Turpentine

Turpentine, main yes Pine Or pine tree secretion The resin Containing. rosin and turpentine . Also known as rosin, Loose ointment , Pine gum , Loose liquid Loose fat. It is special Chemistry The structure, can be used as Latex paint Cement and etc. Material Science For use, so the resin has high business Value. It is a variety of polymer compounds mixture So, there are different melting point. The resin can be divided into Natural resin and synthetic resin Two. Only this kind of natural resin itself, but with the development of chemical industry, there are many synthetic polymers produced by some. polymer The chemical and physical properties and the natural resin is very similar, therefore, will be referred to as synthetic polymer resin . A viscous liquid or solid mass in the air. The special chemical structure, can be used as Latex paint The use of cement and other materials, so it has a higher commercial value . Method of processing Chinese on the resin are the main steam and direct fire two.
Turpentine

Turpentine brief introduction

Pine (pine oleoresin) [s only ngzh] cut Pine Oily resin flow out of the trees. The product is mainly composed of tree physiology activity. Terpene Compound composition. Just out of the colorless transparent oily liquid, exposed to the air after Terpene hydrocarbon After the gradually volatile and thickened, and finally become the solid material of white or yellow - Mao Songxiang. The manufacturing rosin and turpentine The raw material.

Turpentine The form

The Pine The resin secreted out of the trees, just out from the trunk, colorless and transparent, above the turpentine oil content of up to 30%, after contact with air, turpentine gradually volatile, with the intrusion of external moisture, thus making them a part of the resin acid crystallization precipitation, turpentine gradually become like honey Semi fluid . The resin is mainly composed of resin acid and a terpene hydrocarbon composition, also contains a small amount of impurities and moisture. The content of resin acids and terpene hydrocarbons by their species, origin, mining methods and storage period. Masson The general composition is: 72-75% rosin, turpentine oil 16-20%, water 4--6%, impurity 0.05-0.3%.
Morphological character:
1 trees, up to 45m, bust 1.5m. The lower part of the bark red brown, gray brown, irregular long block crack. Branchlets yellowish brown, usually whorled, non white, glabrous; winter buds ovoid cylindrical, brown, apex, bud scale margin filiform, apex acuminate or long. Needle leaf
 The pool The pool
Form 2 needles in bunches, thin needles in bunches of 3, 12-30cm long, slender and soft, leaf margin serrulate, Resin canal About 4-8, on the back side, or . There are 2 sides; leaf sheath at the beginning of a brown, after gradually into the black, persistent. Male flowers reddish brown, terete, bent, 1-1.5cm long, crowded on lower branches in bract axils, spicate; female flowers solitary or clustered shoots was born in 2-4 top, purple red. Cone conical ovoid or ovate, length 4-7cm, diameter 2.5-4m, short stem, pendulous, cooked millet brown; middle scales nearly oblong obovate, ca. 3cm; placoid rhombic, slightly raised or flat, umbo slightly concave, no thorns. Seeds ovoid, long winged 4-6mm, even 2-2.7cm. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in 10-12 months.
2, trees, up to 25m, bust up to more than 1m. Bark brown, irregular scutes crack, crack red brown. Whorled branches, branchlets stout, pale orange yellow or pale yellow; winter bud broadly elliptic, apex, red brown. The needle shaped leaves, needles in bunches of 2, dark green, coarse, length 10-15cm, diameter of about 1.5mm, margin serrulate, both sides of stomatal lines; leaf sheath initially pale brown, becoming dark grey. The male cone cylindrical, long 1.2-1.8cm, poly generation spikes in the new branches; female ball inflorescences broadly ovate, 7mm long, purple, was born in the year on new growth. Cone ovate or ovate, 4-9cm long, have short stem, bent down, when ripe pale yellow or light brown yellow, persistent for several years; the middle scales of nearly oblong obovate, long 1.6-2cm, placoid hypertrophy, uplift or micro uplift, flat diamond or diamond shaped polygon, Transverse ridge Significant, Umbo Protruding spikes. Seeds oval or long oval, pale brown, striped, even winged 1.5-1.8cm. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in October.
3 trees, up to 30m, bust up to 1.5m. Bark orange red, irregular flake off. Annual branches pale yellow or red yellow, slightly white, glabrous; Winter buds Oblong ovoid, dark brown, conifer needles in bunches of 2, 5-12cm long, 1mm diameter micro tip apex, both sides have stomatal lines, margin serrulate, transverse semicircular, about 4-6 resin, edge. Male flowers Pale yellow, cylindrical, 5-12mm, was born in the lower part of a short spike poly shoots; Female flowers Reddish purple, solitary or aggregated 2-3, the annual. Seed scales Apex with short spines. cone When ripe dark brown or pale yellow brown scales; open, easy to fall off, there are micro uplift Transverse ridge , Umbo Flat or slightly convex, with short spines. Seed obovate elliptic or ovate, long winged 4-7mm, even 1.5-2m, fin width 5-7mm. Florescence in April, fruit ripening in 9-10 months.
4 trees, up to 30m, bust up to 2m. Young skin dark grey, old black, thick, irregular block. Annual branches pale brown yellow, glabrous; Winter buds Silver white, cylindrical, oval or cylindrical top, Bud scales Lanceolate, margin white filamentous. Conifer needles in bunches of 2, dark green, glossy, thick and hard, 6-12cm long, margin serrulate, two sides of the cross section with stomatal lines, 6-11 resin, students. Male flowers Reddish brown, cylindrical, long 1.5-2cm; Female flowers Solitary or aggregated 2-3 branches near the top, straight, oval, purple red. cone When cooked brown, conical ovoid or ovoid, length 4-6cm, diameter 3-4cm, short stem, pendulous, Central Seed scales Ovateelliptic, Scale Shield Slight hypertrophy, Transverse ridge Significant, Umbo Have short spines. Seed obovate elliptic, long 5-7mm, even the winged 1.5-1.8cm, fin brown. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in October.

