Fir, scientific name: Abies fabri (Mast.) Craib, evergreen trees, straight trunk, whorled branches. Bark gray or dark gray, split into irregular sheet fixed on the trunk, endothelial pink; oblique limbs stretch, annual branches pale brown yellow, grayish yellow or pale brown, leaf pillow in groove between sparsely pubescent or glabrous, two or three year old branches pale brown or grey brown gray in winter; bud round or oval, with resin. Egg shaped cone cylindrical or short cylindrical, base slightly wide, apex rounded or retuse, have short stem, dark blue or black when ripe, whiting. Florescence in May, October.
Distributed in Europe, Asia, North America, Central America and Africa's most northern subalpine to alpine. The genus Abies occurred in Late Cretaceous to Miocene and Quaternary period in third species increased, the distribution area to expand the glacial and interglacial period survive, reproduce so far.
Fir has strong resistance to negative, cool and cold climate, soil in mountain soil, Dark brown
The main. Subalpine to alpine shady slope and semi shady slope and valley in high latitudes to low latitudes, the formation of pure forest, or like a cold and damp Spruce
Larch, Hemlock spruce
And some Pine
Composition and broadleaf conifer mixed forest or coniferous forest.
Fir Morphological character
Trees, up to 40 meters, diameter of 1 meters; bark gray or dark gray, foliated sessile Yu Shugan irregular, pale red big inclined on the endothelium;
Annual branches stretch, pale brown yellow, grayish yellow or pale brown, leaf pillow in groove between sparsely pubescent or glabrous, two or three year old branches pale brownish gray or brownish grey; winter buds round or oval, with resin. The bark of mostly white and gray, crack, flake off; heart, alburnum distinction is not clear, light brown or reddish brown wood; texture straight, slightly uniform structure, shiny; rings clear, uneven width, very fine wood ray tube; intracellular calcium oxalate, white dots on the cross one of the significant features of section.
Leaves in the branches above the oblique extension, arranged in two columns below the branches spent leaves, bar, straight or slightly curved, 1.5-3 cm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, margin slightly revolute, or stem leaf reflexed, apex concave or obtuse, above the green light, there are two white stomatal bands, each with stomatal lines 9-13; cross section with rounded ends, subcutaneous layer of cells near the ends of the bottom edge of each of the 1 resin, above a layer of subcutaneous layer of cells, arranged on both sides of the central continuous, discontinuous arrangement, both ends of the edge and below the middle of a two layer of subcutaneous cells, two layer is the inner discontinuity.
Egg shaped cone cylindrical or short cylindrical, base slightly wide, apex rounded or retuse, have short stem, dark blue or black when ripe, whiting, 6-11 cm long, 3-4.5 cm in diameter; middle scale fan-shaped quadrilateral, 1.4-2 cm long, 1.6-2.4 cm wide, the upper edge of incurvature, generous, both sides of the lower part of the ear, base narrow short handle shape; bracts slightly, 1.2-1.8 cm long, wide upper circle, the edge of a fine tooth, a pointed tip of the central emergency, usually pointed back curved; seeds oblong, with a winged or subequal, a black and brown wings, wedge, the upper section, together with the seeds 1.3-1.9 cm long. Florescence in May, October.
Fir Growth environment
Fir has strong resistance to negative, cool and cold climate, soil in mountain brown soil and dark brown soil. Subalpine to alpine shady slope and semi shady slope and valley in high latitudes to low latitudes, the formation of pure forest, or like a cold and damp spruce, larch, pine and hemlock and some broadleaf trees composed of coniferous forest or coniferous forest .
Fir Distribution range
Is the endemic species of China, produced in Sichuan in the Dadu River (Kangding, Luding, Ebian, Emei, asbestos, puxiong, Yuexi), Qingyijiang River Basin (Baoxing, Hongya, Ukraine, Tianquan) edge river (Hong Xi, Ma Bian), the lower reaches of the Jinsha River (Leibo, Jinyang), upstream of the Anning River (Mianning) and Guanxian (balang mountain), the upper part of the mountain. In the cool, humid climate, annual rainfall of 1500-2000 mm, more clouds, air humidity and good drainage, humus rich acid brown forest soil, elevation of 2000-4000 meters large area zone consisting of pure forest; in the next section, Ebian, Mabian fir forest, and hemlock, western hemlock, Picea brachytyla, Yunnan Castanopsis platyacantha, Castanopsis sclerophylla, Fagus lucida, Xie Ke, Wu Zhuyu, five blades such as Acer conifer or broadleaf mixed forest. Luxuriant growth, is the main distribution area of tree species in the forest. Jiangxi Mount Lu culture. The type specimen was collected from the Mount Emei in Sichuan.
