Triglyceride refers to fatty substances such as cholesterol, blood triglycerides, it can lead to lipid protein metabolism abnormal
Triglyceride Chemical property
Triglycerides (Triglyceride, triacylglycerols, triacylglycerides) as the main component of animal fats and vegetable oils, by 1 glycerol
3 fatty acid molecules and molecules, through dietary intake.
Triglyceride chemical formula is CH2
2-COOR ", in which R, R', R" (alkyl) long chain alkyl. Three fatty acid RCOOH, R'COOH, R, COOH "may be the same or different parts of different alkyl.
The chain length difference of triglyceride in nature is great, but the 16, 18 and 20 carbon atoms in the chain is the most common. Nature in the long chain of common plants and animal triglycerides only even carbon atoms, the reasons come from Acetyl coenzyme A
The biosynthesis process. Bacteria can also produce carbon atoms or singular branched chain. Because Ruminant animal
In the process of bacterial intervention, so their triglycerides also contain odd carbon atoms (e.g. 15 carbon atoms) of the chain.
Natural fats contain many different triglycerides, so they have no fixed melting point, but there is a very wide Melting temperature
Belt. Cocoa butter
Is one of the few number only triglycerides fat, one of which contains palmitic acid
Oleic acid, and stearic acid
. The melting point of cocoa butter chocolate is fixed, cause no particles in the mouth when melting feeling.
In the cell triglyceride freely across the cell membrane, because of its non polarity, and the components of the cell membrane The lipid bilayer
Triglyceride Physical property
Triglyceride is Very low density lipoprotein
The main part of the process as it The new supersedes the old. energy and fat transport plays an important role. his energy density
Two times of carbohydrate and protein (9 Kcal
Per gram). In the small intestine in triglycerides lipase
And under the action of bile is decomposed into glycerol
And the fatty acids into the blood vessels. Recombinant it in the blood, part of the formation of lipoprotein. Its role to cell fatty acid transport. Different organizations can release fatty acids or fatty acids for energy absorption. fat cells
Can produce and store triglycerides. If the body needs fatty acids as energy Glucagon
Will cause the lipase release of triglycerides, free fatty acid. Because the brain cannot use fatty acids for energy, in triglycerides Glycerol
Will be converted into glucose for the brain as energy use. If you need the glucose content in the body of the brain than when fat cells will decompose triglyceride.
Triglyceride The main purpose
Triglyceride Application of food
In the body of high triglyceride levels and arteriosclerosis, and hypertension will increase Coronary heart disease
The possibility of. But the impact of triglyceride levels than the effect of LDL:HDL ratio is lower. The reason may be because the triglycerides and HDL cholesterol level inverse relationship. Another disease caused by high oil ester index is three Pancreatitis
The causes, occurrence rate, and risk factor
Hyperlipidemia is due to high blood fat substance produced by the disease, which is caused by an important risk factor of atherosclerosis and heart disease. Roughly 100 people have a place in the male is higher than female, (the only exception of diabetic patient). Hyperlipidemia may be due to genetic (as some familial hyperlipidemia), or through the secondary factors caused diseases (such as diabetes factors, obesity
Syndrome, Nephrotic syndrome
, hypothyroidism, dietary factors such as daily fat intake more than total calories Calorie
40%, Saturated fatty acid
More than 10% of total calories, daily intake of more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol, or excessive drinking, and certain drugs such as Diuretic
The pill, pill, steroid
Or, beta blocker use etc.).
Types of lipid protein
Lipid protein including chylomicrons (Chylomicrons), Very low density lipoprotein
), Low density lipoprotein
(LDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and High density lipoprotein
The high density lipoprotein (HDL) because it can protect the heart to reduce the incidence of heart disease, it is also known as the "good cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) with heart disease are closely related, so it is also called" Bad cholesterol
Classification of hyperlipidemia
According to the different types of abnormal blood lipids, WHO (WHO) by clinical classification revises the original Fredrickson et al on hyperlipemia are divided into six types.
The I type is due to the chylomicrons caused by high triglyceride high disease. The II LDL is due to a lipoprotein caused by excessive Blood cholesterol
High. The II B except LDL lipoprotein caused by high blood cholesterol is too high, it was associated with mild to moderate VLDL
Lipoprotein caused by excessive triglyceride excessive disease. The III type is due to the chylomicrons residue (remnants) and IDL lipoprotein caused by the accumulation of cholesterol and triglyceride in high. Type IV due to VLDL caused by the elevated lipoprotein triglyceride high disease, often accompanied by mild to moderate cholesterol is too high, only the normal lipoprotein LDL. The V type is due to the chylomicrons and VLDL lipoprotein caused by excessive triglyceride excessive disease.
