Eads (European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company, referred to as Chinese, also be translated as "the European Aeronautic Defense and Aerospace Corp), is Europe's largest aerospace industrial company, established a consortium of Aerospatiale, German Dornier and DASA, Spain CASA. To 2004, EADS employs more than 110 thousand people, distributed in 70 parts of the world. EADS is the Boeing company after the world's second largest Aerospace Corporation, Europe is also ranked second only to the company's BAE system weapons manufacturer, mainly engaged in the development of aircraft, missiles and space rockets and related systems for military and civilian.
eads Company profile
Eads (EADS) since its establishment in 2000 to October 22, 2007,
Always use double leadership style management structure, i.e. At the same time by two president and two co chief executive officer operating supervision company
But, this kind of management mode can provide the required balance and stability for the fusion of unique industry and traditional multinational companies.
In July 16, 2007, Daimler (i.e. Daimler Chrysler
), the French government, Lagardere Groupe
And the EADS group management team decided to adopt new management and leadership structure. The German government also put forward relevant suggestions on the decision. In validity, integrity and the simple principle of EADS group management and leadership structure under the guidance of this adjustment measures can keep France core shareholders balance, can also carry out the best method of business management. Now, EADS group uses a streamlined and efficient management framework, i.e. A chairman and a chief executive leadership model
Another resolution is to increase core shareholders for independent directors the board of directors of the group, in order to meet the needs of the development of group management. For the implementation of the resolution, Daimler and Raja Dyer holding company gave up two seats in the board of directors, and held in the October 22, 2007 special meeting of shareholders to elect four independent directors. Since then, in addition to the CEO, the board will no longer be full by the executive director.
The core shareholders also revised by the board of directors, share the chairman, chief executive and executive committee's responsibility, amendments have been held in the same period of October 22, 2007, the special meeting of shareholders and the board of directors meeting after the entry into force, and began to implement.
The French nuclear power company chairman Anne Lovejon won the French official support, in January 27, 2013 to become the European Aerospace Group (EADS) the first female chairman.
In 2013 the European aviation group renamed Airbus group, its subsidiary Airbus ("Airbus") the name of the company remain unchanged.
eads The integration of the road
In 1997 12 Britain, France and Germany government for European cooperation successful experience (especially the Airbus group the successful experience of cooperation), the civilian areas of powerful advantages and threats from the United States three considerations, the integration of large enterprises for their countries, and in March 1998 issued a detailed plan and timetable for industrial restructuring and integration three, jointly announced the establishment of the European Aeronautic Defense and Aerospace Corp (EADC) of the first report, and get the Airbus 4 partners to respond. At the time of this report were also submitted to the Swedish Saab and Italy's Finmeccanica company, so that they carry out inter government consultations. In July 9, 1998, 6 countries (Britain, France and Germany, Spain, Sweden, Italy) minister of industry are required to solve the integration of related matters as soon as possible, and in that year the end of November issued a second report. But in the second report, the discussion far did not reach the stage of substantive negotiations, the exchange of ideas and just make a general discussion on the possible benefits of this period. From here we can see that the complexity of the European restructuring process. In the second report, 6 Chinese companies reached a consensus on the following aspects:
The final target mechanism will be a separate Integrated Company, namely EADC;
The core of EADC's business operations should include: Civil and military aircraft, and military aircraft, helicopters, space launch equipment and facilities, satellite and satellite orbit operation, guided weapons and defense and aerospace systems;
EADC business objectives will be determined in accordance with the principle of economic and financial performance, shareholder value is the main goal, and each business department should realize the value of the profit rate of the door;
The management of EADC as a single entity, in full possession of all assets and resources. Management mechanism is divided into three parts: the headquarters of the central departments, the center for financial management, coordination, group strategy and policy; Department of business, including the business sector and related resources and assets; State Department, responsible for handling relations with their respective governments;
Shareholders will dominate according to three principles: any party can not exercise the power control of the business; the establishment of protection measures to prevent the infringement; decentralized shareholders are equal with respect to centralized large shareholders.
