organic compound

narrow sense The organic Chemical compound Mainly by the carbon Element, hydrogen The elements must contain carbon Chemical compound , but does not include carbon oxide ( Carbon monoxide , Carbon dioxide ), carbonic acid , carbonate , cyanide , Sulfur cyanide , Thiocyanate Some simple, metal carbide, carbon containing compounds (such as SiC) and other substances. but generalized Can not containing organic compounds Carbon element . Organic matter is the material basis of life, all life is organic Chemical compound . Fat, Amino acid Protein and sugar, Hemoglobin , Chlorophyll , enzyme, hormone. The organism The new supersedes the old And biological Genetic phenomenon That are related to the change of organic compounds. In addition, many of the human life is closely related to the material, such as petroleum , Natural gas , cotton , dyestuff , chemical fiber , Plastic , Plexiglass , natural and Synthetic drugs So, with the organic compounds are closely contact .
organic compound

organic compound Definition

Organic compound Is carbon containing compounds ( Carbon monoxide , Carbon dioxide , carbonic acid , carbonate , Bicarbonate Metal carbide , cyanide , Sulfur cyanide The oxides except) or hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Organic matter is the material basis for the emergence of life. Inorganic compounds usually refers to compounds that do not contain carbon, but a small number of carbon containing compounds, such as Carbon dioxide , carbonic acid , Carbon monoxide , carbonate Such as having no organic nature, so it also belongs to the inorganic substances.
In addition to organic compounds containing carbon elements, may also contain hydrogen and oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, phosphorus and sulfur and other elements.
In short, the organic compounds are compounds containing carbon, but carbon containing compounds are not organic compounds.
Is the most simple organic compounds methane (CH Four ), is widely distributed in nature, organic methane is the most simple, natural gas, methane gas, the main component of the pit, commonly known as gas. Is the lowest carbon content (the maximum hydrogen content) hydrocarbon Also, natural gas, methane , Oil and gas The main component of the gas and coal mine. It can be used as fuel and produce hydrogen (H Two ), carbon black (C), carbon monoxide (CO), acetylene (C Two H Two ), Hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and formaldehyde (HCHO) as raw material.

organic compound Characteristic

In addition to containing carbon, hydrogen containing elements of most organic compounds, and some also contain oxygen N, halogen Sulfur and phosphorus. Organic compounds known to nearly 80 million. Early, refers to organic compounds by plants and animals in the organic matter. Since 1828 Vhailor The artificial synthesis of urea. The distinction between organic and inorganic compounds disappeared, but due to historical reasons and habits, the term "organic" is still in use. Organic compounds has important significance to human beings, all life on earth. form That is mainly composed of organic compounds. Is of great importance for the organic life, life and production of human beings. All life on the earth will contain large amounts of organic matter.
Compared with inorganic organic compounds, many number of up to tens of millions. The inorganic orders only to find hundreds of thousands, because the binding ability of organic compounds of carbon atoms is very strong, can be combined into Carbon chain Or carbon ring. carbon atom The number can be 1, 2, can also be thousands and tens of thousands, many organic Polymer compound ( polymer ) can even have hundreds of thousands of carbon atoms. In addition, organic compounds Isomerism Is very common, which is one reason why the number of kinds of organic compounds.
Organic compounds are usually density less than 2, and Inorganic compound On the contrary. stay Dissolution Part of organic compounds generally soluble in gasoline, insoluble in water. Inorganic compounds are soluble in water.

organic compound Naming method

Earlier, people known Organic compound From Animals and plants To get the organism, so it is called organic compounds. By 1820s, scientists have used many inorganic synthetic organic compounds, such as urea {CO (NH Two ) Two }, acetic acid ( CH Three COOH ), Fat So, in order to break the organic matter can only be obtained from the concept of organism. However, because of history and habits Reason , people still use the name of organic matter.
The term "organic" history can be traced back to nineteenth Century, at that time. Vitalism Researchers believe that the only organic compounds in biological (life-force, VIS Vitalis) synthesis. The basic theory of organic matter and are "inorganic" based on inorganic materials will be synthesized to vitality. But later this theory was overthrown in 1828, the German chemist Ville (Friedrich Wohler) with inorganic materials for the first time Ammonium thiocyanate Organic - urea synthesis of {CO (NH Two ) Two }. But this important discovery was not immediately recognized by other chemists, because not ammonium thiocyanate prepared with inorganic compounds. Until the krber (H. Kolbe) the synthesis of acetic acid in 1844 (CH Three Bercero (COOH), M. Berthelot) the fat synthesis in 1854, organic chemistry had entered the era of synthesis, a lot of organic matter were synthesized by artificial methods.
Human beings The use of organic matter was a long history of the world country with an ancient civilization Early master Make wine Making vinegar and maltose preparation technology. According to the records of ancient China was preparing to some of the more pure Organic matter Such as gallic acid (982--992), Aconitine (before 1522), mannitol (1037--1101); late sixteenth Century Western Europe prepared Ether , Ethyl nitrate , Chlorethyl Etc.. Because of these organic compounds are directly or indirectly to auto plants, therefore, only when people will be driven in plant compounds called organic compounds.
The development of synthetic organic compounds, to make people aware that, between organic and inorganic materials and no clear boundaries, but really exist some differences in the composition and properties of these aspects. From the composition, all organic matter contains carbon, most hydrogen, also containing oxygen and nitrogen, halogen Therefore, sulfur, phosphorus, and organic chemists began to be defined as containing carbon Chemical compound .

