Peroxidase

Peroxidase is a kind produced by microorganisms or plants Oxidoreductase They can catalyze many reactions. Peroxidase is to hydrogen peroxide by electron acceptor Catalysis substrate Oxidation enzyme. Mainly exists in the cell Peroxisome In the iron porphyrin prosthetic group, can catalyze hydrogen peroxide, oxidation of phenol and amine compounds, which can eliminate the dual role of hydrogen peroxide and phenolic and amine toxicity.
Peroxidase

Peroxidase brief introduction

Oxidoreductase A.

Peroxidase Chemical information

Chinese synonyms:
Peroxidase; peroxidase; La Gen peroxidase labeled recombinant protein G; lactoperoxidase peroxidase; La Gen; peroxidase, VI-A; peroxidase from horseradish peroxidase proceeds; (La Gen) (+4 C)
English synonyms:
IUB: 1.11.1.7; HRP; HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE; EC 1.11.1.7; DONOR: HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OCIDOREDUCTASE; DONOR: HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OXIDOREDUCTASE; DONOR:HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OXIDOREDUCTASE TYPE I DONOR:HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OXIDOREDUCTASE TYPE II;
Molecular formula:
NULL
Molecular weight:
Zero
Related categories:
Oxidoreductases; Specialty Enzymes; Enzyme; Enzymes; Oxido-Reductase; Alkaline; Phosphatase ConjugatesWestern Blotting; Antibody Conjugates; Peroxidase ConjugatesAntibodies; Protein A, G and L Detection Reagents; Secondary Antibodies; Western Blotting Enzyme; Biochemical reagent ; Biological chemicals ELISA; chromogenic agent series; enzyme and coenzyme; Enzyme preparation
Mol file:
Mol File

  

Chinese synonyms:
Peroxidase; peroxidase; La Gen peroxidase labeled recombinant protein G; lactoperoxidase peroxidase; La Gen; peroxidase, VI-A; peroxidase from horseradish peroxidase proceeds; (La Gen) (+4 C)
English synonyms:
IUB: 1.11.1.7; HRP; HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE; EC 1.11.1.7; DONOR: HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OCIDOREDUCTASE; DONOR: HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OXIDOREDUCTASE; DONOR:HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OXIDOREDUCTASE TYPE I DONOR:HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE OXIDOREDUCTASE TYPE II;
Molecular formula:
NULL
Molecular weight:
Zero
Related categories:
Oxidoreductases; Specialty Enzymes; Enzyme; Enzymes; Oxido-Reductase; Alkaline; Phosphatase ConjugatesWestern Blotting; Antibody Conjugates; Peroxidase ConjugatesAntibodies; Protein A, G and L Detection Reagents; Secondary Antibodies; Western Blotting Enzyme; Biochemical reagent ; Biological chemicals ELISA; chromogenic agent series; enzyme and coenzyme; Enzyme preparation
Mol file:
Mol File

  
Peroxidase properties

Peroxidase properties
Storage conditions
2-8 ~ C
solubility
H Two O: soluble
Form
Powder
Color
Red-brown
EPA chemical information
Peroxidase (9003-99-0)

Storage conditions
2-8 ~ C
solubility
H Two O: soluble
Form
Powder
Color
Red-brown
EPA chemical information
Peroxidase (9003-99-0)

  
Peroxidase uses and synthetic methods

Peroxidase uses and synthetic methods
Chemical property
Brown crystalline substance or freeze-dried powder, soluble in water, goods are ammonium sulfate suspension, pI7.2, the optimum pH value of 7. Stability: freeze-dried powder and 2.8mol/L ammonium sulfate suspension at 4 DEG C can remain stable for a year. In 275nm, 403nm, 500nm solution has the maximum absorption. The enzyme reaction: one donor donor +H2O2 ten 2H2O oxidation.
purpose
For biochemical research, is a key enzyme for enzyme labeling method, for the determination of glucose in biological fluid and galactose medicine, used as a diagnostic enzyme.
Production method
Horseradish as raw material, the water extracted by the ammonium sulfate first grade calcium phosphate gel purified by ethanol fractionation, ammonium sulfate second grade, crystallization products.