In the second report, the other did not provide the answers. Including:
About 6 of the business scope, in the discussion of ballistic missile (manufacturing only by the French HangYu) and regional aircraft (DASA and Saab just peel this business) as the core business of this problem is always uncertain. Another prominent problem is the integration of Dassault aviation, Dassault made a prerequisite to all European fighter operations are integrated into EADC.
In the specific implementation by which mode to take the dispute. Including several models considered:
The first solution is to expand the company's main Airbus, future Airbus integrated company will be holding company, then one or both integrated with other business departments, the formation of its subsidiaries;
The second scheme is the initial establishment of a EADC shell, after establishing a branch department;
Third schemes, especially for BAe company is respected, all core business department also merged into the Future Ltd (to other departments in transient state).
Most partners are able to accept the merger finally this way, because it is fast and clear. However, they also know how to step to complete the merger of 6 countries is too complicated. Therefore, BAe, DASA and Saab in favor of the asymptotic form of a merger, began to merge two to three companies. The Aerospace Corporation law accepted this proposal, but insisted that the first stage with at least three partners, the three is BAe, DASA and its own. CASA and Finn May Kanika challenged.
The last question is how to protect the interests of shareholders and the shareholders of current EADC infrastructure should be what kind of. Because the form is complex and uncertain, therefore, these ideas will not agree. At that time, Aerospatiale, CASA and Finmeccanica privatization have been announced or submitted, but not completely. But the group has been privatized in the shareholder structure are different, such as BAe, DASA is more dispersed shareholders have private shareholders, Saab is somewhere in between. Therefore, the shareholders on how ideas are still changing, the new shareholders of Daimler Chrysler Inc, the French government and the French aerospace companies such as advocates will hold its shares into shares of EADC, DASA and EADC have their respective space method retains the stock directly or indirectly, from the stock price and. BAe and Saab does not agree with this approach, because they fear it will damage their own decentralized shareholders.
Most companies are still in favor of direct business combination, but facing a difficult problem is: the distribution of equity and liability and the relationship with the government. All of these problems are difficult to solve in different countries. Especially one of the two main members of BAe and DASA and the motive behind. The question is who will be the first to merge, and who combined. For small companies, they do not want big companies will merge them aside, and for large companies, it does not allow myself to be another two combined company isolated.
eads With episode
The fear of being isolated is the French industry, because of its privatization and restructuring process is very slow. However, the establishment of the discussion of EADC Europe has begun, while France's defense industry outlook remains uncertain, the privatization is hotly debated. At the beginning of 1996, the French made around the two pillar industries, namely electronic and aerospace, a coalition of ideas, based on the privatization of the company and the French aerospace restructuring Thomson -CSF. However, this effort ultimately failed. The spring of 1997, DASA due to doubts about France has a leading position in the European industry, and dissatisfaction with its reform slow paced, and decided to give up the French aerospace alliance, and private enterprises Technologies company (Lagardere Matra Hautes group defense alliance branch). With this alliance reversal method as The Aerospace Corporation, Airbus, the European helicopter and Ariane true leader, was cut off in the European aerospace industry.
1998 as the French feared, at the beginning of the year, BAe and DASA started talking about the first merger problem. Because of their common characteristics in the process of company operation mechanism, this restructuring looks more natural. BAe and DASA are involved in the European project -- Airbus and Eurofighter, and perhaps more important, they have the same business philosophy, to the interests of shareholders as the absolute priority
Considering the factors, no country in the shares of the company. Therefore, we are not difficult to understand BAe and DASA company of government law The Aerospace Corporation Holdings rejection. All of their actions that they can build a fully private by them, the group. However, the most difficult negotiations in Britain and Germany where they are depending on the size of the company. How can the size of the company under the condition of different power, how to enjoy the same ownership structure arrangement etc.. Despite these difficulties, the negotiations at the end of 1998 and has made great progress.
However, it is the time to eleventh hours in the negotiations, the problems of BAe and DASA in harmony. The British GEC company announced that the company sold its Marconi electronic system, greatly tempted BAe, because BAe if the acquisition of Marconi Company, will make the transition to the platform from manufacturer has designed and manufactured an important platform for the technology giant system. This not only shows that the future market share will be greatly improved, but also reduces the gap on the other platform manufacturers. The most important is the acquisition of Marconi Company, BAe company to get rid of dependence on Saudi Arabia contract, get direct access to the U.S. market opportunities (Marconi Company in the United States have a branch, called Tracor).