organic compound Name and abbreviations

Some compounds often according to its source and name, to master some commonly used name compounds represented by the Structure type Such as: alcohol, methanol is commonly known as the, alcohol ( ethanol ), Diethylene glycol ( Glycol ), glycerol ( Glycerol ), Carbolized ( phenol ), Formic acid ( formic acid ), Salicylaldehyde ( 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (Rou Guiquan), beta phenyl Acrolein ), Crotonaldehyde (2- Ding Xiquan), salicylic acid ( O-hydroxybenzoate ), chloroform ( Chloroform ), oxalate (oxalic acid), Picric acid ( 2, 4, three 6- nitrophenol ), glycine (alpha amino acid), alanine (alpha amino acid), glutamate (alpha amino Glutaric acid ), D- glucose, D- fructose (with the Fischer projection said the open chain structure of sugar). There are some compounds commonly used its abbreviation and the name of the commodity, such as: RNA ( Ribonucleic acid ), DNA ( Deoxyribonucleic acid ), Aspirin ( Acetylsalicylic acid ), Lysol or Lysol (three 47%-53% cresol soap aqueous solution ), formalin (40% Formaldehyde aqueous solution ), paracetamol (hydroxy Acetyl benzene Amine), Nicotine ( nicotine Etc.).

organic compound Common nomenclature

The common naming method also known as common nomenclature.
Required to master and isoborneol, new "and" primary, secondary and tertiary and quaternary "prefix meaning and usage.
It represents the straight chain alkane
ISO: refers to the carbon chain end structure with alkane
New: generally refers to the carbon chain end structure with alkane.
BETH: only connected with a carbon atom primary carbon atom.
Zhong: connected with two carbon atoms called secondary carbon atom.
Uncle: connected with three carbon atoms called tertiary carbon atom.
Season: connected with four carbon atoms called quaternary carbon atom.
As in the formula:
C1 and C5 are the primary carbon atom, C3 is a secondary carbon atom, C4 is a tertiary carbon atom, C2 is a quaternary carbon atom.
To master the common structure, such as: allyl alkyl, allyl, Zheng Bingji, Yi Bingji, and Ding Ji, such as benzyl tert butyl.

organic compound Systematic nomenclature

The IUPAC system is the focus of nomenclature of organic compounds, must master the nomenclature of various compounds. among Hydrocarbon The name is based, Geometric isomers , named optical isomers and polyfunctional compounds is difficult, should pay attention to. Remember to follow in naming" The rules of order ".
Named 1 alkanes
The name is all open chain alkanes Hydrocarbon and its derivatives Named after the foundation.
The steps and principles of nomenclature:
(1) select the longest carbon chain backbone backbone, several of the same carbon chain, should choose to contain Substituent Much of the carbon chain as the main chain.
(2) to the main chain number number, starting from the end of last place from base. If there are several possible scenarios, the substituents are as small as possible the number or a number of substituents and minimum.
(3) the name written by Arabia digital said substituent ranking, ranking first write and the name of the substituent name, then write a plurality of alkanes; substituent, simple in front, in the complex, the same substituent with write, with Chinese characters digital representation of the same number of substituents; between Arabia and the digital Chinese characters separated by half word line.
Memory: choose the formula for the main chain, said an alkane. A series of carbon chain, set.
Substituent: write before the injection position, even short-term.
Different groups: simple, with the same base, too.
Named 2 geometrical isomers
Named olefin geometrical isomers including CIS and trans E and Z, two kinds of methods.
Simple compounds can use CIS said, can also be expressed by Z, E. Along with the anti representation, the same atoms or groups in the double bond The same side carbon atoms are CIS and trans.
If the four groups even double carbon atoms are not the same, not only CIS said, expressed by Z and E. In accordance with the" The rules of order "The priority for two groups, two Better group In the double bond carbon atom The same side of the Z type, and E type. We must note that the CIS and trans and Z and E are two different representations, there is no inevitable relation. Some compounds can use CIS said, can also be expressed by Z, E, CIS is not Z, trans is not E. For example:
Alicyclic compounds There are also CIS trans isomerism The body, the two substituents in the ring plane the same side of CIS and trans.
Named 3 optical isomers
The optical isomer configuration has two methods of D, L and R, S, D, L mark method Glyceraldehyde As a standard, there are some limitations, some compounds, it is very difficult to determine the corresponding relation, glyceraldehyde structure so that more is the application of R and S labeling method, which is based on the chiral carbon Even the atoms of four different atoms or groups in space sequence markers. Optical isomers generally expressed by projection, to master Fischer projection The methods of judging the projection principle and configuration.
According to the judgment of configuration projection, the first clear in the projection, the line connected group forward, even a group back; according to the "rules of order" arrangement of chiral carbon atoms connected four priority groups, in the formula:
Amido Two >COOH >CH Two -CH Three > H; the minimum group of hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms as the center of the tetrahedron top, the remaining three groups for tetrahedral bottom angle of the triangle top, three from the bottom to the top of the tetrahedral group, from large to small, Clockwise R , Counterclockwise for S .
Named 4 bifunctional and multifunctional compounds
The key of bifunctional and multifunctional compounds named maternal determination. There are several common situations:
When both halogen and nitro and other functional groups, the halogen and nitro substituents as other functional groups, as the parent.
When double bonds with hydroxyl, carbonyl Carboxyl coexist, with olefin as the matrix, but with alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acid as precursor.
When the hydroxyl and carbonyl coexist, with aldehydes and ketones as precursor.
When the carbonyl and carboxyl coexist, with carboxylic acid as precursor.
When the double and triple bonds coexist, should choose the long carbon chain containing double bond and triple bond with the main chain, when the number to double or triple bond at the lowest possible number, if the same number of bits of double bond and triple bond, it should be to double bonds at the lowest number.