Fir cultivation techniques
The seedling growth period, but a small amount of topdressing with nitrogen fertilizer diluted fertilizer, growth late phosphorus potassium promote lignification, to facilitate the winter, winter cold, fir in the breeding process, should be every 3 to 4 years a transplant or a root, promote root development. The slow growth of seedlings in fir during transplanting to bring the primary soil, after the shift to strengthen the cultivation and management, seedling age up to 4 years after the growth gradually accelerated.
Fir The acquisition of seed storage
The consequences of exposure to fruit ripening in October to fruit cracking scales
The seeds, dried out, remove debris, 4 - 50 thousand per kilogram of seed grain, average germination rate was 5 - 15%. After winnowing bags, placed in ventilated and dry place storage. The seeds of the place, piled up walls and sacks disinfection drugs.
Fir Sowing propagation
Nursery choice acidic soil shade cool, deep soil, good drainage. Careful preparation before sowing, shizujifei in spring, the average day temperature rose to 7 degrees above for a month before sowing, sowing with warm water soaking 6h, sowing rate of 40 kg per mu
In the spring of 3, April by drill or broadcast, after sowing covering soil, and a plastic tunnel insulation and moisture. After 20 days of germination and emergence.
After seedling emergence, should build 50% transmittance shade to prevent sunburn. In the seedling stage the amount of fertilizer, organic fertilizer concentration should be diluted, no more than 10%, urea is less than 5%. Wet nursery should pay attention to drainage, to take root. Seedlings lignification period without nitrogen application, control the growth rate, recovery of phosphorus and potassium, promote lignification. Seedling cap dormant period, should be covered in plastic shed, cold insulation, to ensure the safety of winter.
Fir seedling root length, lateral root, and less, in order to promote root development, seedling cultivation, 2~3 should be born in the year of the original bed seedling transplanting, 15~20cm spacing, spacing of 2.5~3cm. The slow growth of seedlings in fir during transplanting to bring the primary soil, after transplanting to strengthen forest management in all under the cultivation of 2 years, after moving bed cultivation of seedling growth of thick, developed root system, can improve the survival rate of afforestation. Seedlings should be carried out in a moving bed before germinating, seedling should be straight, pressing, and watering the surface moist.
Fir Pest control damping off
Control methods: seedling emergence stage, spraying 0.5%~1% weekly Bordeaux prevention, prevention of the onset of ferrous sulfate by 0.5%~1%. Stand tree rot
Control method: improving forest health conditions, the timely removal of wood rot of woodland. Aphid
Control method: in the dewy morning, spraying 0.1% dimethoate prevention agent.
Fir Species classification
Abies fargesii, Abies beshanzuensis, Cangshan fir and Cangshan fir (var.), Zayu fir, Abies georgei, Abies georgei (var.), Abies NEPHROLEPIS, Sichuan Yunnan yellow fir, fir, yellow fir (Lour.), the tip of Abies georgei, fir, Abies, Abies Squamata, fir, fir, fir, Qinling Mountains Nu River Medog fir, Japanese fir and pine fir, fir, fir, Tibet Taiwan Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhongdian yellow fir fir fir, red fir, Korean fir etc..
Fir The main value
Fir economic value
The fir wood color is shallow, heartwood is not obvious, air dry density 500KG/m3, slightly hard material, the beautiful and non normal resin, material soft, fine structure, no smell, easy processing, strength, strong grip nails. Easy processing, smooth cutting surface, dry machining, good anticorrosion technology. General specification of 4 meters maximum bucking.
Fir bark, bark containing resin, famous Canada resin is extracted from the skin of young balsam fir and branches in the skin, is sliced and the best adhesive precision instrument. Chinese fir can also extract similar adhesive. Excellent raw materials for the manufacture of pulp and wood fiber all work, can be used for general building sleepers (to be embalmed), appliances, furniture and plywood, sheet should be used as a box, fruit box etc..
Fir Medical value
Drug name: fir cones
Latin name: Abies delavayi Franch.
Source: for gymnosperm plant medicine Pinaceae Fir Seeds in Cangshan.
Efficacy: Qi and dispelling cold.
Indications: treatment of fever in upper abdomen, chest and abdomen cold pain and intestinal hernia.
Tropism of taste: warm, spicy, non-toxic. The liver, lung, stomach, small intestine by four
Usage: oral: decoction, 3 ~ 4 of money; or calcined deposit at the end of the research.
Alias: tang. The original plant of Cangshan fir fir: also known as the tower
Harvesting and storage of medicinal materials: when the fruit is ripe dried off. Gently under the scales and seeds, seeds and sieving.
Research: from "Sichuan zhongyaozhi".
Fir Ornamental value
Fir trunk straight, conical crown or spire, lush foliage, evergreen, as garden trees. Also can be cultivated as a Christmas tree.