Indian

Indian mainly refers to the indians, Indian Is America's oldest residents. Before the European colonists invaded America Indians, the number of how many? According to historical records, until the end of fifteenth Century, in the United States, Canada has about 1 million, West Indies At least 1 million of the whole. The American Indians About 14 million of the total number to 40 million, a total of about 160 languages, 1200 dialects. Concentrated in three areas: one is to the southeast of Mexico and Central America ( Guatemala And Honduras) Maya; two Mexico Plateau The Aztec and Toltec, and Thabo The Aztec people; three is the South The Andes Area (including Peru Bolivia, and Ecuador The Incas).
Indian

Indian origin

The Indians before the end of the fifteenth Century had not said the law. In 1492, Italy C navigator Columbus Sailed to America, mistakenly thought they were in India, so here Aborigines Known as the "Indians" (Spanish: indios). Although Columbo's mistake was found, but the original name has been popular, so English and other European languages called the Indians "West Indian", when it is necessary to distinguish, said the real Indians as "East indians". Chinese translation directly to the "West Indian" the word into "Indians" or "Indians", eliminating the confusion to the trouble, is still the most popular. But by twentieth Century, many American Indian status has improved significantly, some government agencies or non-governmental organizations began to "Indians" in the name of "name", such as the Indians in Canada are often referred to as more politicized" The first nation "(English:" First Nations ") and so on. Indian has also come from.

Indian origin

In nineteenth Century, American anthropologist Modun And Argentina paleontologist Amay Gino proposed Indian Originated in the America's argument. However, this theory is untenable, because today, in the Americas, have not found any representative of human evolution ape Fossil Archaeological evidence, in America, not only. ape Class. Then the Indians come from? They belong to what race? On this issue, scholars have different opinions. Some scholars believe that the Indians come from Africa, some scholars believe that from Europe, and some scholars believe that from the islands of the South Pacific and. In a fairly long period of time, many people even think that belongs to the Indians Israel Ten, is missing in the descendants of the family legend. The academic opinions, unable to agree on which is right. But with the rapid development of the unremitting efforts and genetic science, universally accepted in academic circles, the ancestors of the Indians from across Asia The Bering Strait The Americas, Asia mongoloid There is close relation with American native Indian ancestors. The Bering Strait is located in Asia, northeast end, the other end of the Bering Strait is the northwest end of america. The average width of the Bering Strait is only 65 kilometers, the narrowest point is only 35 kilometers, there are 2 Islands (kelat and Lu Xun Shi Ke Island company of man promise husband's Island) two islands, only 4 kilometers apart. But the Bering Sea is very shallow, with an average depth of 42 meters, the depth of only 52 meters, as long as the fall of the sea more than 40 meters can be connected with the land. According to some research in geology. The Quaternary Period Some of the time, especially in the last time Glacier The world stage, cold climate, sea ice comes down about 130~160 meters, depth of only tens of meters of the Bering Strait and the exposed surface, thus Bare A seat Bridge The connection from the northwest, Northeast Asia and the Americas, has become a natural channel of the two continents of Asia and america. And then, when the ice age in Northeast Asia very cold climate, glacier Smirnov, America and the mainland instead of glaciers, and mild climate, abundant food, mammoth, elephant, Ovibos , Moose The sheep and many other animal are living here. At that time, to hunt for the mammoth deer hunter in Northeast Asia is likely to follow the animal across the Bering Strait, the bridge came to America, became the first person in America ancient civilization. Then, due to the melting of glaciers, sea level rise, billowing waves flooded the re continental bridge, and isolation between the two links to the mainland, make these outsiders become independent of the American continent Aborigines . About the Indian ancestors moved to America and the time line, some scholars claim. No matter what kind of argument is correct, but one thing is certain, is definitely not an immigrant, but partial arriving in America, and then after a long time migration and eventually spread to the whole American advance. Resources, vast area, rich in America and pleasant climate makes the Native American ancestors lived in America. With the development of social economy and human evolution of organisms, batch immigration Indians from north to south across the Americas in established life and social system, created a lot of material and cultural wealth. But the American Indian is not a unified nation, they entered America at different times, different backgrounds, various aspects influence by the geographical environment, natural conditions, and gradually formed in many different languages, different customs, different cultures of ethnic groups.