organic compound classification method

The organic variety, can be divided into hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons derivative Two categories. According to the carbon frame structure of organic molecules, can be divided into open chain and cyclic compounds and carbon compounds Heterocyclic compounds Three. According to the content in organic compounds functional group The different, divided into alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, Aromatic hydrocarbon and Halogenated hydrocarbon , alcohol, phenol, aldehyde, ketone, ether, carboxylic acid Ester, etc..

organic compound According to the carbon skeleton

One Chain compound
This kind of compounds of carbon atoms are connected into a chain, because it was first found in fat, so called Aliphatic compounds . The structure is characterized in the connection between carbon and carbon into the closed chain.
Two Cyclic compound
The cyclic compounds compounds with atoms arranged in an annular shape. Cyclic compound consists of alicyclic compounds and Aromatic compounds .
(1): not containing alicyclic compounds Aromatic ring (such as benzene, polycyclic or certain properties of heterocyclic benzene or fused ring) with ring type compounds. as Cyclopropane , Cyclohexene , Cyclohexanol Etc..
(2): aromatic compounds containing aromatic ring (such as benzene, polycyclic or certain properties of heterocyclic benzene or fused ring) with ring type compounds. Such as benzene homologues and derivatives, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, pyrrole and pyridine etc..

organic compound According to the composition of elements

1 hydrocarbon
Consisting of only two hydrogen and carbon compounds called hydrocarbons, referred to as hydrocarbon. Such as methane, ethylene, acetylene, benzene etc..
2 derivatives of hydrocarbon
A series of compounds of hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbon molecules replaced by other atoms or groups of atoms called generated hydrocarbon derivatives. as Halogenated hydrocarbon Alcohol, amino acid, nucleic acid, etc.

organic compound According to functional groups

Functional groups: special properties of atoms or compounds determined Atomic group Known as functional groups or functional groups. Containing the same functional group The compounds, their chemical properties are basically the same.
Homologue : The structure is similar to that of a series of compounds are composed of one or several CH2 atoms called the same series. All members of the same series called homologues. Due to the structure of similar chemical properties similar to homologues; their physical properties, often with the increase of molecular weight and the change regularity of the.
In chemistry, we have homologues: similar structure and composition is 1 or a plurality of some atoms are called homologue compounds. As the alkane series of methane, ethane, propane, butane and other known homologues.
Hydrocarbon: A class of organic compounds consisting of two kinds of hydrogen and carbon, also known as" Hydrocarbon ".