Turpentine classification

There are two types of resin acids in rosin:
1. Abietic acid Type including acid, abietic acid, l Levopimaric Acid, long Pine Acid, neoabietic acid, dehydroabietic acid, is the main part of the resin acid.
The pimaric type acids, including Levopimaric acid, isopimaric acid.
Masson Contain more in rosin Levopimaric acid, but in the process of heating in a different form other abietic type acids, so rosin Basically do not contain Levopimaric acid, and with more other abietic type acids, especially abietic acid.
Pinus latteri The resin containing two carboxyl Resin acid. Terpenes in rosin is a- Pinene and Pinene .
The change of their content with tree species and large area. In addition to beta Cress Ene, Camphene Geranylacetone, Dipentene Long, Ye Xi, caryophyllene etc.. The resin containing CARENE little production Chinese. The main chemical components of turpentine is resin acid and terpene, and less fatty acids and other substances. Resin acids in Rosin has Masson Pine acid type (mainly very acid, Levopimaric acid, neoabietic acid and Ye Songsuan) and pimaric type (mainly Levopimaric acid and isopimaric acid) two categories; terpene with monoterpene and sesquiterpene (mainly Ye Xi); saturated fatty acid fatty acids (such as cinnamic acid) and unsaturated fatty acids (such as oleic acid).

Turpentine Formation and acquisition

Pine The needles for photosynthesis generated l like sugar,
 Turpentine Turpentine
After complicated biochemical changes, the formation of parenchyma cells in wood, it through the epithelial cell wall infiltration Resin canal .
The resin ducts are unique in structure of pine. Xylem 3 independent systems formed in needles and primary cortex. The xylem resin canal Longitudinal health And two kinds of phenomena, they communicate with each other to form resin system in wood. Tapping, as long as the cut edge of trunk xylem, rosin resin canal will pass the outflow system.

Turpentine collection

Cut the pine trunk, collect all work secrete turpentine, referred to as mining. The main tree species with China mining Masson (Pinus mas-soniana), Yunnan pine (P.yunnanensis), Simao Pine (P.kesiya and var.langbianensis) Pinus latteri (P.latteri) etc..

Turpentine Mining method

In general Pine Diameter of 20 cm above the starting cut. According to the length of cut long-term mining (10 years), middle mining (6 ~ 9 years) and short-term mining (3 ~ 5 years); according to the characteristics of conventional cutting method, chemical method and strength method.
There are two kinds of conventional method:
1, drop type mining, mainly Chinese this way. In the sunny side of the trunk section scar less scraped the skin coarse, making shave for use in ditch and side ditch. Rough skin scraping to crack, residual bark thickness of not more than 0.4 cm, then shave in middle ditch, about 25 ~ 35 cm, width of 1.5 ~ 2 cm, outside the wide narrow groove, straight and smooth, without damaging the endothelial depth to appropriate.
 The knife apron The knife apron
First of the side ditch in the ditch on the top, side channel angle of 90 DEG goushen 0.3 ~ 0.4 cm, width not exceeding 0.2 cm. Second of the side ditch opened in first on the bottom of side ditch, followed by down to open the side ditch, hence the name. The time interval of two times cut the side ditch with tree species, Masson 1 ~ 2 days, Yunnan pine 2 ~ 3 days, the demand side ditch, deep, parallel length. The side channel occupied parts of said cut surface, cut surface than shave each side narrow 2 cm, cut a length of about 20 cm. Second years after a year in the face of cut just below the surface. So by tapping, until 20 cm off the ground so far. The first cut in the trunk height determined by mining period, such as for a period of 10 years, should be more than 220 cm from the ground. 10 years later, the cut surface can be configured in the trunk of the other party or cut the top of the first year. Face width percentage of trunk circumference is the rate of load, according to the mining period, trunk diameter and shape determination. Mining for more than 10 years, the load rate is 40%; 6 to 9 years to 60%; 3 to 5 years to 70%; 1 to 2 years is below 80%. A tree of a face. Tree size when a cut surface more than 50 cm, with two parallel cut surface, not less than 10 cm wide vertical nutrient with left cut surface. With the better the quality of descent.
2, rising type mining. With the decline of first type opposite side channel configuration of the lower surface of the scraper, then from the bottom to the top are cut open a new side ditch, side ditch 60 degree angle, not open in the ditch. There is no skin fringe left side ditch, and after it flows by fat turpentine. Ditching is easy to rise, is conducive to face Nutrients The supply position, the yield is high tapping down. But the easy flowing through the cut surface, and stay a long time in the cutting surface, large amount of volatile turpentine and resin of poor quality.
3, chemical mining is to use chemical drugs to stimulate the secretion of pine oleoresin, prolong resinosis time, improve the resin yield and productivity. Methods:
To 1. sulfite Pulping waste liquor production alcohol After Mash (referred to as sulphite liquor) To stimulate the secretion of oleoresin. In the fall of each of the type mining Side ditch Spray 0.5 to 1 grams of alcohol accounted for about 1.05 of the sulfite liquor, can improve the resin yield of about 30%, for 10 ~ 15 years mining period.
DBCM Acid black Stimulation of secretion of oleoresin extract. That has coated the mouth polyethylene The bottle will be black paste with sulfuric acid and carrier packed into strips coated in the cutting groove, cutting groove depth 0.2 ~ 0.3 cm, width 1 ~ 1.5 cm, cut ditch stay 2.5 ~ 3.5 cm tree lined belt, fishbone. Rate of load can be increased to 70 ~ 80%, cut ditch resinosis interval period is long. Masson From 6 to 8 days, Yunnan pine From 15 to 20 days. This method is suitable for the first 1 to 3 years of mining, also called the intensity of chemical mining.
The strength of mining face by increasing load, open face, shorten the interval method, suitable for cutting 1 ~ 3 years ago Pine forest .

