Siberia tiger (scientific name: Panthera Tigris
Also known as:) Northeast Tiger
That is tiger
One of。 Is the largest extant carnivorous weight Catamount
Among them, the male body length up to 2.8 meters, tail length of about 1 meters, the maximum weight reached 350 kg or more. Siberia wild tiger brown hair color summer and winter hair yellow. The back and side of the body with multiple narrow black bar stripe, usually 2 near a willow like. The head is big and round, a few black stripes on the forehead, is often collusion between, like "King", the name of "king of the jungle".
, Bush and grass area. Living alone, no settled out field behavior, range over 100 square kilometers. Nocturnal, subtle, fierce, fast, good at swimming, good climbing, rarely attack humans. The main predator of Siberian tiger deer
, wild boar
Other large and medium sized mammals, also eat small Mammal
And the bird. The way to attack prey. During 103 to 105 days, give birth to a litter of 2 to 4 pups, a production of two to three years, the wild life of 15 to 17 years, the highest for 20 years, artificial rearing conditions life expectancy of 20-25.
Located in the Northeast Asia, the Siberia region of Russia, the Korean Peninsula and northeast China. Due to habitat destruction and poaching, to early 2015, the world's only remaining wild tigers in Siberia only 500 head.
Siberia tiger The history of species
Siberia is the world's largest tiger Catamount
, located in the Northeast Asia, Russia and Siberia has already spread to South Korea, has 3 million years of history, the territory is also known as China Northeast Tiger
. Although it has a huge body and the amazing power of wild tigers in Siberia are still on the verge of extinction, this rare species is of vital importance in the first line of.
Carlos A. Driscoll 2009 "science" published an article devoted Caspian tiger
And the relationship between the Siberia tigers, genetic studies show that there is relative to other tiger subspecies the closest relationship to the Siberia tigers and the extinct caspian. The investigation shows that the common ancestor of the two tigers in about ten thousand years ago by the ancient Chinese The Silk Road
Go Central Asia
, Caspian Sea
Area settlement and reproduction. Which a crossing Siberia
Come now far east
Now the Siberia tiger population area. There was speculation that it is human activity that separated these belonged to the same population is distributed in different regions of the tiger and finally let them onto a different path of evolution. These findings raise imagination re introduction of tiger in central asia. At the same time also in the habitat survey Amu
Delta, Yili River Delta and other places of. If the idea of people will be realized in the ancient Silk Road to see the tiger figure.
Siberia tiger Morphological character
Siberia adult male tiger average weight of 300 kg, body length of about 2.6 meters, shoulder height of about 1.1 meters, the tail is longer than 1 meters; the average weight of adult female is about 160 kg, body length of about 1.7 meters, shoulder height of 0.8 meters, 0.8 meters long tail,. The head is big and round, a few black stripes on the forehead, is often collusion between, resembling a "King" character, reputation of the "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts". Short ears back round, black with 1 white spots, central. The hair color is gorgeous, brown hair color summer and winter hair yellow. The back and side of the body is yellow, white belly, back and side of the body with multiple narrow black bar stripe, usually 2 near a willow like. The body covered with black stripes, black stripes on the forehead slightly intermediate phase to a "King" character.
In the summer because the sunshine time is long, hair becomes shorter, darker. Enter the winter long hair and pale, pale yellow. In order to melt into the snowy winter habitat, the Siberia Tiger color is white, not like the warm area that tigers have red stripes. In order to resist low up to 45 degrees below zero temperatures, long, thick fur, in all the tiger, the number of hairs per square inch is the most.
Siberia adult tiger teeth is strong, generally 30. Into incisors, canines, premolars and molars. A very large, conical teeth, apex slightly bent back. From 54 to 78 mm long, 20 mm to 26 mm thick.
Siberia tiger has fiery eyes, thick and perfect body, strong muscles and back on the ups and downs in the movement, huge limbs push forward, smooth and quiet, like a taxi in the jungle. It is hard a very sharp animal's teeth and talons, 5 claws out when used, when not retracted claw sheath ground friction when walking to avoid. Siberia tiger introverted, suspicious and ferocious, agile, appear and disappear without regularity in the jungle, it is generally difficult to see the wild tigers in Siberia.
Siberia tiger Habitat
Siberia tiger is a typical mountain forest dwelling animal, in the north of the deciduous broad-leaved forest and mixed coniferous broad-leaved forest in Northeast China, Chinese, also haunts the ridge, shrub and rock more coppice or gravel Tong mountain, in order to hunt.
