Americans of Asian descent are A citizen of the United States
That includes Chinese Americans
Americans, Philippines, Korean-American
India, American etc..
Asian cultural implication
Twentieth Century 40s and 50s
Asian American ethnic groups although the specific situation is different, but cultural choices tend to be broadly consistent with the Chinese, basically is not recognized U.S.A
. By 60s and 70s, the situation was reversed, that most Asian, in the United States by examining your social status and identity, thus abandoning the mainstream of American culture pursuit, and establish the status of Asian American culture in American society. This change has milepost significance, it reflects the Pan Asian ethnic consciousness awakening, is all Asian Americans
In a specific historical period of fruitful spiritual achievements. This paper will focus on the analysis of internal and external causes of the formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness, cultural meaning of "Asian Americans" title. The formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness, has profound social and historical background.
Twentieth Century 60s and 70s
The occurrence of a major reorganization of international political power, a large number of new independent countries from Imperialism
Separated from the colonial system, and formed a "third world". This new combination, not only against imperialism, colonialism and arrogance, the racial equality has become an internationally recognized standards, and thus began a new revolution in the history of the world. This new international phenomenon, greatly inspired with traditional criticism American intellectuals
In China, launched the "New Left" great in strength and impetus, "Counterculture Movement" and the black civil rights movement, directed at the domestic and foreign policies and social issues in the United states. Which is the focus of the two themes, one is for racial equality, one is against the Vietnam war. The formation of these sports strong social thought, to the current system with hitherto unknown impact.
In the fierce social unrest, the concept of the American academic circles have also changed. Ethnic minorities, the once neglected or marginalized social groups has become an important part of historical research, "black history, Asian history, Native American history, Hispanic history, women's history, the field of gay history present very prosperous scene." Thus, minority status in the history of the United States in an unprecedented emphasis. During this period, the U.S. government enacted new immigration law ("(1965), the abolition of the old system of ethnic origin, the implementation of priority principle under the limit of the. With the implementation of the act, the surge in the number of Asian immigrants, the Asian American team continues to expand; the quality of immigration has greatly improved, so that the social and economic status of Asian immigrants is strengthened; women increased significantly, the sex ratio of Asian is more balanced. The Asian Americans oppose racial discrimination, equal rights for society, is undoubtedly a favorable opportunity. In the background, as used by mainstream society "silencing" of Asian Americans, although the pace a bit slow, but still with a positive attitude and unique way to join this question in American society, culture and the fundamental values of sports.
Anti war movement
The U.S. invasion of Vietnam acts, caused widespread anger of the people of all ethnic groups across the country. Many Asian people believe that the nature of the war is the United States of
Anti war movement
Asians of racism and aggression. Moreover, throughout the racist history in the world. You run within the scope of the current bloodshed white colonial predatory war and the people of Asia will not end soon, it will continue indefinitely." In view of the U.S. military in Vietnam violence, more and more Asian American college students and high school students shocked to realize: "the United States soldiers shot the enemy target and is the same with Asians and their faces." So, when they were stirred, walking the streets, and as white as the protesters chanted "we want peace" or "to withdraw back" and other slogans, but from their own perspective, to stop the massacre of Asian brothers and sisters "," refused to race war and placards, the same slogan shouted in unison to participate in the anti war demonstrations. Obviously, they put this war with their suffering from racial oppression, and began to believe that, regardless of their own efforts, the Asian mainstream society as Asians, the fact that outsiders, there will be no change. Such a new understanding, is conducive to the formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness.
Black civil rights movement
Asian American is actively involved in the civil rights movement, because they truly feel their identity, status and black have a lot in common. This movement, "brought the racial pride and racial pride to us; at the same time to understand:" there is an important connection between the political struggle and a new identity,...... R has a new understanding for Asian Americans as the meaning of "seeking; economic, political and cultural independence The third world countries
Has a close connection with the dispute between self-determination of American minorities, the third world
The people's struggle for national liberation and the ethnic minorities equal rights struggle is run parallel." In addition, the Black Panther Party on black self-defense, reconstruction of the purpose of equality, but also has a great influence on Asian students. Therefore, the civil rights movement can not be ignored for the Pan Asian ethnic awareness promotion.