Chemical property
Brown crystalline substance or freeze-dried powder, soluble in water, goods are ammonium sulfate suspension, pI7.2, the optimum pH value of 7. Stability: freeze-dried powder and 2.8mol/L ammonium sulfate suspension at 4 DEG C can remain stable for a year. In 275nm, 403nm, 500nm solution has the maximum absorption. The enzyme reaction: one donor donor +H2O2 ten 2H2O oxidation.
purpose
For biochemical research, is a key enzyme for enzyme labeling method, for the determination of glucose in biological fluid and galactose medicine, used as a diagnostic enzyme.
Production method
Horseradish as raw material, the water extracted by the ammonium sulfate first grade calcium phosphate gel purified by ethanol fractionation, ammonium sulfate second grade, crystallization products.

Peroxidase Enzyme

Peroxisome Is composed of a layer Unit membrane Coated vesicles, a diameter of about 0.5 ~ 1 m, is usually small mitochondria. Exists in Eukaryotes The various types of cells, liver cells and kidney cells in a particularly large number of. Peroxisome Marker enzyme yes Catalase Its main function is to be. hydrogen peroxide Hydrolysis. Hydrogen peroxide (H Two O Two ) is the catalytic enzyme Redox reaction Cytotoxic substances produced, oxidase and catalase are present in peroxisomes, so as to protect the cells.
The plant contains a large number of peroxisomes is a high enzyme activity. With it Respiration Have relationship between photosynthesis and auxin oxidation. In the process of plant growth and development in its activity changes. General aging high activity organization, activity of weak young tissues. This is because the peroxidase can make certain carbohydrates contained in tissue into lignin, increase the degree of lignification, peroxidase and found increased rice production activity in root senescence, so the peroxidase can be used as a physiological index of tissue aging. In addition, the important role of peroxidase isozyme in the genetic breeding are also valued.

Peroxidase chemical reaction

Remove from the catalytic substrate and transferred to electrons, hydrogen peroxide.
That is: donor +H Two O Two Donor +2H to oxidation Two O is a kind of Heme protein (hemoprotein).

Peroxidase application

as Catalase It is a kind of peroxidase. Catalase and glucose oxidase With the use of the removal of glucose in egg white, instead of the traditional nature fermentation The method, so as to improve the quality of products, shorten the production cycle.
In medicine, also can be used as tool enzyme For inspection, Niaotang and blood sugar .
Modern medicine that senescence associated with oxidation, such as chromosome and enzyme oxidation. So, some Reduction The function of the material can be in a certain extent, anti aging, such as Peroxisome E, vitamin C, has anti-aging effect.

Peroxidase For the first time found that lysosome

By J. Rhodin (1954) was first discovered in rat renal tubular epithelial cells. Is an organelle with heterogeneity, and different in different organisms Stage of development Different. About 0.2~1.5um in diameter, usually 0.5um, round, oval or dumb bell shape range, surrounded by monolayer (Figure 6-31). It is a common feature to many rely on Huang Su (Flavin) oxidase and Catalase ( Marker enzyme ), has found 40 kinds of enzymes, such as L- Amino acid oxidase D- amino acid oxidase, etc., wherein Urate oxidase (urate oxidase) the content is extremely high, so that the formation of the core enzyme crystal composed of some kinds.

Peroxidase morphological structure

Peroxisome (also called peroxisome) Microbodies (microbody), peroxisome was found in 1954, because they do not know the particle, it is called micro (microbody).
Peroxisome and lysosome, not from the peroxisome Er And Golgi, so it does not belong to Endomembrane system The Membrane-bound organelles . The peroxisome is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cell types, but in liver cells and kidney cells in a particularly large number of. Peroxisome containing abundant enzymes, mainly oxidase , Catalase And peroxidase. Oxidase can act on different substrate That is the common feature of substrate oxidation and oxygen reduction will become hydrogen peroxide . The marker enzyme of peroxisomes is catalase, its main function is to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, Hydrogen Peroxide) hydrolysis. Oxidase and catalase are present in peroxisomes, so as to protect the cells.