organic compound According to the structure and properties of

Open chain hydrocarbon : The carbon atoms in the molecule together into a chain, and ring structures called hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbon. According to the content of carbon and hydrogen in the molecule of hydrocarbons can be divided into Saturated hydrocarbon (alkanes) and unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes, alkynes).
Aliphatic hydrocarbon Also known as: "hydrocarbon". Because fat is the chain Derivatives of hydrocarbon Therefore, also known as aliphatic hydrocarbon.
Saturated hydrocarbon : Saturated hydrocarbons can be divided into chain saturated hydrocarbons namely alkanes (paraffin hydrocarbons) and another containing carbon and a saturated hydrocarbon ring is cycloalkanes (see chain hydrocarbon).
alkane Namely: the saturated hydrocarbons, paraffin hydrocarbon. The general formula C N H 2n+2 (n = 1), the content of hydrogen in saturated alkane. The simplest alkane is methane, is the main component of natural gas and biogas, alkanes is the main source of petroleum, natural gas and biogas. Can substitution reaction of methane in the light conditions and Chlorine A substitution reaction product is CH. Three Cl-----CH Two Cl Two -----CHCl Three -----CCl Four .
Unsaturated hydrocarbon : Department of molecule contains "C=C" or "C = C" hydrocarbon. This kind of hydrocarbon can be divided into unsaturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbon. Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing hydrogen atoms than the corresponding alkane, chemical properties, addition reaction and polymerization reaction occurs easily. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can be divided into alkenes and alkynes. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can be divided into Cycloolefine (e.g. Cyclopentadiene ) and cycloalkyne (e.g. Phenylacetylenic ).
olefin : Department of molecules containing "C=C" hydrocarbon. According to the number of "C=C" in the molecule can be divided into single olefins and dienes. With a "C=C" single olefin molecules, the general formula C N H 2n Among them, n = 2. The most important is the mono olefin ethylene H Two C=CH Two Secondary CH3CH=CH2 and propylene, butene CH3CH2CH=CH2 1-. Referred to as mono olefin olefin, olefin is the main source of oil and Splitting Product.
Dienes : Containing two "C=C" chain hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon. As of 1, 3- butadiene. 2- methyl -1, 3- butadiene, cyclopentadiene etc.. Dienes containing Conjugated double bond The system is most important, such as 1, 3- 2-, butadiene methyl -1, 3- butadiene monomer synthetic rubber.
Alkyne : Department of molecule contains "C = C" unsaturated hydrocarbons. According to the number of carbon carbon triple bond in the molecule, can be divided into single and multiple single alkyne alkyne alkyne The general formula C N H 2n-2 Among them, n = 2. Alkynes and dienes are isomers. The most simple, the most important is the alkyne acetylene HC = CH, acetylene from calcium carbide and water reaction system.
Closed chain hydrocarbon : Also known as the "ring". Is having a cyclic structure of hydrocarbon. Can be divided into two categories, one is Alcyl (or Aliphatic With the properties of aliphatic hydrocarbon), divided into saturated alicyclic hydrocarbon Naphthenic Where n = 3. Cycloalkanes and olefin isomers. Cyclanic exists in some oil, cycloolefine often exists in plant essential oil. Another kind is the most aromatic hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene ring The structure and Aromatic compounds The nature of the.
Cyclanic : In hydrocarbon molecules, carbon atoms are bonded to each other one called cyclanic, is saturated alicyclic hydrocarbon. With cyclanic, tricyclic and tetracyclic poor stability, easy under certain conditions open loop . Cyclanic rings above is stable, its properties are similar to those of alkanes. Cycloalkanes are common cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane etc..
Aromatic hydrocarbon General: refers to the molecular structure containing benzene hydrocarbon. According to the number of benzene ring containing molecules and connection between the benzene ring, can be divided into single ring aromatic hydrocarbon, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon , PAHs Etc.. The general formula of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for C N H 2n-6 N, which is more than 6, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the benzene
PAHs : Molecule containing two or more benzene, benzene by sharing two phase.
Heterocyclic compounds : Called heterocyclic compounds containing compound to form a ring structure of carbon atom and oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and other atoms in the molecule. With five atoms and six atoms Heterocyclic Stable. With aromatic heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules called, in one or more hydrogen atom Substituted by halogen atom and the formation of compounds called halogenated hydrocarbons. According to replace up different halogen atoms can be divided into fluorinated hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, brominated hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons such as iodine. According to the number of halogen atoms in molecules, can be divided into a Halogenated hydrocarbon And polyhalohydrocarbon. According to the different types of hydrocarbon, which can be divided into saturated halogenated halogenated alkanes, halogenated hydrocarbons or unsaturated halogenated olefins and alkynes, halogenated halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon, such as chlorine CH Three -CHBr-CH Two Br.