In 60s, the University of California Berkeley
Campus and San Francisco
State University Asian students around the campus to carry out fight for their equal rights movement. Things from the school of Asian students about setting reform history just demands ignore them, resulting in Asian students collective strike. stay
California University Berkeley school
Colleges and universities in the United States are generally introduced to Europe and the United States as the center of the education system, regardless of ethnic community, this is a kind of typical racial discrimination. Under this system, many Asian American students know little about their ethnic history, even as the Chinese, even how they are forced to live in Chinatown
The facts are not clear. Therefore, students often self report will be held at the Berkeley campus, such as "yellow identity" conference (Yellow Identity Conference), which tells about the history of Chinese and Japanese identity, U.S. policy in Asia, social structure and customs and habits of Chinatown, a class of students heard this report later recalled: "in the whole process of listening to the report, I nodded, agreed to the speaker. For a moment I suddenly realize that our experience is all racial discrimination. At the same meeting, I was for a long time the backlog in the heart of the feeling to find an accurate expression of words. So, Asian students are eager to get the history curriculum reform. After the cold, the students began to suspect that the real purpose of school education, pointedly asked: "Berkeley degree for Asian what it means to my uncle who won the Berkeley engineering degree in 30s, but he eventually just a Chinatown grocery store owner.
When on the establishment of the "Third World Academy" the request was shelved, Asian students finally provoked, have joined the radical "third world Liberation Front", launched a tit for tat struggle with the school authorities. The autumn of 1968, San Francisco State University Students strike demonstrations (The San Francisco State Strike), the Asian student campus movement to a climax. After five months of the strike, the spring of 1969, the first Asian American United States Department of State University of San Francisco was founded soon, California
Berkeley university campus has set up a minority research course; at the beginning of the 70s, one university in California and University of the east coast, have also set up the Asian history, social and cultural aspects of the curriculum.
To campus sports as the core of the Asian student, is one of the important signs of the formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness, influence on American society and the Asian group should not be underestimated. First of all, it has changed the education and academic attitude of Asian, Asian Studies and ethnic studies began in the education system in American universities occupy a space for one person. Study a decent Asian a new discipline, respected, and American ethnic studies to improve, innovation and prosperity. Secondly, the Asian student changed public opinion environment, the Asian from the original by silencing (silenced), - (erased), from the late 60s to hear by mainstream society (heard) and see (emerged). Although still in the edge of the society, but the cross race makes their combined strength of public opinion can not be ignored them, government decision-making departments to understand and focus on Asian Americans have a relative improvement. Again, it is the real meaning of Asian American culture, history, literature, the cradle of the first generation of Asian American scholars and writers. In 1960, founded by California University Berkeley campus radical Asian elites, link across the country "Asian American political alliance" (Asian American, Political Alliance) is a very active organization of masses. At that time, the "Asian Americans" this concept was put forward, and it acts as the subject of a political organization, in the history of the United States for the first time, it is obviously of great significance. It is at least from the following aspects reflect the awakening of Asian ethnic groups:
First of all, to admit that he is "Asian Americans" rather than "pure", shows that in the Asian American culture identity, white Americans no longer follow the standard value.
The Fifties Ross
Lee's "fusion theory", at that time, the majority of Asian is indeed a great temptation, and that they possessed the same like crazy, pursuing and practicing their own American dream. (1) but, as members of the alliance Mary Uyematsu pointed out: in the United States in the process of Asian people have tried to get into the Americans in physiology and psychology....... They give up their own language, customs, historical and cultural values, in order to adapt to the white culture. However, after these efforts, but that he was not accepted by mainstream society, the state remains the same discrimination. So they "reaction for the whites to cast contempt", is only a "desperate inferiority and always confused". The alliance founder Yuji Ichioka said more clearly: although Asian as white appearance, imitate their actions speak, in almost all have to like them, but this is just a self deception like dream, but increased their identity crisis."
After this reflection, the majority of Asians are deeply aware of: white consciousness and culture, for their own miles away; must abandon the unrealistic American identity, and should establish a new direction is more suitable for their own characteristics. The change of knowledge, is the key to the formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness. Secondly, to completely negate the "Oriental" with complete visual charm ", suggests that the Asian racial equality consciousness unprecedented enhancement.