Indian transfer

So far no archaeological excavations in America can be found apes upright apes such as close relatives of human remains. Historians accepted from the Indians Siberia Move to America Mongolia race . About 25 thousand years ago, the Bering Strait in Alaska to visit the island, then gradually moved south, across the continent. Before the European colonists invaded Indian generations live in America, is a pioneer in opening up the region and master.
 Indian Indian

Indian History

In Mexico, archaeologists found 11 thousand years ago and the discovery of human fossils, Paleolithic culture. America has a genuine examination of the historical information from the beginning of 2300 bc.
 Indian Indian
1250 BC AD 200, Mexico is the first classical culture valley period, those ancient cultural relics such as pottery clay figurines and so that the local tribes had begun to settle in agriculture, the management organizations and religious organizations.
Prosperity in the year 300 to 900 years. The Mayan culture Is the classical culture of the peak, in this life Guatemala Peyton Lake northeast and southern Yucatan peninsula. Mayan Create a text only left - America Maya hieroglyphs A fairly accurate, The solar calendar . They use "0" is the symbol of the pioneering work on the math, 800 years earlier than the Europeans, Mayan architecture, sculpture and painting have a high degree of success. In their ancient temples and palaces of the walls, columns and stairs are decorated with exquisite carvings and sculpture. Painting color rich, diverse themes, such as the performance of the war situation, parade etc..
The Aztecs and Inca The tribal alliance, is the two largest American Civilization Center in fifteenth Century. At that time, North America Indians are still in the matriarchal stage, while the Aztecs and Incas have begun the transition to a class society.

Indian civilization

In the long history, American Indians left a fairly high ancient civilization. They cultivated corn
 Indian Indian
Potato, the construction of tall temple, left a difficult to explain in the letter today. However, their historical process too slow. Just in their transition to a class society, full of dreams of gold Spanish The arrival of the. Indians have been mistaken for a red man, because their skin is red, then know that red is traditionally used by the Indians due to people in the face with Confidante material mistake.
America, initially no human habitation, the ancestors of the Indians migrated from asia. They are about forty thousand or fifty thousand years before entering North America from Asia, and then gradually moved south, and finally covered the entire American continent. In the long term, some of the more developed ethnic Indians, such as the Mayans, Aztecs and Incas, has entered the class society. The Mayan people living in the vicinity of southern Mexico and central america. They began to build hundreds of small towns from first Century BC, one of the largest in the Guatemala today. Carle . The Mayan people in their Center Square Built around 4 tall temple, one of the highest 75 meters high, as a 20 storey high building. Maya was first cultivated in the Americas corn, tomato, potato, sweet potato, pumpkin, pepper and other crops. The people living in South america, Inca Empire The capital of Cuzco (in Peru South) is a population of 10 to 200 thousand people in the big city. With its huge stones walls and the construction of the palace, very strong. The palace in Cuzco has a large number of gold and silver, it The temple of the sun Very spectacular. The Aztecs in Indian civilization Is only the bright younger generation. About in twelfth Century into the Mexico basin, the establishment of a strong state. Their capital tenuoai Maitland therefore also become the first American, one of the most beautiful city, there are 20 to 300 thousand, when London was only tens of thousands of people. When the Spanish invasion, the Aztecs state about 6 million people. Greed and brutality of the Spanish colonists, frantically destroy the civilization of Indian.