Peroxidase Functional response

Peroxisome The function of:
(1) the inactivation of toxic substances
This effect is Catalase Oxidized by hydrogen peroxide substrate , such as phenol, formic acid Formaldehyde and ethanol oxidation, so that the results of these toxic substances into non-toxic substances, but also to H Two O Two Further transformed into non-toxic H Two O. This is especially important for the detoxification of liver and kidney, for example, people drink alcohol almost half are in this way is oxidized to acetaldehyde, which lifted the ethanol on the cell Toxic effect .
(2) to regulate the oxygen concentration
Peroxisome and Mitochondrion The sensitivity of oxygen is not the same, the optimal oxygen concentration required for mitochondrial oxidation is about 2%, the increase of oxygen concentration, does not improve the oxidation ability of mitochondria. Peroxisome The rate of oxidation With the enhancement of oxygen tension is proportional to the increase. Therefore, in the low concentration oxygen conditions, mitochondrial oxygen utilization ability Peroxisome Strong, but in the case of high concentration of oxygen, peroxisome oxidation reaction The dominant, this characteristic makes the peroxisome has toxic effect and protect cells from the high concentration of oxygen.
(3) fatty acid oxidation
About animal tissues from 25 to 50% is the oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes, the other is in Mitochondrion In the oxidation of. In addition, due to the peroxisome and enzymes related to the synthesis of phospholipids, so also involved in lipid synthesis of peroxisome.
(4) nitrogen metabolism
In most animal cells, Urate oxidase (urate oxidase) is essential for the oxidation of uric acid. Uric acid is a nucleotide and some Protein degradation The metabolic product of urate oxidase can be further oxidized to remove this metabolic waste. In addition, Peroxisome The other is also involved in nitrogen metabolism, such as transaminase (aminotransferase) catalyze the transfer of amino.
Peroxisomal reaction:
All kinds of enzymes in common will substrate After oxidation, formation hydrogen peroxide .
RH Two +O Two To R+H Two O Two
Catalase Can also be used for other substrates (such as hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols) oxidation.
R 'H Two +H Two O Two To R '+2H Two O
In addition, when the expression of H Two O Two When the excess catalase also catalyzed the following reaction:
2H Two O Two To 2H Two O + O Two

Peroxidase Enzyme

Peroxidase Animal

In animal Peroxisome participate in Beta oxidation of fatty acids (other organelles mitochondria), rat liver peroxisomes taking Jiangzhiling, enzyme concentration increased 10 times. In addition the peroxisome also has detoxification, because Catalase Can use H Two O Two The phenol, formaldehyde, formic acid and alcohol and other harmful substances into the drinking alcohol oxidation, the 1/4 is in the peroxisome oxidation to acetaldehyde.

Peroxidase Botany

In plants Peroxisome The main:
In 1. Light respiration The by-product of photosynthesis. Glycolic acid For the oxidation of glyoxylic acid hydrogen peroxide .
In the germination of seeds, fat beta oxidation, produce Acetyl coenzyme A After. The glyoxylate cycle By, Isocitric acid For the cleavage of glyoxylic acid and succinic acid, adding three citric acid cycle, involving the glyoxylate cycle, also known as Glyoxylate cycle (glyoxysome).

Peroxidase The evolutionary perspective

from System Point of view, Peroxisome May be an old Organelles In photosynthetic organisms, after the emergence of the oxygen content in the atmosphere increased gradually, while intracellular oxygen has a toxic effect on the early biological, peroxisome function is the elimination of intracellular oxygen, and some cells needed metabolite . Although in the peroxisome Flavoprotein , oxidase and Catalase Can be formed between a simple respiratory chain, but can not afford energy conversion The role of. Later, after replaced the mitochondrial function of peroxisomes, and the electron transport Coupled with ATP synthesis.
from Ontogeny From the point of view, peroxisome existing peroxisome division. All of the enzyme by peroxisome Nuclear gene In the encoding. Cytoplasmic matrix In the synthesis, in signal peptide Under the guidance of entering the peroxisome, guide the protein into the peroxisome Signal sequence Is -Ser-Lys-Leu-COO-. But for Peroxisome The membrane protein and the receptor and input Transposable elements Little is known about, and at least 23 proteins called peroxin, is significantly different from the mitochondria and its mechanism Chloroplast Protein transport, such as receptor Pex5 (a peroxin) is accompanied by the goods into peroxisomes, and then return to the cytoplasm.

Peroxidase Cause of disease

Zellweger syndrome is a kind of Peroxisome The genetic disease, also called Cerebrohepatorenal syndrome Patients, cells in peroxisome, Enzyme protein Input protein variation of the peroxisome is "empty". The brain, liver and kidney abnormalities, 3-6 months after birth death.
Catalase Are in the peroxisome ", thereby protecting the cells.