Since the North American continent from the first Asian board, there is the "Oriental" nickname "". Later generations, and the more a means of discrimination. This term, almost make Asian Americans live in is full of prejudice and limitation of "cage" in the United States, for their survival and development caused great obstacles. After 1965, although the number of Asian immigrants is increasing, the quality is improved, the economy has improved, but the mainstream of its social exclusion and discrimination is unabated. According to the 1970 survey results show that has been praised as the "model minority" of the Chinese, have 15% of college graduates in a restaurant, gift shop or grocery store, and many university graduates can not find work, has become a typical "full employment" (underemployed); have a bachelor's degree in men personal income reached 13, only $10 thousand. In 39%, the equivalent of white men, the personal income of $10 thousand accounted for 27. 7%. As for Chinese women, incomplete employment is a common phenomenon; even to employment, mostly engaged in clerical work, such as accounting, cashier, secretary and typist, File manager
Etc.. According to statistics, more than 40% Chinese female secretary has a college degree, and most engaged in this occupation of white women, often only a high school education. stay California
In 36%, Chinese female employees engaged in clerical or typist occupation.
In this case, the majority of Asian "Oriental" appellation of hate. But for a long time, had no solution, only to swallow. "Asian Americans" as a new concept, stressed that "the mainstream society of Asian Americans is also forced to admit the idea, thus denied the" Oriental "and a series of obvious derogatory meaning of appellation. The struggle around the title issues, the essence lies in the maintenance of existing or against racial discrimination, reflects the new awakening of the Asian racial equality consciousness. Again, the Asian race as a whole, "the United States and the third world" cognition, transcendence of single ethnic consciousness.
For a long time, the lack of necessary connection between ethnic groups of Asian, struggle against discrimination is always individual combat. Since the printing at the end of 1980s, a fundamental change in this situation. Many speeches throughout the league, regardless of the author from which specific ethnic, its basic position is consistent, namely regard themselves as a member of Asian descent, and at this point to discuss problems. The papers published in 1970 (roots: an Asian American Reader "(Roots:An Asian American Reader), by the League central figure Franklin
Wo, Mary Uyematsu, Kenhannada, Peggy Lee and Maria
Cheng co write, and they are from Japan, India, China different races. To express their common aspirations in the book: "we work hard and pay taxes, the final full of rich country, get in return is not equal rights, restrictions and discrimination suffered life. As the colonists, this life is considered to be reasonable, without objection, can be immutable and frozen. Obviously, there are many similarities between the United States and China to treat Asians Asian; DH (P24) "many troubled third world problems also plagued the United States in the third world." [III (P225) can be said that the same experience, social status and common pursuit of equal rights for Asians, the Pan Asian ethnic consciousness on Asian American history stage. The term "Asian Americans" will all Asian Americans across the nation together, for their identity and attributes with "unique" label, so that they stand on a new perspective to know themselves, define themselves as the true meaning of seeking an Asian american.
At the end of 60s and early 70s, a number of outstanding Asian writers began to emerge, their work is not in the discussion of racial identity and cultural identity and they are closely related. The Chinese American writer Zhao Jianxiu (Frank Chin), is one of the most representative one. He went through the historical and cultural filtering, accurately summarized "Asian Americans" cultural connotation: "Asian Americans are not a minority, but by the Japanese and Chinese. The Philippines
Several other American ethnic groups. Chinese and Japanese have the same Chinese and Japan in geographical location, social cultural and historical aspects of separate seven and four generation. They are in the United States has evolved a very unique cultural and emotional characteristics, they are different from China and Japan, also have different characteristics from the whites in the United states. Even in the United States still by Asian ethnic groups using various Asian language, has been adapted and developed into a new language to express their unique experience."
The term "Asian Americans", all American born Asian descent gather under the name with strong political color, with widespread Asian ethnic groups collective consciousness will disperse the Asian American individuals together. It is like a badge of honor, a beautiful trophy hanging in the all American born Asian chest.
