexico River, the salinity from the annual average of 800 mg / L soared to 1500 mg / L in the border line, causing crops in Mexico irrigation district. In the past the upper excess water discharged to dilute salt water, the past 20 years, due to the upstream reservoir of Colorado River in Mexico to intercept, plummeted.

Colorado River Management plan

(1) general plan
1974 began implementing the "Colorado River salinity control plan", is the main channel lining to reduce leakage; encourage the use of sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation, improve irrigation efficiency; reduce water excretion; interception Underground water High salinity; irrigation water discharged, the desalination plant and processing; drainage irrigation area extended to California Bay directly into the sea etc..
(2) the implementation of the plan
According to the plan, in the above pod Lille dam, early plans to build 4 projects, water diversion into the solar evaporation ponds, reduce the amount of salt into the Colorado River; or canal lining, to reduce leakage and improve irrigation efficiency, irrigation water excretion to minimize. In the downstream pod Lille dam, after Mexico agreed to, intends to build 6 projects: 1, acella channel with concrete lining; penter the dam in Yuma and Iraq; Mei Sajing group; the water purification; the Wilton Mohawk irrigation management engineering; the Wilton Mohawk drainage expansion project, the largest of which is a large water purification project the west of Yuma, daily processing 488 thousand cubic meters of water, can restore irrigation drainage amount of 70% to 90%, the impurity. From the Wilton irrigation water from Mohawk high salinity, the Yuma purification plant after treatment can be directly discharged into the Colorado River, and Mexico to provide according to the agreement between the two countries.

Colorado River Control technology

In the United States to further strengthen the construction of the Colorado river itself has scientific management at the same time, but also to the development of water-saving irrigation technology and city and Industrial water-saving technologies All along the river water, continue to adjust, to alleviate the contradiction between water demand and supply capacity of more than the river engineering.

Colorado River Related information

Colorado River The earliest development

The Colorado river is one of the earliest of river water resources development.
1936 Hoover dam The building marks the beginning of large-scale development of the river. Then there are a lot of water conservancy and water diversion project put into operation, its tributaries total capacity has reached 90 billion cubic meters. Nearly 80% of river water resources for agricultural irrigation. The farmland soil of Colorado River Basin contains a lot of salt, because the water is repeatedly used for irrigation, irrigation water of the salinity increases, in order to solve the land Salinization The problem, the United States launched the saline control plan in 1974, is the main channel lining and development of drip irrigation and spray irrigation and desalination processing, high salinity water pipeline transported directly into the sea.

Colorado River The river of life

The Colorado river is the river of life in the western United States, is the Colorado river water resources to support the rapid development of economy, irrigation and power generation enterprise in the west city. The use of water resources has made over the river once full of vigour since 1993 will no longer see the river, runoff and sediment reduced Seawater intrusion .

Colorado River The best control

From the legal and hydrological sense, past the Colorado river is the world's best River regulation. But today, the law and hydrology in this river is no longer coordinated. A century ago, about 25 billion cubic metres of water in a year California Bay.
In 1922, on the eve of the dam construction, the lawyers to the Colorado river water allocation, but since the signing of water diversion agreement since the runoff has been reduced, the average annual runoff of only 16 billion cubic meters.