alcohol : One or more hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbon molecules is called product hydroxy substituted after alcohol (if the hydrogen atom on the benzene ring was produced after hydroxyl substituted phenols). According to the alcohol molecules hydroxyl The number can be divided into Monohydric alcohol , Diol Three yuan, alcohol, according to the different alkyl alcohol molecules, can be divided into alcohol saturated unsaturated alcohols and aromatic alcohols. Due to the hydroxyl connected carbon atoms can be divided into position. Tertiary alcohol (such as CH Three ) Three COH. alcohols The general was neutral, lower alcohol soluble in water, sweet polyol. The main chemical properties of alcohol oxidation reaction , esterification , Dehydration reaction With the halogen acid reaction, and the reaction activity of metal.
Aromatic alcohol : The hydrogen atom side key benzene molecular aromatic hydrocarbons in the hydroxyl substituted into material. Such as benzyl alcohol (also known as the Benzyl alcohol ).
phenol : Aromatic hydrocarbon molecules benzene ring Compound hydrogen atoms are called a hydroxy substituted phenols. According to the phenol molecule hydroxyl The number can be divided into a two yuan yuan phenol, phenol and polyphenol, such as a color reaction solution. Phenol has weak acid, phenol can react with alkali salts. Phenol molecules in the benzene ring by the effect of prone to halogenated hydroxyl, nitrification Sulfonation Substitution reaction .
ether : Two alkyl compounds through an oxygen atom connected together called ether. R-O-R'expressed by general formula. If R and R'are the same, called simple ether, such as ether CH Three -O-CH Three Ether, C Two H Five -O-C Two H Five ; if R and R'are different, called mixed ethers, such as methyl ether CH Three -O-C Two H Five . If the number of aldehyde diol seeds, can be divided into one yuan, two yuan aldehyde aldehyde; according to different hydrocarbon molecules, can be divided into the corresponding Primary alcohol Preparation of oxidation. The aldehyde carbonyl Can react with, easy to be weak oxidizing agents such as Fehling reagent, Toronto reagent The oxidation of the corresponding carboxylic acid. The formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
Aromatic aldehyde : Aldehyde group and benzene ring connected directly formed in formaldehyde, called aromatic aldehyde. Such as benzaldehyde.
carboxylic acid : Compound hydrocarbon or hydrogen atom and the carboxyl link formed called carboxylic acid, according to the number of carboxyl groups in carboxylic acid molecules, can be divided into acids and dicarboxylic acid, polybasic acid etc.. Monacid The saturated acids such as propionic acid such as acetic acid CH Three CH Two COOH, unsaturated fatty acids such as acrylic acid CH Two =CH-COOH. Carboxylic acid can also be divided into fatty acids, naphthenic acid and aromatic acid etc.. Fatty acids, such as saturated stearic acid C Seventeen H Thirty-five COOH, etc..
carboxylic acid derivatives : Compound hydroxyl and carboxyl group in carboxylic acid molecules by other atoms or groups of atoms and the formation of substituted carboxylic acid derivatives called. Such as acyl halide, amide , Anhydride Etc..
A. Acyl halide Hydroxyl carboxyl groups on the system and the formation of carboxylic acid molecules are compounds with halogen atom substitution.
B.: the Department of hydroxyl carboxyl amide carboxylic acid molecule is -NH2 or be substituted amino amino substituted etc..
C.: a molecular carboxylic acid anhydride compounds of two molecules or between water loss two yuan in dehydration and formation of carboxylic acid molecules, called anhydride. As of two acetic acid molecules lose a water molecule is formed acetic anhydride (CH Three -)
ester : Compound hydroxyl and carboxyl group of the carboxylic acid molecules are alkoxy substituted and the formation of -O-R'
Grease : General senior fatty acid glyceride. Liquid at room temperature is called oil, is a solid fat called. The available formula said: if R, R', R ", called monoglyceride; if R, R', R", referred to as mixed glycerides. Natural oils mostly mixed glyceride.
Nitro compound : A compound of hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbon molecules by nitro -NO2 substituted form, available formula R-NO Two Said R is alkyl, can also be a ring. Such as nitroethane CH Three CH Two NO Two
amine Organic compound of hydrogen atom system in the form of ammonia was formed after alkyl substituted. According to according to the alkyl structure is different, can be divided into Fatty amine as Methylamine CH Three NH Two , Two methylamine CH Three -NH-CH Three And aromatic amines such as aniline C Six H Five -NH Two , Two aniline (C Six H Five ) Two NH. Can also be based on amino The number is divided into a two yuan yuan amine, amine, Polyamine . A monoamine such as Ethylamine CH Three CH Two NH Two Two yuan, amines such as ethylenediamine H Two N - CH Two - CH Two - NH Two Such as, polyamine Six four methylene amine (C6H2) 6N4. Amine mostly with alkalescent, can react with acids to form salts. Aniline is an important material in the synthesis of amine, dye, Synthetic drugs The raw material.