With the BAe company to 7 billion 700 million pounds acquisition of Marconi electronic systems, this change destroys the relationship between the British company and DASA. This result clearly shows that the UK and Germany with the failure of the negotiations. With the turnover of up to 17 billion 400 million pounds, BAe company has become the largest company in Europe at that time (Aerospatiale -Matra 11 billion 600 million pounds DASA 9 billion 800 million pounds). The balance between business strategy and political sensitivity are of EADS future restructuring process has important influence.
eads Re negotiation
The negotiations between BAe company and DASA failed to end the British and German cooperation may also bring new opportunities for Spain and france. Although DASA is a cross along the coast of the Atlantic (not across Europe) leader, seems better suited to the alliance with the United States, but due to DASA who did not find the appropriate cooperation, coupled with the huge political and legal barriers to cross the the Atlantic League is very difficult. At the same time, the French aerospace and Matra merger and privatization, improved the relationship between method -DASA (space relationship since 1997 has been very good). On the other hand, in Europe there is a new opportunity. The Spanish government will be privatized as part of its policy, efforts to integrate the structure of other countries with the CASA company with European partners. During the June 1999 Paris airshow, DASA and CASA two companies signed a letter of intent to form an alliance.
Because the two companies of different sizes, the alliance looks a bit like CASA was acquired. However, is the importance of this alliance, one of the two large companies in national first determine their business partnership; two is it changed DASA with respect to the British and French partner status fundamentally. CASA company in 6 European companies although the scale is minimal, but for strategic reasons, it is involved in the Airbus and the Eurofighter project. Therefore, the new DASA-CASA group plays an important role in the two European cooperation projects (in the Eurofighter accounted for 43%, accounting for 42.1% of Airbus in).
However, after the June 1999 Paris airshow, Germany - Spain protocol soon overwhelmed by another event. -Matra and DASA's method in Spain unknowingly to a merger. To further accelerate the privatization process of France, the French government has become a shareholder of Lagardere, their hope that cooperation with Germany's sincerity.
Just as people look forward to the DASA-CASA Alliance announced that, in fact, in October 14, 1999, France - Germany announced jointly established the first cross national aerospace and defence company --EADS. But this reorganization did not stop, as we have seen, France - Germany and Spain again soon began negotiations, these efforts have signed in December 2, 1999 to join the EADS CASA protocol.
eads The scale of business
EADS was established as a substantive law - Germany, was formally established in July 2000, and became ranked in the world's second largest after the Boeing aerospace and defence companies, and a row in the BAE system after the company's second largest weapons manufacturer, and the company has development and sales of civil and military aircraft, missiles, and space the rockets and related systems. EADS plays an important role in most of the European project. Its business covers all fields of Aeronautics and Astronautics, including:
Civil aviation. In the Airbus Company, EADS has a future integrated company (AIC) and aircraft assembly line 80% of the shares. This business accounted for nearly half of the newly formed group turnover.
Military aviation. EADS has a share in Europe two of the most important projects. In the Eurofighter project, the French aerospace company -Matra group Dassault aviation's share of 45.76%, DASA and CASA each accounted for 30% and 13%.
Space flight。 The combined method of -Matra and DASA space, EADS has 75% new European Aerospace Corp assets, EADS has also become a major private shareholders Arianespace, occupy 25.9% of the shares. In the process of asset reorganization in world space
Helicopter。 They have integrated their business in the European helicopter company, the parent company of a consolidated basis no other business change. However, after entering the EADS CASA Spain became the "tiger" project partners completely.
Missile。 In the Matra space method -Matra BAe Dynamics (MBD) 50% of the shares and the shares in Euromissile into EADS, and DASA will be its stake in Euromissile and its subsidiary LFK shares into EADS.