Indian Indian text

America left the only text Maya hieroglyphs . The Mayan word first appeared in the year before and after, but the first recorded date unearthed stone is 292 ad product, discovered in Carle . From then on to, Maya The text only spread in the small scope to Baden and Ticul as the center of the area. The middle of the fifth Century, the Mayan word was spread to the entire Maya area, when commercial trade routes have been established, the Mayan text is along this route to spread around. America is the only nation to leave written records. In the beginning, they created the hieroglyphics, is one of the five characters in the world the earliest.
The text is very wonderful, it is also the pictographic, knowing there is a deliberate and sound, shape and meaning of text sound function. Is a combination of hieroglyphs and sounds, Maya carving characters both an overall concept, but also has its own unique pronunciation. This is similar to the relationship between Chinese characters and kana in Japanese, such as the the "shield" (bakalu) can be written as a pictographic ideographic character, also can be divided into three phonetic words "Ba" and "Ka", "la". The development level of Maya hieroglyphs and China hieroglyphs, but far more complex combination of symbols Chinese characters block, round or elliptic. The character of the line to follow the ups and downs, mellow and smooth graphics. A character in a large part of the Mayan word called the main word, small part called the pick words, font "geometry" and "head font" in two, in addition to human, animal, God's pattern combination "the whole body", mainly for the calendar. The Mayan word pronunciation, from top to bottom, a group of two lines, with "left, right, (a) left to right" read. The Mayan word hard to understand less than 1/3 can still translate. With statistical methods for processing and analyzing the text, each word has four syllables. A text box graphics, similar to the China seal . The graph is part of the signifier, a part of the notes, is" ideo-phonograph ". It's very bold: the grammar system presents a linguistic sense of the Brown movement, both consonants, temporal changes or meta predicate sentence structure maintains random distinct characteristics of the basic elements of language, in the whole sentence crazy jump, swing, until the whole structure in accordance with the rules of grammar and reduced to fragments. The solar calendar and the solar calendar changes, a total of eighteen months, in other words, but also the degree of confusion the grammar multiplied by eighteen.
and Hieroglyphics Carved in stone and temples, the walls of the tomb, or were carved in jade and shell, or similar
Chinese type hair brush pen (or picture) in pottery, banyan endothelial and tanned deerskin. Records of the Mayan religion and mythology, prayer, history, astronomy, calendar etc.. Who is the most developed areas of Maya hieroglyphs, the most beautiful, hieroglyphs writing its monuments and buildings. The most refined, the most number of words. It is a record of major events and Cobain Dynasty historical date. It is the longest of the Mayan hieroglyphic inscriptions, but also the world's rare precious cultural relics, known as" hieroglyphic stairway ".

Indian hunting

Indians have long engaged in gathering and hunting and farming, they first learned to grow corn, potato, cotton, tomato and cinchona plants, make a contribution to humanity's agricultural production. Indians also made outstanding contributions for the development of world civilization. Which is the most representative of the Maya and Inca culture. The Mayan culture than in other areas of American cultural development early, level is high, so the Mayan "America the Greeks". The Inca culture has outstanding achievements in pottery, stone, construction, textile and gold, silver and copper processing, they are known as the "new continent of the romans".

Indian distribution

Indian North America

The ancient Indians, Western Great Plains and eastern North America (Paleo-Indian), although the environment is different, there is a similar economic activity. In the western United States from now Oregon To the north of Mexico, from the Pacific coast to the rocky edge of the Shandong desert, the Indian diaspora culture, by hunting and gathering the fruit for a living, but the original agricultural technology development.
Before 2000, the southwestern United States have started planting corn native. In 200 to 700 years, is a cold period, hindered the development of agriculture. From 700 to 1200, The Mississippi River The development of a village based culture in the valley, is characteristic of farming methods progress and complex rituals. This period in the southwest throughout the diaspora of Aboriginal people, such as Ana Zatti (Anasazi), Mogolon (Mogollon) and Hohokam (Hohokam) are the former F Webb Lo Society (pre-Pueblo). Mogolon is the Anasazi agricultural technology improved, utilization of rainwater and guide the river water to irrigate crops; Arizona The southern part of the Hohokam culture is based on irrigation to sustain their agricultural economy. In 1000 after the first period, F Webb Lo culture has developed technology room with a stone built, and a great progress in ceramics. From 1300 to 1700 decline during the period of F Webb Lo, the residents to the East and south migration, so many stone waste. The modern F Webb Lo era began in late sixteenth Century, when the Spaniards came to settle. Some features of F Webb Lo culture and farming methods still exist.
In the colonial era, European countries adopt different policies to deal with North American Indians . The absorption of indigenous people become Christians, and to live in designated areas. The French and Indians to establish trade relations. Britain announced in 1763 will be the Appalachian Mountain West area to the aborigines, valid until the end of British rule ended, followed by the United States to adopt. The discovery of gold in California in 1848, many whites moved westwards, then the outbreak of the European whites and Indians to land for a long war, including the 1876 Sioux (Sioux), Cheyenne The family (Cheyenne) Custer (Custer) Massacre . In 1887 the majority of Indian reservation, is the year of "Dawes land distribution law" (Dawes General Allotment Act) the Indians lost nearly 348100 square kilometers (134400 square miles) of land. In 1934 the "Indian reorganization law" (Indian Reorganization Act) to improve the implementation of the measures of Aboriginal life. Since 1950s, due to the new policy and society on civil rights, the Indians set up many organizations, and attracted national attention to their problems.