Siberia tiger Living habits
Siberia tiger often alone, only in the breeding season and to live together. No fixed nest, in the woods wandering in search of food. Can swim, can't climb the tree. Because of forest development, population explosion, past remote areas have developed as towns and villages, feeding near the forest dwellers tiger also often. Tiger at dusk, daytime latent rest, did not disturb the little out. The tiger activities range, foraging activity range up to tens of kilometers in northern japan.
Hunting is the static volt or sneak to a certain distance, and then suddenly pounced on the bite, arrested the animal's neck, so the prey can not escape. Predation and wild boar, red deer, roe deer, deer, sambar, muntjac and other hoofed animal, occasionally also prey on wild, autumn also berries and large insects etc..
Siberia tiger Distribution range
Siberia tiger Historical distribution Siberia tiger
History has been widely distributed in Northeast forest. In mid nineteenth Century, the Siberia tigers still have great range, from the West Baikal
The yablo Nobel foothills, north along the north shore of Heilongjiang, east of the Tatar Strait to Sakhalin, are distributed. Because is southern Greater Khingan Range mountains and the Yanshan mountains, the South and North distribution area was far away. The Siberia tiger historical distribution area widely, including The Korean Peninsula
The northeast, North China, most of the lease Chinese, Mongolia
Most areas close to the border between China and Russia and the Russian far east.
From late nineteenth Century to early twentieth Century, the Siberia tiger distribution gradually began to shrink in the distribution area of northeast tiger Chinese first from the south to the north and then retreat from west to east. At the beginning of twentieth Century in Liaodong area and the distribution of tigers, 50s to the Jilin retreat. Greater Khingan Range this 20s is still a tiger, that 1974-1976 survey, 1970s Northeast tigers have been extinct in Greater Khingan Range. There are still a lot of 1950s the number of small Xingan mountain tiger, that only 4 of the 1976 survey Northeast Tiger
At this time, obvious distribution eastward retreat, 1980s survey showed that the Siberian tiger is extinct in the Xingan mountains.
Siberia tiger Modern distribution
The Russian Far East Khabarovsk in southern coastal border adjacent mountain forest, 4 independent distribution area in most areas of the Holt mountains and the coastal border tin border area and Chinese.
In the eastern part of northeast China: only distributed in Heilongjiang province and the eastern mountainous area of Jilin province. In Heilongjiang Province, mainly in Shandong, Wandashan forest, Laoyeling forest area of South of the Five Ridges and Zhang Guangcai of a few isolated individuals wandering, because these border with Russia and the distribution area of Jilin Province, these individuals may be in the territory of Heilongjiang and Russia or Jilin province mutual flow.
North Korean mountain: there may be a small amount of northeast tiger individual distribution, because of the lack of field investigation, the specific situation is not clear.
Siberia tiger The mode of reproduction
Winter mating, mating season from November to February the following year, during the rut tiger singing very loud, can reach 2 kilometers away. Pregnancy at about 105-110 per 2-4 Aberdeen, usually 2 young, newborn tiger weighs about 1kg, lactation period of 5-6 months, and the young Tigress lived together for 2-3 years, during which the female tiger not mating, so under natural conditions in the female tiger every 2-3 years to breed once. Female tiger 3 age of sexual maturity male tiger to later. The tiger's life is generally 20-25 years.
Siberia tiger Population status
Habitat loss. Excessive deforestation accelerated the loss of Siberia tiger habitat, also make Siberia tiger prey (such as deer, wild boar and deer etc.) without shelter, food shortages caused by the Siberia tigers.
The medicinal value of tiger bones and the Siberia tiger hunting has become.
Due to the destruction of human activities and other factors, the distribution area of Siberia tiger habitat is divided into a plurality of isolated "islands", the lack of genetic exchanges between different regions, and even some areas in only one individual but cannot reproduce.
For a century, the tiger population decreased by 95%, the Siberia tigers are now facing the danger of extinction. However, relying on advanced technology and education support, The International Wildlife Conservation Society
(WCS) the scientists are optimistic about the future of the tiger. "Most people full of good intentions on tigers, if the protector of these positive factors into direct action, tiger's future will be bright." WCS animal protection experts, the famous India tiger expert, said Dr. Karanth Ullas. It is estimated that the number of wild tigers in Siberia now only 366 to 406, is an endangered subspecies of tigers on earth second.
According to WCS, Russian scientists estimate that at the end of nineteenth Century, the total number of the world tiger about 2000-3000, and Chinese only about 1200-2400.
With the collapse of the Qing Dynasty, the area around the opening, a large number of immigrants in the northeast, the northeast tiger also experienced a hitherto unknown catastrophe. Due to population growth, reduce forest area and killing a large number of uncontrolled, substantial population of Siberian tiger decreased, its distribution range is rapidly northward retreat.