Turpentine Tapping seasons

According to the local climate conditions and. In general Chinese to daily average temperature at 12 ~ 15 DEG C is appropriate. Scraped the best in winter or early spring, when the sap flow quantity is little, without damaging the endothelial. Summer temperatures, rainfall, high humidity, strong photosynthesis, sap flow, fat yield increase, is the best season of mining.

Turpentine yield

Pine The yield per plant fat from species to species strains, age, growth of the region's climate and environment and mining technology and have very big difference. Masson , Yunnan pine With the single conventional method annual volume of 3 to 5 kg of fat, Simao Pine 4 kg, Pinus latteri 8 ~ 10 kg. The quality is divided according to color, oil content, impurity and water level etc.. The top appearance is slightly yellow or white liquid, not mixed with bulk resin, containing more turpentine A small amount of water and mechanical impurities.

Turpentine Storage and processing

Turpentine The storage and transportation

We should pay attention to prevent a lot of turpentine volatilization Loss and oxidation; and the best not to touch the iron, to prevent the dark. Fat storing site should be prohibited fireworks.

Turpentine Processing method

There are mainly two kinds of processing methods Chinese:
The vapor method. The first and the amount of resin turpentine The amount of heating oil dissolved into about 38% Fat liquid, while adding water wash colored substance. As the fat liquor color deep, need to add a small amount of oxalic acid by filtration, clarification decolorization, removing impurities and moisture. Finally, intermittent or continuous steam distillation, Volatile Distillate points condensation After turpentine. Distillation residue rosin , while the heat release. The production of good quality rosin, production safety, suitable for large and medium-sized factories.
Direct fire. The resin loaded distillation pot, with direct heating to a certain temperature after instillation of amount of water, water is heated to steam the turpentine oil steamed out, finally the rosin while the heat release is finished, filter out impurities. This method is simple, suitable for local processing of resin, but the product quality is difficult to control, the production is not safe.

Turpentine geographical distribution

The distribution in Yunnan, Guangdong , Guangxi Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Hunan, and Anhui etc..

Turpentine Medicinal dishes

We must first prepare turpentine and good processing Poria each 1000 grams, white honey. Then put in the steaming hours after cold grinding. Fuling after drying into powder, mix two Sheng into the porcelain altar, sealed. Each 10 grams, white honey tone clothes, eat each time in early and late fasting. The Jiufu Qingshenjianfei not old sickness, with lowering blood pressure, preventing vascular sclerosis effect. Tuckahoe has a calming effect, can improve the nervous system function with honey deployment, brain, intelligence increasing sickness effect is more significant.

Turpentine World production

production Gum rosin The main countries (Russia has an annual output of 200 thousand tons), Portugal (100 thousand tons), Mexico and India etc.. Foreign commonly used chemical mining, high labor productivity. The United States is the earliest use of cutting the skin stimulation tapping (sulfate before cutting strength mining), Slash pine The annual output of 6 kg per plant, per worker production rosin 20 tons a year. The main use of sulfite alcohol Mash Stimulation tapping, tapping up to 5 tons per year. Portugal promotion narrow cut surface mining in chemical. Acid black Ointment is a stimulant, per plant Pine The annual output of 2 kg. world rosin The annual consumption is maintained at around 1 million 100 thousand tons. Because of the oil and rosin Wood rosin The shortage of raw materials, rely on rosin to meet the needs of the potential.