Due to the above classification and change after treatment with lipids, such as II (B VLDL and LDL were high) after treatment may become a II (only LDL high), may also become the type IV (only VLDL high), is easy to cause problems, so the scholars put forward the classification method is simple:
(1) hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol only)
(2) high blood triglycerides (only in triglycerides increased)
(3) mixed hyperlipidemia (cholesterol and triglyceride values were increased)
The role of HDL is considered to be an important reference factor of hyperlipidemia treatment, usually HDL such as <40 mg/dl with high blood triglyceride levels with risk for coronary heart disease treatment should be increased. On the other hand, such as the HDL 60 mg/dl has a protective effect on the heart.
In addition, the United States NCEP in May 2001 on "high blood cholesterol" is subdivided into:
(1) normal ideal value: total blood cholesterol values <200 mg/dl (or LDL <100 mg/dl, 100-129 is the ideal value of mg/dl is close to the ideal)
(2) marginal value: high blood cholesterol values of 200 to 239 mg/dl (or LDL 130 to 159 mg/dl)
(3) high value: total blood cholesterol values of 240 mg/dl (160-189 mg/dl or LDL values as high value, high value of 190 mg/dl)
In 2001 the NECP of "high blood triglycerides and subdivided into disease":
(1) normal ideal value: blood triglyceride value <150 mg/dl
(2) marginal value: high blood triglyceride values of 150 to 199 mg/dl
(3) value: high blood triglyceride values of 200 to 499 mg/dl
(4) high value: blood triglyceride value of 500 mg/dl (complicated by " acute pancreatitis
The prevention of hyperlipidemia
Screening is an important method for early hyperlipidemia. The United States Department of Health recommends that adults over the age of 20 for a routine health check should include Blood test
In order to early detection, early treatment. Because prevention is better than cure, so should be balanced, daily intake of low-fat, moderate cholesterol diet, no alcohol, and appropriate exercise to maintain ideal weight, will prevent the occurrence of hyperlipidemia.
In addition to a handful of "familial hyperlipidemia" in patients with skin and subcutaneous tissue or tendon " Xanthoma
(Xanthoma) "or" xanthelasmata (Xanthelasma) "and" severe high blood triglyceride levels in patients with "disease" acute pancreatitis
"In general, hyperlipidemia patients have no obvious symptoms.
The diagnosis of hyperlipidemia
General blood total cholesterol
The value or the blood triglyceride value of more than 200mg/dl can be diagnosed as hyperlipidemia. In order to be prudent, and should do inspection (including complete blood lipid protein VLDL
LDL, HDL, and etc.). In addition, laboratory examination with physical examination and other projects are also necessary, because the reasons so as to exclude "secondary hyperlipidemia".
Treatment of hyperlipidemia
The goal of treatment is to make dyslipidemia back to normal in order to reduce the occurrence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The world of hyperlipidemia have respective guidelines (Guideline), but most of them refer to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) "and" European Society of arteriosclerosis "(EAS) Guidelines revisions, and China is no exception. In general, patients with hyperlipidemia after treatment for three to six months "diet", such as high blood lipid still consider and to "medication".
Regardless of the method of treatment, the clinical reference both in blood total cholesterol
Value, High density lipoprotein cholesterol
More than two of the value, and whether the patient ", the ratio of cardiovascular disease (refer to coronary artery
Heart disease, myocardial infarction, Cerebrovascular disease
Peripheral atherosclerosis patients ", etc.) and has more than two" coronary heart disease risk factors ". These risk factors for:
(1) age: a 45 year old male, female 55 years old, or early menopause and did not receive estrogen therapy.
(2): a family history of premature myocardial infarction or sudden death in the family, generally refers to the father or other pro male onset before the age of 55, or a mother or other first-degree female in onset before the age of 65.
(3) 140/90 mm Hg on blood pressure: blood pressure (diabetic patients with 130/80 mm Hg or above) are taking anti hypertension drug therapy.
(4) High density lipoprotein cholesterol
(HDL-C, i.e. the good cholesterol) <40 mg/dl. (2004 American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes should be more than 40 mg/dl male HDL-C, female above 50 mg/dl (60 mg/dl) but if HDL-C had protective effect on the heart, and to reduce a risk factor.)