In addition to the above five core business, light military transport business defense electronics business and DASA's method -Matra regional jet business and CASA are brought into the EADS. In November 2003, EADS announced a partnership with Japanese companies to develop bigger and faster and quieter hypersonic aircraft, to replace the concorde. In addition, EADS is the main contributor to the international space station, plans in 2007 to the International Space Station delivery Columbo space laboratory. In recent years the development of the main projects include: European fighter, automatic transfer of space station, A400M military aircraft, the Airbus A380, the European helicopter etc..
eads Equity balance
The shareholders of EADS level in two level:
The part of France, the 50% Holding Company controlled by the state, the other 50% by Lagard re SCA (37%) and France have institutional investors.
The second level is the French holding company, joint holding company Daimler Chrysler company and Sepi, accounting for 65.5% of the shares of EADS. With France and Germany each accounted for 30%, Sepi accounted for 5.5%. The remaining 34.5% are sold in Paris, Frankfurt and Madrid Stock exchange. For financial reasons, EADS headquartered in Holland.
In order to keep the DASA and -Matra's method of equal in EADS shares, the Daimler Chrysler Inc carried out asset reorganization before merging into the EADS, the Daimler Chrysler company shares in the stock market reached 30%. In France, EADS's 15% stake in the hands of the government, 11.1% owned by Lagard Re Group, another 3.9% owned by investors. Sepi with CASA company 99% shares for 6.25% shares of EADS. But he's the capital injection will dilute the Spanish shares, which shares the final share to 5.5%. Until December 2004, the parties holding rate remained unchanged, but there were reports that three shareholders to sell their shares in 2006~2007, the Daimler Chrysler Inc would like additional funds for investment in its core business, Lagard Re Group hopes to withdraw shares from the defense Aerospace Corporation.
It can be seen that France in EADS is the core of the shareholder structure of balance. Any one of them can not completely control the EADS, both parties enjoy equal rights is the principle of inviolability. If one of the shareholders to sell shares, only listed operations, does not change the internal power of EADS. That is to say, the shares and voting rights. In addition, the French and German shareholders have the preemptive rights.
eads Balance management
The organization of EADS did not set up the supervision committee, but there is a board of directors and an executive committee. The group's business is divided into 5 divisions, two led by France, two by the German leadership, another by the Spanish leadership. The company has three functions of central headquarters (finance, strategy and market). Division of the leadership and the functions of the headquarters staff to form an executive committee, led by two CEO. At the time when the establishment of EADS management structure shown in figure 2.
The comprehensive group of the central headquarters departments led by 22 senior administrative personnel consisting of support. If there are different opinions in the management of the business, the problem has been submitted to the board of directors, and then to the two president. In order to establish a EADS company, France and Germany and Spain all made a great concession. From the management structure can be seen in the figure, the equilibrium state and Spain as a relative Franco German forces neutral role.
eads The outlook for the future
After the integration of the development in recent years, EADS has made remarkable achievements in 2004, total revenue reached 31 billion 761 million euros, ranking seventh in the top 100 in military position. Just 4-5 years time, EADS has grown from a major platform and equipment manufacturers to transition to meet global demand of supplier integration system of government. Since the establishment, all income 6~7% raised funds for research and development work of the company every year, this proportion is much higher than the competitors, customers and investment in R & D funding is about two times that of other counterparts, these investments are the primary condition to ensure the future competition. The company's R & D personnel a total of 600 people, located in Paris, Toulouse, Hamburg, Munich and moscow,
Knowledge sharing and collaborative work between them.
In addition, EADS also continue to work through cooperation and mergers and acquisitions to expand the scope of business, they believe that international cooperation is successfully developed and affordable way to achieve one of the. In 2004, the company launched the advanced technology innovation program, foster innovation, technology research and development in the global scope, also set up R & D cooperation plan and China and singapore. In order to enter the U.S. defense market, established two years ago in North America EADS company, after the establishment of the company through the integration of the 11 EADS in the United States became a subsidiary of a new agency, completed the first step strategy to enter the American market, and in 2004 through the second stages of the acquisition of Racal instrument company to enter the United States market development strategy, namely through the acquisition activities to achieve the core strategy of business growth. 2004~2005 EADS, also through the implementation of factories in the United States, the United States to solve the employment strategy to expand business in the United States, such as the KC-330 tanker and the European helicopter in the United States established a production plant, to provide an opportunity to realize its next strategy to further open market, the u.s..