nitrile : The Department (CN) and alkyl cyano compounds is formed. The general formula R-CN, such as acetonitrile CH Three CN.
Diazo compounds : Most of the general formula R - N Two Organic compounds of X molecules containing a diazo compound with aromatic diazonium salt is the most important. The available chemical properties, preparation of azo dye intermediate.
Azo compounds : The azo molecules in organic compounds (-N=N-). use The general formula According to R-N=N-R, which is R Alkyl , Azo compounds There are some colors for dye. Also can be used as a pigment.
sulfonic acid : The hydrogen atom system in hydrocarbon molecules by sulfonic acid -SO Three H substituted compounds formed by RSO. Three H said. Aliphatic Sulfonic acid preparation commonly used indirect method, aromatic sulfonic acid by Sulfonation reaction Prepared directly. Sulfonic acid is soluble in water, acid, aromatic sulfonic acid is a synthetic dye, Synthetic drugs An important intermediate.
Amino acid : The Department of atomic hydrogen compounds alkyl carboxylic acid molecules are formed by amino substituted. according to amino The position of the substitution can be divided into Alpha amino acid , Beta amino acids Gamma amino acid, etc.. Alpha amino acids in amino hydroxyl Adjacent carbon atom On. Alpha amino acid is the basic unit of protein. Protein hydrolysis can get more than and 20 kinds of amino acids, such as glycine , alanine , glutamate So, most of the L- type a- amino acid. The amino acids needed in the human body, the protein in food supply, such as lysine, Tryptophan , Phenylalanine So called, thr" essential amino acid "Like glycine, serine Alanine, glutamic acid, from other organic matter in the body are called the transformation " Non essential amino acids ".
peptide : Carboxyl compounds formed a molecular condensation of the amino and other amino acids in water molecules after losing. Two Amino acid The formation of molecular peptide called peptide two, such as two molecules of amino
polypeptide : A plurality of a- amino acid condensation elimination of water molecules formed with multiple peptide bonds, an organic natural products
Protein : Also known as prion. Average molecular weight greater than 10000. Protein is a major component of the organism, is the basis of life activities. The composition, arrangement of various proteins in amino acid sequence, Peptide The Stereo structure Are not the same. There are a variety of proteins sequence of amino acid The three-dimensional structure and clear. According to the protein molecular shape can be divided into fibrous and globular protein protein. Fiber protein such as silk, wool, hair, skin, horns and hoofs, globulin protein such as enzyme, hormone etc.. According to the solubility of the size can be divided into albumin and globulin, Gliadin Hard and insoluble protein etc.. According to the composition can be divided into simple and complex protein protein, protein is composed of simple Amino acid Composition, compound protein is formed by the combination of simple protein and other substances, such as protein and nucleic acid binding protein nucleic acids, proteins and sugar binding generation glycoprotein Protein, hemoglobin and heme binding generation.
Sugar : Also known as carbohydrates. many hydroxyl One or more hydroxy ketone and aldehyde compounds which can be generated by the hydrolysis of polyhydroxy aldehydes or the hydroxy ketone. Sugar can be divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharide and polysaccharide etc.. The number of hydrogen atoms and sugars Oxygen atom The number is 2:1, but such as formaldehyde CH Two O is not a sugar; and rhamnose: C6H12O5 belongs to sugar.
Monosaccharide : The department cannot hydrolyze most simple sugars, such as glucose (AR)
oligosaccharide : Can generate 2 to 10 molecules called oligosaccharides of monosaccharide sugar in hydrolysis. Which Two sugar Most important, such as sucrose, maltose, lactose.
Polysaccharide : Also known as polysaccharides. Is a polysaccharide molecular polysaccharide hydrolysis can generate 10 molecules above monosaccharide sugars, such as starch and cellulose, by general formula (C6H10O5) n. N can be hundreds to thousands of.
Polymer compound : Also known as "big molecular" or "polymer". The molecular weight of up to thousands or even millions more. Can be divided into Natural polymer and Synthesis of high molecular compounds Two categories. Natural polymers such as proteins, nucleic acid, starch, cellulose, natural rubber etc.. Synthesis of high molecular compounds such as synthetic rubber, synthetic resin, synthetic fiber, plastic etc.. According to the structure can be divided into linear polymer chains (such as rubber, fiber, Thermoplastic plastics ) type polymer compound and mesh (such as phenolic plastics, rubber). According to the synthesis of synthetic polymeric compounds by the reaction of different, can be divided into Polyaddition and Polycondensate . Polymer is added by the Polyaddition reaction Polymer formation. Such as polyethylene, polypropylene, pvc. Condensation is the Polycondensation reaction Polymer formation. Such as phenolic plastics, nylon 66 etc..