(6) diabetic patient. (in May 2001 the United States NCEP has diabetes alone will be deemed to have cardiovascular disease, should be strictly dealt with hyperlipidemia. The coexistence)
For example, in China, if the patient is not suffering from cardiovascular disease (refer to " coronary artery
Heart disease, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral atherosclerosis patients), and no more than two risk factors for heart disease, the blood total cholesterol
The value of mg/dl (or more than 240 Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
Value (LDL-C, i.e. Bad cholesterol
) more than 160 mg/dl), or blood triglyceride values (TG) of more than 200 mg/dl (the merger in China shall at the same time High density lipoprotein cholesterol
The value of <40mg/dl (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (Total Cholesterol) / high density cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio of more than 5) before considering treatment, first use "diet therapy" three to six months, and then consider the use of "invalid lipid-lowering drug treatment, and the treatment goal is to total cholesterol
The value of mg/dl (less than 240 or less than 160 mg/dl of LDL cholesterol or triglyceride) less than 200 mg/dl. If the patient has two or more risk factors for heart disease, the total cholesterol in blood values such as more than 200 mg/dl (or low density cholesterol (LDL-C) more than 130 mg/dl) or blood triglyceride (TG) value more than 200 mg/dl (with HDL-C<40 mg/dl or Total to Cholesterol/HDL-C ratio of more than 5) can be considered the treatment, and therapeutic target for total cholesterol (or less than 200 mg/dl Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
Less than 130 mg/dl) or triglyceride can be less than 200 mg/dl. On the contrary, if the patient had had "cardiovascular disease" or "patients with diabetic patient (the new provisions of the September 2002 health insurance) is the total cholesterol in blood values such as more than 200 mg/dl (or low density cholesterol (LDL-C) more than 130 mg/dl) or blood triglyceride (with mg/dl value greater than 200 other conditions as mentioned above) should be in the use of" diet therapy "and" lipid-lowering drug treatment, and treatment goal is strict, the best in the blood total cholesterol
The value of mg/dl (or less than 160 Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
Less than 100 mg/dl) or blood triglyceride value less than 150mg/dl.
But if the blood triglyceride levels than 1000mg/dl (September 1, 2004 National Health Insurance Bureau revised 500 mg/dl), because of its risk acute pancreatitis
It was dangerous, the immediate use of lipid-lowering drugs (use fibrate drugs), and no need to consider the TC/HDL-C ratio is greater than 5.
Diet therapy is the first treatment steps should be taken, and for the overweight, should reduce the weight to ideal body weight. For most people, the first phase of the diet in order to reduce the total calories ( Calorie
), cholesterol (every 300 grams or less, and Bo) Saturated fatty acid
The content (below 10%) is appropriate and necessary disposal, as restricted diet should regard the hyperlipidemia of severity is proportional to the. If three months after the blood is still high, it should be entered the second phase of the diet therapy: cholesterol per day should be less than 200 or even 150 mg, and saturated fatty acid content was less than 7%. If three months after the blood is still high, you should consider lipid-lowering drug treatment. Some experts suggest that only can consider early use of drug treatment, such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis or Cardiovascular disease
A person or family history.
As for the choice of the type of drugs should be considered in patients with elevated blood lipids varies depending on what. In general, there are several types of commonly used cholesterol lowering drugs:
(1) bile sequestrant resin: cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam etc..
(2) HMG-Co A reductase inhibitors (as the drug of choice): lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin etc..
(3) Nicotinic acid:nicolar, lipo-nicin, acipimox etc..
(4) Probucol (so the medicine will also drop HDL, so the non preferred drugs).
As for lowering triglycerides for drugs:
(1) Fibric: gemfibrozil, bezafibrate, acid derivatives etofibrate, fenofibrate etc..
(2) Nicotinic acid:nicolar, lipo-nicin, acipimox etc..
Experts suggest that if more than a single drug use 2 to 3 months, still no effect, you should immediately stop using, and try to use his drugs. Sometimes need to use two or more drugs combination therapy can achieve better curative effect, clinical studies have demonstrated that the development of lower blood lipids can retard the progression of atherosclerosis and reduce heart vascular disease
The only, must pay attention to some patients will increase its " Myositis
"Probability. Patients should be controlled with physician instructions and regular medication as blood lipid, liver function, and regularly check the index in order to understand the myositis degree of side effects and high blood lipids.