In 1930s, there are more than 500 tigers, and mostly distributed in the territory of China.
After 50s, Chinese catch tiger population movement and forest in the northeast tiger was forced to move to the Far East area of Russia with less interference, the southwest border has retreated to Jilin province and Ji'an, the Huifahe River Basin area.
In 1953-1957, the result of a field investigation China Animal Research Institute, in China the number of tiger has been less than 200.
1974-1976 survey, Huifa River Basin and the Yalu River upstream of Ji'an county territory has no tiger distribution, Fusong county has only 6 tigers, so far northeast west line has retreated to the east of Fusong.
1981-1984, northeast split Changbai Mountain area, the formation of the regional distribution of a few isolated. This means that the northeast tiger is hard to find a spouse, continue the race. The last century at the end of 80s, Changbai Mountain tiger has basically disappeared, only a few individuals remaining in the Jilin city of Hunchun.
The results of two large-scale surveys in 1998 and 1999 showed the number of tigers, the number of Jilin District of Changbai Mountain province northeast tiger 7-9, distribution area is spreading from the beginning of 1990s in the Changbai Mountain area for the two shrink narrow distribution area.
By 1999, WCS participated in the international investigation team conducted a field survey, more than two months in Heilongjiang. The results showed that the number of Heilongjiang Province, the wild tiger fell sharply from the early days of the more than and 400 has been reduced to the 5-7.
The evening of February 26, 2014, 2 were individual illegal domesticated tiger from Shandong, under the jurisdiction of Qingdao Pingdu City in Qingdao forest wild animal world rescue station.
The Northeast tigers are scarce, and whereabouts secret, are very difficult in field investigation and research. However, WCS scientists have overcome many difficulties, in the past 20 years has created the Northeast Tiger Research and protection of many miracles. Using the radio telemetry technology advanced, WCS scientists in the Far East of Russia on more than and 60 wild Siberian tiger was successfully tracked, get a lot of valuable field data, reveals the first wild tiger community structure, feeding, reproduction, death and its relationship with human and other species of major scientific issues, effectively promote the development of northeast tiger conservation. Active efforts in the Russian government, WCS and other international animal protection organizations, in the past 50 years the number of tigers in Russia increased by ten times, a record only reached 400-500.
In May 29, 1993, the State Council on the "notice" on banning the trade of import and export is prohibited, banned the sale of tiger bone; purchase, transport, carry or mail to cancel the tiger tiger bone; medicinal standards, prohibit the use of tiger pharmaceutical. Chinese was the world's largest country demand for tiger products, the ban China issued by the government to curb the market demand, effectively prevent the extinction of wild tigers, gained international acclaim.
In October 2000, the "wild Siberian tiger population recovery international seminar held in Harbin, opened China international cooperation to protect the wild tigers. The proposed Symposium on recovery of Wild Amur tiger program based on the joint efforts of WCS and the Forestry Department of Jilin Province, Jilin Hunchun northeast tiger protection nature reserve was established in December 2001 a new protect tiger and the Far Eastern leopard, 3 years after successfully upgraded to the National Nature reserve. In January 25, 2003, the far infrared camera in Jilin Hunchun nature reserve provided by WCS captured 3 wild tiger photos, this is the first time to take Chinese wild tiger photos, on-site monitoring data and their detailed, irrefutable evidence to the world, there are still China wild tiger there. This is a big tiger protection in Northeast China progress is extremely precious protection results, adds confidence for future protection. So far, in the Hunchun area 5 shots to the precious photos of wild Siberian tiger.
A hoofed animal hunting of tigers has always been a huge threat, many tiger death or injury case quilt. In order to combat illegal poaching, protect the Siberian tiger and its prey, since 2000, WCS has organized to carry out propaganda and anti poaching activities in the clear set of important distribution areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin northeast tiger. With the decrease in hunting sets, clamps and other illegal hunting tools, Hunchun northeast tiger activity information is also increasing. In order to strengthen law enforcement and anti poaching of wild animal resources monitoring, 2008 WCS took the lead in introducing advanced MIST in Jilin Hunchun Nature Reserve (Management Information System) law enforcement patrol system, and provide the relevant software, technical training, equipment and financial support. The patrol system, reserve managers can understand the distribution and status of Amur tiger and its prey threat, reduce poaching and human interference, the protection of wild Siberian tiger reserve to achieve systematic and standardized level.
Siberia tiger The level of protection
Included in the " The World Conservation Union
"(IUCN) 2011 red list of endangered species ver 3.1 endangered (EN).
Included in the " Washington Convention
"CITES I protected animal.