organic compound Heterogeneous category

Has the following categories of organic matter between the heterogeneous relation:
1 molecules with CnH2n (n = 3) categories: olefin isomers and ring alkane ;
2 molecules with CnH2n-2 (n = 4) categories: alkynes and isomers Dienes ;
3 molecules with CnH2n+2O (n = 3) categories: saturated isomer Monohydric alcohol And saturated ether ;
4 molecules with CnH2nO (n = 3) categories: isomers of saturated monobasic saturated aldehydes and one yuan ketone ;
5 molecules with CnH2nO2 (n = 2) categories: saturated monobasic isomers carboxylic acid And the saturated one yuan ester ;
6 molecules with CnH2n-6O (n = 7) categories of isomers: phenol Homologues of aromatic alcohols and aromatic ether;
Such as n=7, has the following five types: o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol; benzyl alcohol; benzyl ether.
7 molecules with CnH2n+2O2N (n = 2) categories: amino acid and isomers of nitro compounds

organic compound Structural characteristics

Organic compounds: great variety and a large number of (about 30000000, and is still known to millions of speed increasing from year to year).
But there are fewer elements of C, H, O, N, P, S, X (F, Cl, Br, halogen, I, etc.).
Key features of carbon atoms in organic compounds, 1
The outermost layer of the carbon atom has 4 electrons, not easy to lose or gain electrons and the formation of cation or anion. Carbon atoms through covalent bond with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and other non covalent metal compounds.
Because of the characteristics of carbon atoms, each carbon atom can form a covalent bond with 4 hydrogen atoms or other atoms, but also between carbon atoms combined with covalent bond. Carbon atoms can not only form a stable bond, also can form a stable double or triple bond. A number of carbon atoms can be combined with each other to grow a short carbon chain, carbon chain can also with branched chain, can also be combined into carbon ring, carbon chain and ring can also be combined with each other. Therefore, with the same kinds of atoms, molecules of each atom number is the same, the atoms may have a variety of combination of different ways of the formation of molecules with different structure.
Isomerism of organic compounds, 2
Compounds with the same molecular formula, but the structure is different, resulting in differences in the nature, this phenomenon is called isomerism. Isomerism of compounds with isomers. In organic compounds, when the number of carbon atoms increases, the number of isomers are also more. Isomer is a common phenomenon in the organic matter, which is one reason the number of organic compounds in nature is very large.

organic compound Chemical property

(1) combustible
(2) the poor stability of organic compounds (often because the influence of temperature, bacteria, air or light decomposition Deterioration )
(3) reaction rate Slow
(4) complex reaction products
In general, organic compounds besides minority, can usually be burning. Compared with inorganic materials, their thermal stability is poor, Electrolyte Is easy to break down. Organic matter of low melting point, generally not more than 400 DEG C. Organic matter Polar Very weak, therefore are insoluble in water. The organic reactions between most molecules, often requires a certain activation energy Therefore, the reaction is slow, often need to add catalyst method. The organic reaction is complex, under the same conditions, a compound often can be done at the same time several different reactions, generate different products.

organic compound Physical property

organic compound state

Solid saturated senior fatty acid, fat, TNT, naphthalene, phenol and glucose, fructose , Malt dust , starch, cellulose, acetic acid (below 16.6)
The gaseous carbon atoms the following: 4 alkane , olefin , Alkyne And formaldehyde and methyl chloride
Oily liquid: nitrobenzene Br ethane , ethyl acetate Oleic acid
Sticky: ethylene glycol, Glycerol

organic compound smell

Tasteless: methane, acetylene (often mixed with PH Three H Two S and AsH Three But with the smell)
Slight odor: ethylene Special smell; benzene and homologues, naphthalene, petroleum, phenol
Irritation: formaldehyde, formic acid Acetic acid, acetaldehyde
Sweet: ethylene glycol, glycerol, sucrose, glucose
Aroma: ethanol, low-grade ester
Bitter almond flavor: nitrobenzene

organic compound colour

White: glucose, polysaccharides
Yellow: TNT
Black or dark brown oil

organic compound density

Lighter than water, benzene and benzene homologues, a chlorinated hydrocarbon, alcohol, ester, lower gasoline
Heavier than water: nitrobenzene, Bromophenyl Ethylene glycol and glycerol, CCl Four , chloroform And bromohydrocarbon, iodo hydrocarbon

organic compound Volatility

Ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and other volatile. Volatility Big.

organic compound Melting Point and Boiling Point

Low melting point, boiling point (melting point is not more than 400 DEG C).

organic compound Sublimation

naphthalene , anthracene

organic compound Water soluble

Poor water solubility. Are not or hardly soluble in water, soluble in organic solvents, such as gasoline, alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon tetrachloride. Insoluble: Fatty acid , ester , nitrobenzene , Bromophenyl , alkane , olefin Guiting, benzene And homologue, naphthalene, anthracene, oil, Halogenated hydrocarbon TNT, chloroform, CCl Four
Soluble phenol (0 DEG C is slightly soluble)
Slightly soluble: acetylene , benzoic acid
Soluble formaldehyde, acetic acid, Glycol , Benzene sulfonic acid
Miscible with water: ethanol, phenol (70 degrees C), acetaldehyde , formic acid , Glycerol

organic compound The basic reaction

organic compound Energy substitution reaction

1 alkanes and halogenelemental: halogenelemental (if not for steam water). Condition: light.
2 of benzene and benzene homologues and (1) halogenelemental (not water): - Fe or three ferric bromide as catalyst
(2). nitric acid C: 50 - 60 DEG C water bath (3) concentrated sulfuric acid: 70 --80 OC water bath
Hydrolysis of 3 halogenated hydrocarbons: NaOH water solution
The reaction of halogen acid 4 ethanol and hydrogen: hydrogen halogen acid
With 5 ethanol concentrated sulfuric acid In the dehydration reaction at 140.
6 acids and alcohols esterification : sulfuric acid, heating
7: the hydrolysis of esters of inorganic acid or alkali catalysis
8 (1) phenol and concentrated nitric acid bromine (2)

organic compound Can react with

1 alkenes, alkynes and dienes, styrene Bonus: H Two Hydrogen halide and water, halogen Elemental
2 of benzene and benzene homologues plus: H Two .Cl Two
3 Saturated hydrocarbon The derivatives of the additive: (including halogenated alkene, alkyne, halogenated olefin aldehyde, alcohol, acid, acid ester, acid salt)
4 compounds containing aldehyde group (including glucose addition): HCN, H Two etc.
5 ketones, oleic acid, oleic acid, oleic acid, a salt ester oil (unsaturated higher fatty acid ester) addition material additive: H Two
Note: all organic compounds with H Two The reaction conditions are: catalyst (Ni), heating

organic compound Silver mirror reaction can occur

(including -CHO)
All 1 aldehydes (RCHO)
2 formic acid, formate, formic acid ester of a
3 glucose, maltose, glucose ester, (fructose)
Can the new system and Cu (OH) 2 response in addition to the above substances, and strong acid (such as formic acid and acetic acid, propionic acid Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, etc.), neutralization reaction.