Hyperlipidemia complications for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease
Cerebrovascular disease, etc.. Although lower blood lipids can reduce heart vascular disease
The occurrence, only there are a lot of medical report lower cholesterol may reduce coronary heart disease mortality, but the "heart disease" (including mortality, accidents, Dutch act and cancer) has a rising trend, the total mortality rate did not change significantly, so experts recommend using reduced blood lipid drugs. In "(time) of primary prevention" as the main purpose, namely to have had a heart attack or cardiovascular disease patients, to prevent the second times the same disease, as for those who never had this kind of disease is not necessary in order to prevent ( Primary
This kind of disease prevention)
Glucose is a type of sugar, is the main source of energy in the body. Hypoglycemia
When blood sugar
The value is too low, unable to supply enough energy required for normal physiological activities of the body's cells.
Carbohydrates such as sugar and starch are the main source of glucose in our diet, in the process of digestion, glucose is absorbed into the circulation, to every cell of the body, to provide the necessary energy for normal physiological activities. While the excess glucose is stored in the liver, glycogen become. These processes are tightly controlled in the body hormone, so normal blood sugar are very stable, rarely occurs Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia can occur in diabetes and other disease patients. For diabetes, because accept blood glucose lowering treatment, so the hypoglycemia will occur at any time in any one with diabetes patients, especially the need to strictly control blood sugar of patients, or patients blood glucose fluctuations. So the occurrence of diabetes patients and their relatives are supposed to learn how to cope with hypoglycemia.
How to control the body blood sugar
In simple terms, is mainly controlled by hormones have blood glucose insulin and glycemic, these two hormones either too much or too little will lead to blood glucose levels drop too low ( Hypoglycemia
) or too high (hyperglycemia). The other will affect the value of blood sugar hormone is adrenal cortex
Ketone, growth hormone
Ammonia ( adrenaline
In the pancreas Islet
There is a beta cell, can produce glucagon and insulin respectively. When the meal blood sugar,
The beta cells will release insulin, insulin can help glucose into the cells of the body, the blood glucose level decreased to normal range. When blood glucose levels drop too low, fat cells secrete glucagon, liver glycogen and change will stimulate the liver to release the stored into glucose to rise Hyperglycemia
Value to the normal range. Muscle glycogen storage can also be part of, can be converted into glucose. blood sugar
The normal range of blood glucose value is about 60-115mg/dl; depending on the last man eating time, when fasting, blood sugar can occasionally below 60mg/dl, or even 50mg/dl, without any serious abnormal problem. This can be seen in healthy women, especially in the long term after fasting. If the blood sugar is less than 45mg/dl, usually on behalf of abnormal and serious problem. Hypoglycemia
The symptoms Hypoglycemia
People feel weak, drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, trembling and hunger. Change the skin pale, headache, agitation, tremor, sweating, heart palpitations, chills, cramps, sudden changes of mood and behavior, such as no matter cry, clumsy or spasmodic activity, unable to concentrate, tingling around the mouth are the symptoms of hypoglycemia. In severe cases, the patient may lose consciousness, and even coma. The long-term diabetes, because some of the hypoglycemia function damaged, so may not have any symptoms of hypoglycemia alert, is not aware of, when blood sugar
Low to a certain degree, immediately unconscious, is a kind of extremely dangerous.
Hypoglycemia symptoms sometimes mistakenly believe that the situation is not related to blood sugar caused by symptoms, sometimes other diseases can also cause similar Hypoglycemia
The symptoms. For example: unusual stress and anxiety, or heart attacks and other diseases caused by shock
That can lead to additional catecholamine (catacholamines) generation, formation is similar to the symptoms of hypoglycemia, but not necessarily related to blood glucose.
The reason of low blood sugar in patients with diabetes
The most common complications of diabetes is the cause of hypoglycemia, diabetes is unable to produce enough insulin or cannot effectively use the insulin, the body cannot use glucose as an energy source. That glucose can't get into the cells, and accumulate in the blood, produce Hyperglycemia
. The purpose is to reduce the treatment of diabetes blood sugar
Depending on the severity of the disease, the majority of patients with diabetes will take. Hypoglycemic drug
Or insulin injections. Since we want to accept insulin or oral hypoglycemic treatment, it may be hypoglycemia, especially insulin injections in patients.
Easy to produce Hypoglycemia
The situation, including: receiving treatment, high dose of insulin absorption, no change
Eat, eat, eat too little delay, excessive exercise, excessive drinking or combined with other reasons.