Asian social position
The status of Asian Americans in the election
Asians in the United States is small, but can not be ignored and the source of votes donations. Because, not only Asian pluralistic society the economic ability of the population (according to the recently published "Asian Americans" pointed out that, in the annual income of more than $75 thousand in Asian class, the highest proportion, and slightly more than white), is the fastest growing population of minority ethnic groups, data show that since 1970, the Asian population has doubled, estimated in 2020 will increase to 20 million people, the United States accounted for 6% of the population.
From the past, participate in the competition for the nomination of the various people are aware of the important Asian vote. From the situation, Gore
And George W. Bush are trying to get more Asian communities, including George W. Bush California finance minister Kuang Jieling's support, its position in the California Asian big consolidation. Gore as the democratic and popular Clinton
The vice president has consistently stressed the need to strive for the support of Asian political donations, but storm has not yet subsided, long-term democratic Fundraiser Xialing
It was found guilty on the day before. In order to avoid Gore in the fight for support found in a suspicious position, at the same time have to be careful.
It is worth mentioning that the Asian people participating in politics unprecedented enthusiasm, such as one of the most important Chinese organization by the United States " The Committee of 100
The launch of the 80/20 movement, which called for the Chinese voters to vote on the hands play a greater effect. This is because the Asian situation does exist many problems. Headquartered in Los Angeles
The leaders of the Asia Pacific region ethnic education research institutions, Research Report on the 11 million Asian people throughout the United States situation shows that Asians in the United States social education and economic achievement beyond the white majority, successfully broke the American society to hold minority prejudices, but for a long time since unification, conservative stereotypes, and free from the mainstream of society, accounting for about 4% of the Asian American population has always been regarded as foreigners.
In other words, although Asian enjoy amazing achievements in education and work, but suffered in other areas of the treatment failed to be fair. As for the reason, there is a minority, most Asian is not clear for civil rights in American social history, indifferent to their own rights and interests; two, they are still positioning in American society is classified as a minority, and minority means can be ignored; three, the political performance is usually apathetic, United States the society identified as mysterious, the popularity of American Society questioned the patriotism. Fortunately, all this will become the past tense, because Asian voters have voted consciousness need to demonstrate their power through the ballot to assert their claims.
Asian Asian image
along with Hollywood
Take the history to become young "real history", Chinese or non white ethnic images of Hollywood's eyes will become a "global standard". The Dutch Li Huo and American Asian media image of the "Asian American Media Action Network earlier issued an open letter listing by the media image of the designated Asian various repeated"":
In the United States, Asian is always foreigners, not into society
Many Asian movies with an accent when speaking English, and will also be white as a joke, is that the Asian people have no way into the United states. The Asian American occupation standard
Concentrated in the movie and drama, South Koreans always sell groceries, Japanese business, Indian taxi news, other occupation, including setting a restaurant: martial arts instructor, faith healers, laundry workers, underworld, prostitutes. This approach distorts the Asian people engaged in a variety of industries in fact in the United states. Asian White actor
Asian people rarely when the protagonist of white led. Even in Asia as the theme of the film, the protagonist also is mostly white.
Asian men not impotence is not sexual desire
Although Asian women often become a white man in the movie partner, but Asian men are almost impossible to catch the white woman, not to mention sex, Asian men seems to have problems in life. (some of them said, if Zhou Runfa
In "Anna and the king" and julia
Robert, sex, white audience will stomach). Asian women are setting
Asian women are two extremes on the screen: exotic, submissive, hard-working and easy to please" Chinese doll
"; or a bite at any time counter" daughter of the Dragon King
". Kung Fu Chinese is bad
White. Chinese Kung Fu
Bar! In the TV series, Kung Fu Chinese is bad, and the whites know kung fu is a hero, is felt only in the white hand, can have a positive use of Asian Art (in this case Jackie Chan
The film is on the contrary, those who play the time white people are bad).
"Asian American Media Action Network" that the creation of these designated Asian filmmakers know surface image of Asian, but also ignore the impact of the Asian American community of Asian dwarf.
Asian Work consumption As the richest Asian consumer groups across the United States
In new network on 8 May 2007, according to the "Ming Pao" reported, a day ago Market survey report
That Asian has become the richest American consumer groups, their ability to buy up to $434 billion, accounting for 4.7% of the national consumer purchasing power. The report also predicted that the Asian American purchasing power will reach $611 billion in 2010, while the Chinese is the largest ethnic group in Asian consumption.