organic compound Organic reaction of hydroxyl

1 substitution (hydrolysis) reaction: halogenated hydrocarbons, esters, phenols, alcohols, carboxylic acid sodium sodium sodium
The 2 addition reaction of olefin hydration, aldehyde + H2
3: the oxidation of aldehyde oxidation
4 reduction: formaldehyde + H2

organic compound the way to distinguish

In drug production, research and test process, separation, purification and identification of problems often encountered in organic compounds. The identification of organic compounds, separation and purification is three existing concepts related and not the same.
The purpose of separation and purification are obtained by mixture pure substance However, different treatment methods are also different. Each group is separated in a mixture of eleven separate. In the separation process are often in a mixture of a component by chemical reaction into new compounds, after the separation will revert to the original compounds. Purification of two kinds of situations, one is to be transformed into the desired compound impurities, another is the impurity by suitable chemical reaction into another compound (compound separated after separation without reduction).
The differential is according to the different properties of compounds containing functional groups to determine what, what kind of compounds. Such as the identification of a group of compounds, which is determined by chemical compounds can be.

organic compound The conditions

Pay attention to distinguishing problems, and not all compounds can be used to identify the chemical nature, must have certain conditions:
(1) the color changes in chemical reactions;
(2) in the process of chemical reaction with temperature changes (exothermic or endothermic);
(3) the reaction product gases;
(4) a precipitation reaction process or precipitation dissolution, reaction product of layered products.

organic compound Specific methods

1 alkenes, alkynes and dienes:
(1) bromide carbon tetrachloride The solution, faded red
(2) Potassium Permanganate solution, purple faded.
2 containing hydrogen alkyne alkyne:
(1) silver nitrate , alkynyl silver white precipitate
(2) ammonia solution of cuprous chloride, alkynyl copper bromide red precipitate.
Three Ring Hydrocarbon:
Three or four yuan cycloparaffins can make the bromine carbon tetrachloride solution leg color
4 halogenated hydrocarbons:
The alcohol solution of silver nitrate, silver halide precipitate formation; halogenated hydrocarbons generate different structure precipitation at different speeds, halohydrocarbons and tertiary allylic halides is the fastest, Naka Yojinno, heated to appear precipitation of primary alkyl halides.
5 alcohol:
(1) the reaction with sodium hydrogen (identification of 6 carbon atoms following alcohol)
(by 2) Lucas reagent Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, tertiary alcohols will become turbid, cloudy and secondary alcohol placed after primary alcohol after placing no change.
6 phenol or enol compounds:
(1) three Ferric chloride The solution color (phenol blue purple).
(2) phenol and bromine generated tribromophenol white precipitate.
7 carbonyl compounds:
(1) identify all aldehydes and ketones: 2, two nitro 4- Phenylhydrazine Produce, yellow or orange red precipitate
(2) the difference between aldehydes and ketones with Tollens Aldehyde, can generate the silver mirror, but not ketone
(3) the difference between aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic aldehydes or ketones and aliphatic aldehydes, aliphatic aldehydes generated by Fehling reagent, brick red precipitate, and ketones and aromatic aldehydes can
(4) identification of methyl ketone and structure of alcohol, sodium hydroxide solution of iodine, produces a yellow precipitate of iodoform.
8 formic acid:
With Tollen reagent, formic acid can generate the silver mirror, and other acid.
9 amine :
The difference between primary and secondary, Tertiary amine There are two kinds of methods
(1) with benzene sulfonyl chloride or p-toluene sulfonyl chloride, reaction in NaOH solution, Primary amine The resulting product is dissolved in NaOH; the product of secondary amines generated insoluble in NaOH solution; tertiary amines do not react.
(2) NaNO2+HCl:
Fatty amine: primary amine release nitrogen Secondary amine to produce the yellow, oily matter, tertiary amine reaction.
Aromatic amine: amine diazonium salt, secondary amine to produce the yellow oil, tertiary amine generated orange (acidic condition) or green solid (alkaline).
10 sugar:
(1) all with Tollen reagent and monosaccharide Fehling reagent, which produces silver mirror or brick red precipitate.
(2): glucose and fructose with bromine can be the difference between glucose and fructose, glucose and fructose can make water can not fade.
(3) maltose and sucrose with Tollen reagent or Fehling reagent, maltose can generate the silver mirror or brick red precipitate, but not sucrose.