The treatment of diabetic hypoglycemia
Diabetes should be based on individual age, cognitive symptoms of hypoglycemia, factors of body condition, by physicians to set blood sugar
The control range of blood glucose control, each person is different, such as a range of blood glucose is safe for a young adults without diabetes, but may be for a child or an older and have other medical problems are too low.
When you feel the suspected symptoms of hypoglycemia and unable to test the blood sugar, the best first treatment and not, remember this simple rule: "when in doubt, mild treatment" Hypoglycemia
If not timely treatment, is likely to further severe hypoglycemia, loss of consciousness, unable to deal with. Because hypoglycemia often coincide with the symptoms of diabetes, usually in their blood sugar is low, can feel it, symptoms include palpitations, sweating, trembling and hunger. They can eat oysters by sewing out thujic sheath? Cheng strontium fruit, fruit juice or fine? BR> non low calorie soft drinks, can be obtained in 10-15 minutes, using glucose ingot or ointment (pharmacy available), hypoglycemia, the reason is chocolate or ice cream containing a large number of Fat
Delay, sugar absorption. Make sure you have at least one sugar carry and the best have emergency glucagon carry bag when you finish blood sugar
And the treatment of hypoglycemia after 15-20 minutes after a second test, if the blood sugar is still low or did not alleviate the symptoms, repeated treatment time, when you feel better, make sure you take the normal meal and snack food to maintain blood glucose levels rise. Because Insulin
Dependent diabetics must take insulin therapy, especially aggressive treatment, so is the most prone to serious Hypoglycemia
It can lead to loss of consciousness.
A part of the long-term insulin dependent patients may have a condition called "unrecognized hypoglycemia" phenomenon, meaning they will not produce symptoms of alertness during hypoglycemia, so do not know hypoglycemia.
Severe hypoglycemia can affect the central nervous system, symptoms of central glucose deprivation, including headache, restlessness, temper change, inability to concentrate, sleep, twitch and become unconscious and dizzy. This situation may have to help the injection of glucagon or sent to hospital emergency rescue. This kind of hypoglycemia, physicians usually give glucose or glucagon injection of glucagon or glucose injection can quickly relieve the symptoms of hypoglycemia, the blood glucose rise.
Diabetes can often Blood glucose was measured
To confirm the value of learning Hypoglycemia
The symptoms, to avoid hypoglycemia to reduce episodes of hypoglycemia. In addition to carrying a sugar pill and best equipped with emergency glucagon carry bag, as far as possible with diabetes object recognition. Friends, relatives, or even anyone should know the symptoms of hypoglycemia in emergency situations and how to assist down diabetes.
The treatment of hypoglycemia as soon as possible is very important, because it will get worse and may be unconscious, if you were in a coma, you must give others your urgent assistance, such as injection of glucagon or sent to hospital emergency rescue. blood sugar
1 don't help the patient make insulin
2 don't put food or liquid into the disease population
3 do not be placed in the hands of the patient's mouth
4 maintain airway patency.
5 injection of glucagon
6 call 120 for help
As a result of the initiative Insulin
Treatment can help prevent diabetes complications, so the use of this therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin dependent, relative Hypoglycemia
The attack rate is also more and more.
To maintain blood glucose in the range close to the normal value, but also to avoid the occurrence of hypoglycemia, only by regular self test blood sugar
And guide the regular diet and exercise program, learn to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia and physician compliance.
Triglyceride industrial processing
Molecular composition of oil in a large number of factories need processing and use of edible oil when the composition of the basic agreement. But due to seasonal vegetable oil and the origin of different. So the oil needs to be processed before processing. The volatile components were separated, so it does not smell in the cooking time. Through to the oil heating and let the steam through the oil can reach the goal. The efficiency of this process by the contact time and temperature. The contact time can be achieved through the expansion of the plant, but it takes a certain amount of investment. Through heating can reduce the contact time. But heating may lead to the occurrence of adverse reactions. For example, in 190º C temperature molecular deformation, but not in the lower temperature after the restoration of its original shape. The molecular chain may change its position in the body's natural molecules such may cause cancer.
Daily processing of large processing plant 100 to 700 tons of separating rare oil molecules containing cheap oil. For example, it also contains a small number of high oil rape cheap oil (such as cocoa oil ingredients). These molecules are separated as Cocoa butter
Replace the goods sold. This oil is also often after high temperature treatment.
In production Biodiesel
In the process of triglycerides by exchange reaction
By the decomposition of its components. Which can be used as a single alkyl acetate Diesel engine
Fuel. Glycerol can be used as raw material for the production of pharmaceutical and food industry.