Colorado River Water dispute

(1) of the dispute
Recently, the distribution of Colorado River, once again triggered a debate in 7 states in the western United states. The focus of this debate is, in the event of a serious drought season, the state exactly how much water. It involves the interests of all parties, not only state officials to attend the meeting consultations, Indian The indigenous tribes also sent representatives. The environmental protection agency who failed to participate in the meeting and consultation on behalf of rivers, have issued a claim. Even the interior minister to participate in the mediation, and an ultimatum to reach agreement by February 7, otherwise, the federal government will propose a distribution agreement.
(2) the cause of dispute
In fact, this debate because of water shortage, due to water shortage and serious differences.
We know that the Colorado River bears to Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and California and 7 other states in the western United States, 34 tribes and 2 states in Mexico water supply, serving a population of 30 million. According to the forecast, to 2020, the area of water from the Colorado River, the population will reach 38 million. The population growth, economic development, the demand for water is increasing, water shortage is becoming increasingly severe. Located in Southern Nevada, Las Vegas Las Vegas Colorado, near the river, the 90% drinking water taken from the river. But in 2006 according to the water budget of the Southern Nevada Water Management Council, Las Vegas area water demand rapid growth, even taking water-saving and prudent water factors, by 2007, water is still beyond the quota of the Colorado River watershed. Water management council officials also believe that the southern region of the state of Nevada, rely on the Colorado River to meet the water quota, is not sustainable. In fact, browse some media reports, shouted thirsty again in Las Vegas. The area of Colorado river is the source of life, is also a controversial fuse.
(3) dispute situation
A meeting in Las Vegas, from 7 states responsible for water management officials, hopes to draw up an agreement aimed at river water consumption, the reservoir can not to state the case of normal water supply, the Colorado river water distribution agreement. But 7 states that the drought management plan failed to reach an agreement, or on the distribution of water.
If the occurrence of drought, water was forced to cut it, Arizona will agree to reduce the water diversion, Nevada has also agreed to reduce the number of water, but in two other states also want to reduce the number of quota. Colorado and other upstream States put forward a proposal to implement a plan to stop planting crops in arid year farmers compensation. Arizona and Nevada officials hope that through the use of artificial rainfall and water saving measures in the construction and desalination of southwestern Arizona, a desalination plant, as agricultural water, in order to increase the flow of rivers. The Southern Nevada Water Council proposed reserve water plan, just in case, including the use of storage in the valley of Las Vegas, California and other common groundwater water savings. In addition, the water board has made plans to spend $2 billion plan, the construction of a pipeline, from the extraction of groundwater basin of Nevada in rural areas, officials also hope to use the Virgin River and mdee River water. It seems, behind the differences, the states have their own thinking and planning.
(4) the outcome of the dispute
The meeting did not reach an agreement, but the discussion is always good. The central Arizona Project General Manager Wilson Say, this discussion is by far the most open a candid discussion, although we can not say that this meeting solved all the problems, but the parties have made progress. It is worth mentioning that the environment was not being invited to the users meeting, but I hope to solve the shortage of water resources in the formulation of the plan, have more right to speak. From the environmental protection agency of a senior analyst Jennifer pointed out that, in order to seek a correct and lasting solution, these states need to open the door to the other interest groups, the interest groups included, and come up with a scheme to help everyone. According to the provisions of the federal deadline, managers agreed to sit down again, make a drought of Colorado river water supply plan in February.

Colorado River Colorado

Colorado River Essential information

The Colorado river originates in Argentina and Chile at the junction of the eastern slopes of the Andes, Chile and flows through a
 The general situation of Colorado River Basin The general situation of Colorado River Basin
Argentina into the Atlantic, Argentina Patagonia area north of the border. Is called Grande (Grande) River, the river flowing from west to East, 200 kilometers south of the Bahia Blanca flows into the Atlantic Bay, finally, see sketch map of river of the Colorado River basin.

Colorado River Overview of Watershed

Basin located at latitude 28 degrees 05 degrees 03 '-39', '-70 05 degrees west longitude 62 degrees 20'. The upper section (including the Rio Grande River) 920 km long, the valley area of 25 thousand square kilometers, in latitude 38 degrees 49 minutes, West into the Colorado River by 64 degrees 57 '. If from a branch of Salado (Salado) River is river, a total length of 1430 km, the basin area of 110 thousand square kilometers, the average annual flow of 135 cubic meters / second, the annual runoff of 4 billion 260 million cubic meters.
The Colorado River Basin from west to East, north to south, West to an altitude of 4000 meters above the Andes, the altitude of 10-250 meters wide pampas plains.

Colorado River The main tributaries

The main tributaries of the upper reaches of the Colorado River Baran Cass River (Barrancas). In the middle reaches of the main tributaries of the Salado River, the river rises on the eastern slopes of the Andes of Argentina, Catamarca province and La Rioja province at the junction of Sello Bonet (Cerro Bonnet) near the hill, the origin named Bermejo (Bermejo) River, its tributaries are mainly concentrated in the right bank: Sang Hong (Zanjon) River (the Hadjar River and 2 tributaries: (Jachal River) and Blanco (Blanco) (San Juan), the San Juan River) River (the river has 2 tributaries: Leo Drospatos (Rio De Los Patos (Mendoza)) River and the Mendoza River), Tunu Yang (Tunuyan) River, Diamant River (Diamante), Arturo El (Atuel) river. The main gold left bank tributary river (QuInto). The name is not a section of the Salado River, the San Juan River Estuary called Bermejo River, to the mouth of the San Juan Diamante estuary called Desagua Pedro (Desaguadero) River, the mouth of the holy Diamante Isabel called the Salado River, then down to the Colorado River and the confluence of the river called Kullak (Curaco).

Colorado River Water resources

The Colorado river flow is small, the gap between small hydropower resources, hydropower resources are not very rich, mainly distributed in the various tributaries. So far, only focus on the various tributaries of the development and use of less mainstream development.