Indian Central America

Million years ago, the Indians into Nicaragua Between the northern region of Mexico in America, the development of farming technology can be traced back to 4500 BC or so, due to the stability of agricultural technological progress leads to 2000 after the establishment of the agricultural society, due to the food supply is stable, the smaller settlements evolved into large towns, and stimulate the growth of pottery and other works of art. In 1000 after the first known as the classical period, with the rise of the Mayan civilization, people at that time by the monks of ruling class. They are the most important God is the harvest God Tlaloc (Tlaloc), it is marked Jaguar That is a common theme in the existing sculpture. Later in the culture to a more traditional militant hawk to replace the Jaguar, at the same time, the people have to sacrifice as a common religious act. In 1000, Thor Turk (Toltec) and Aziz Turk (Aztec) the two Empire replaced these religious based societies, the Spanish invasion until sixteenth Century so far. aztec empire In the peak period, almost controlled the whole of central america.
The earliest immigrants to the race can be divided into several different branches of the culture in the residential area. One of them now in Mexico northwest coast, desert and mountainous areas to make a living. Another Tarasco (Tarasco) settled in Michoacan (Michoacan) in mountain area. Maya People are occupied Guatemala The Yucatan Peninsula, and Mexico Chiapas (Chiapas) a part of the. Aziz Turk People are concentrated in the central part of Mexico plateau and today Mexico City . The fifth branch in the southern Mexico coast and highlands. In American Indian culture, is a small community settled by individual families as the basic unit, the male leading and the elderly. The community activities in the market as the center, a center for government agencies, government officials also presided over the religious ceremony. Although the introduction of the Spanish Catholic Church as the main way, but the elves worship, divination and superstition still exist.
European industrial technology and tools with the Catholic Church and the Spanish conquest was in America, then mines, farms, herd of cattle As the economic center of the colonial society. The revolution of 1821 Mexico and Guatemala native born Hispanics and other offspring, out of control of the Europeans and the formation of a new government of the Republic of china. 1910 Mexico another revolution, remove the exclusive social and economic policy, beginning with the Indians in the political, cultural and economic contribution. In late twentieth Century, Mexico City and countryside In the society, there are more complete non discriminatory treatment of indians.

Indian South America

According to the archaeological record, the South American civilization began in ten thousand BC, the first settlers arrived in North America and china. They settled in Tierra del Fuego Argentina, Chile, South Building, valley area of southern plain and the central part of the Andes mountains. Their group is based on kinship, with gender and age to class. These nomadic groups were later replaced by the height of the development of agriculture society. The farming community in Brazil and the greater Arawa grams (Arawak) of coastal and inland forest area. Because their food is abundant, so it can maintain stable and great social unit. In the other Caribbean Dwelling people and the Andes to the northern coast, military and religious ceremonies as the foundation, in the agricultural technology support, more complex forms of social organization.
South American Aboriginal civilization around 2300 BC in the Andes mountains of rooting, followed by rapid progress in agricultural technology, thousands of years have carried out. C. after 1000, with the Chimu (Chimu) and Tiwana Cu (Tiwanaku) kingdom, and later the Inca empire. The boom in sixteenth Century until the Spanish invasion was fading down the inca. It's the area stretching from Peru to northern Chile, had developed effective irrigation system And control of grain production, storage and distribution of complex system. The largest population reached 3 million 500 thousand. The social class is divided into the royal family, artisans and farmers in the hereditary aristocracy. Inca The most obvious change is to replace the Customs Law, social organizations to develop products and a high standard of art.
In sixteenth Century the European conquest of South America, the Inca Empire The agricultural and political habits completely replaced by the Spanish Catholic way, will replace the Inca religion. The artisan class into the Inca nobility and colonial caste system, while farmers become their labor. In the less developed regions, the Inca people still keep some of their cultural traditions, and maintain the economic transaction and modern industrial center. Like other South American Indians Araucanian (Araucanian) has successfully resisted Spanish rule until late nineteenth Century before they were sent to suppress, assimilation or reservation.