According to statistics, the average income of Asian families is the highest in the United States of all ethnic groups in the family, the median is $56200, 56% higher than the Hispanic families is 15% higher than that of white families, 26% higher than the average level of the United states. At the same time, the annual income of more than $100 thousand of Asian families about 28% in the United States, the ethnic family is the highest. Asian American per capita income is $25800, more than the national per capita income of $24000. But in the Asian, Chinese per capita income of $28000, ranked third.
Experts pointed out that Asian Americans earn a lot, but more cautious on the consumer, the most cost-effective to buy merchandise. They are willing to spend money on household products, brand-name products, science and technology, online shopping, health care and other aspects, is willing to accept every kind of promotional advertising, so manufacturers become the ideal target market. Experts said that although the Asian American consumption capacity is huge, but the American consumer advertising emphasis on racial level is still not enough.
The newspaper pointed out that the Asian American population of nearly 13 million, of which there are about 3 million Chinese, accounted for 1% of the population, is the nation's largest Asian ethnic groups. In addition, it is expected that in 2010, the Asian population will increase to 14 million 600 thousand, the cumulative growth rate of 14%.
In the United States, most of the Asians living in the city, about 40% of the Asians living in Losangeles, San Francisco and New York metropolitan area. About 5 million 400 thousand of Asians live in Hawaii and the west coast of the United States, of which there are about 4 million 200 thousand live in California.
The high-tech company is best for the "Asian" work
To be published in the latest issue of "fortune" magazine named the "best ethnic work of the 50 companies". Although the selection of the enterprise also can not escape the economic downturn in the United States the bad luck, but these companies still did not give up racially equality thoughts of talents.
Asian Questionnaire investigation
From the overall situation and status of ethnic minorities in the United States, in the continuous improvement. Survey shows that the corporate management staff to the top 50 of the ethnic minorities accounted for 24%, compared with 23% in 2001, while in 1998 only 17%. The board of directors of minorities accounted for 19%, only 11% in 2000. This survey, "Fortune" magazine
A questionnaire to the more than and 200 large companies will be divided into questionnaire of ethnic minorities Asian, African American, Hispanic and native americans. Considering the main factors in the rank of enterprise:
- employees minority number of personnel
But the number is not necessarily related with enterprise ranking. with cisco
And Intel as an example, the number of companies of minority personnel were above 40% and 30% in the top 50 in the upper reaches, but the ranking in 30 after they are. - minority staff position
This is a more important factor than the number of. If they enter the management in the entire management in proportion. How many directors are black, Hispanic, Asian or native american. - minority salary
If the same position will get the same salary in the company dividends, the top 50 in the colored number.
The questionnaire also asked the company how to allocate funds, whether from the purchase of minority business companies, whether they will be for the minority company guarantee. On all kinds of data, the "fortune" developed a rating for each company.
The big winner of the 2001 American housing credit services giant Federal National Mortgage Association, it is the first list for the first time, this is mainly due to its strong minority composition of the management team in 18 board members accounted for 5, and the company CEO Frank
I am black. mcD
Ranked fifth, it is also the largest minority employees, reached 55%, but a few white.
In addition, the "fortune" is also based on the proportion of all ethnic groups are listed in the most suitable for Asian, African, Hispanic and Native American top ten companies.
The most suitable for Asian top six are all high-tech companies
Leaders including INTEL, Sun Microsystems, Sun for having heard it many times in the industry. The first is the Applied Materials
(it is the world's largest semiconductor manufacturing equipment suppliers, INTEL, Samsung CPU, the memory of the equipment order from it). It is also the five consecutive scoring charts. After a report pointed out that half of Silicon Valley researchers are Chinese or Chinese, and 1/3 of India immigrants. On one hand, the Asian population has a comparative advantage in the field of science and technology, on the other hand, immigration policy guidance and the United States on.
The most suitable for African American top 10 in 7 home service company
On the contrary in the United States and Asian, black duck service industry, including McDonald's, FedEx, Coca-Cola and other large multinational companies.