Indian For more information

In fact, Indian natives are not native. As for where their ancestors came from? In the end is what people? Public opinions are divergent., unable to agree on which is right. Some people think that they are the descendants of the lost tribes of Israel; some people think that they came from egypt....... After a large number of long-term research, at present a more consistent view is: Indian ancestors from Northeast Asia, belongs to Mongolia race . According to the analysis of Geology and glaciology, dating back about 30 thousand years ago to 2 at the end of the Pleistocene ( The ice age The weather is cold,), due to the glacial sea level has dropped significantly, so in Siberia Chukotka Peninsula North America and Alaska had a length of about a few tens of kilometers of the Bering Kyrgyzstan Yadi narrow ", Indian ancestry is through the" bridge "to america. What is the cause of them from Asia to America? Generally there are two reasons: one is due to natural disasters and wars forced migration; two for bison, moose, caribou and other large animal from Siberia to America, Northeast Asia venatic residents track. Most scholars believe that they are not disposable, but the batch arrival.
From the current archaeological discoveries of the working tools and bones, as well as the modern Indian aspects of the external features, is a strong proof of Indian and Asian The Mongols A very similar: such as adding, wide, straight hair, skin and hair hard yellowish brown sparse; in addition on the Mongolia Indians eyelid fold, hips have unique Mongolia people of Asia blue spots (i.e., birthmark) also known as the Mongolia spot. Obviously they have close ties with mongolian. Of course, the Indians and the Mongolia race is not as like as two peas. Indians are rare in the Mongols in the nose. The American Indians should belong to the Mongolia people of Asia America branch.

Indian Indian myth

Before the invasion of Western civilization, American Indians, almost isolated in this lonely place, with their diligence and wisdom to create a brilliant, make contemporary Europeans by ancient American civilizations. For literature, legends of the ancient myth of Indian rich as a reflection of its way of life, customs and habits, the national spirit of the whole, is not only the ancient American Indians to reconstruction of art model, and the performance of the ancient Indians know the world, the conquest of nature and the survival of their own way of thinking. As Marx said, "any myth is to use imagination and imagination to conquer the forces of nature, control the forces of nature, to the nature image; therefore, as these forces of nature actually conquered, God also disappeared." Today, the myth is regarded as a kind of irreplaceable cultural heritage, not only has the aesthetic value and artistic effect, but also study the characteristics of thinking, unique spiritual connotation and value orientation of the original model.
Has spread the myth of Indian is divided into North Indian and South Indian myth myth two categories; the North American Indian myth mostly North Native American mythology, South American myth of Indian by the three Indian civilization, Maya, Inca and Aziz Turk respectively.

Indian Indian Dragon Culture

Belong to non standard type of dragon culture. Beijing daily "the world view of the Dragon culture" In the rain, also said: angel Rather than Devil ( Dragon Nature). from Mexico City reach Yucatan Peninsula No matter in. Aziz Turk Cultural sites or The Mayan culture Historic Site, Quetzalcoatl Mexico is the worship of ancient Indian gods, in rain and harvest, it is not the standard of the dragon, the dragon is Jiayu. The rise in the 1000 BC (the equivalent of China history taking at the end of the week). Olmec civilization Is considered the cradle of Indian culture. There are two kinds of original dragon Olmec culture: Chinese alligator and Chi Dragon That is, Chinese Be commonly called The Dragon And the dragons. Indian myths and legends, Fiery dragon And the Dragon God representing the north and South two. The Chinese ancient myth, north water is from south is dragon Vulcan zhurong Gong Gong. This is similar to independent production and supporting the Chinese people in the ancient east to America? We need much more research.