In about 230 species belonging to 3 subfamilies and 10 genera, found in the northern hemisphere. China has 10 genera and 113 species and 29 varieties (including the introduction and cultivation of 24 species and 2 varieties), distributed all over the country, almost all the tall trees, most of them are forest species and tree species, the composition of forest in the northeast, north, northwest, southwest and Southern China mountain zone, is also an important tree species in forest regeneration and afforestation the. Some kinds of available fat, refined turpentine and so on many kinds of chemical raw materials, some kinds of edible seeds or for medicinal, some species can be used as landscape trees.

Pinaceae Sketch

Evergreen or Deciduous trees Dilute, shrublike; branch only long branch, or a combination of long shoots and slow growth of short shoots, short branches are usually obvious, without obvious degradation of dilute. Leaf or needle bar, base not decurrent growth; Ye Bianping bar, dilute was four prism, on long branches scattered spiral, a fasciclelike on short branches; needle leaf 2-5 (1 or more thin needle needle and 81 needle) into a bundle, was born in the extreme degradation of short shoots the top of the base package with sheath. Flowers unisexual, monoecious; male flowers axillary or single Acremonium, or most set born on short branch top, with numerous whorls of stamens, each with 2 stamens, anthers, pollen sacs or bag, or with reduced air bag; bracts of female cones and cone scales by a majority of the spiral students which, when flowering is less than pearl scale bract, bract scale for dilute ovuliferous scale is large, each pearl scale belly (on) two gold mask anatropous, dorsal (lower) bracts and the ovuliferous scale separation (only basally connate), after anthesis increased development scales ovuliferous scale. Cones erect or pendulous, year or the following year rare third years maturity, when ripe to open, not open a thin; ventral scales back flat, woody or leathery, persistent or ripe glabrescent; bracts with distinct scales (only basally connate), long exposed or not exposed, or short base in seed scales; ventral base scales have 2 seeds, seeds usually end with a membranous wings, no wings or two thin wingless; embryo with 2-16 cotyledons, unearthed or not unearthed during germination.
Undergraduate genus: Pinus Pinus Linn.
In about 230 species belonging to 3 subfamilies and 10 genera, found in the northern hemisphere. China has 10 genera and 113 species and 29 varieties (including the introduction and cultivation of 24 species and 2 varieties), distributed all over the country, almost all the tall trees, most of them are forest species and tree species, the composition of forest in the northeast, north, northwest, southwest and Southern China mountain zone, is also an important tree species in forest regeneration and afforestation the. Some kinds of available fat, refined turpentine and so on many kinds of chemical raw materials, some kinds of edible seeds or for medicinal, some species can be used as landscape trees.
Gymnospermae Most species in 1 families, accounting for all Gymnosperms 1/3. Evergreen or deciduous ( Speciesis and larch ) Tree The trunk. Straight end Branch, irregular Alternate Or whorled; branchlets alternate or opposite, or both (dilute whorls) of the slow growth of the calcarine short branches (larch, larch and cedar), or extreme degradation and not obvious (short branch Pine ). Leaves, Bud scales Stamens, bracts, and scales are ovuliferous scale spiral arrangement. Leaves linear or needle; Linear leaves A flat, thin four prism, scattered on long branches, a fasciclelike on short branches; needle-shaped leaves From 2 to 5 into a needle
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Beam, was born in the degradation of short shoots at the top, the base package with membranous sheath. Flowers unisexual, monoecious, male flowers solitary axil (loose bract axils) or the top branches, dilute clusters (speciesis, Keteleeria ), with numerous stamens, each with 2 stamens. Anther The chamber, longitudinal, transverse or oblique fissure, pollen on both sides of a significant air bag or without airbag (larch, Douglas fir ), or with reduced air bag ( Hemlock spruce Group); female flowers composed mostly of bracts and Pearl scales, each pearl scales (on) abdominal surface base of the health two Anatropous After fertilization, ovuliferous scale increases rapidly developed into a scale. Cones erect or pendulous, mature year or next year (dilute third years); scales of wood, thin flat, nearly leathery, persistent or glabrescent (cooked Fir Jin Qiansong, cedar, abaxially, bracts); born in the scales of each other only free, basally connate, long exposed or not exposed, or short in scale base; seeds with membranous wings, thin wingless or nearly wingless (individual pine), the resin sac or not; embryo with 2 ~ 16 cotyledons, germination unearthed, unearthed rare (Keteleeria). Pinaceae less chromosomes, the base is basically the same, x=12, dilute 13.
In a total of 10 genera and about 230 species in the northern hemisphere (only Pine The distribution of individual species, for the southern hemisphere) Forest The main tree species, is also the development of forestry of main afforestation tree species, such as pinus, Spruce Genus, Larix, Abies, Tsuga and pseudotsuga. Chinese is a genus of Pinaceae in most countries, of which 10 genera are produced. cathaya argyrophylla And for the unique golden larch Single species of plants Also, Keteleeria species accounted for the entire production China;
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Pinaceae 1/2 several times in the national distribution. High latitude With the high altitude mountains are almost composed of the Pinaceae or three Mixed forest Rich in forest resources.
The earliest fossil conifers in early Mesozoic Jurassic Period , Cretaceous After an increase. The Quaternary Period With the global temperature drop and rise, type, number and distribution scope changes, multiply up to now, the formation of modern Distribution pattern . So far is the size of the survival and extinction of fossils were found in the northern hemisphere in formation.

Pinaceae distribution

Pinaceae is common in the northern hemisphere forest tree species, in their respective areas to three or. Mixed forest . The distribution is as follows: a variety of fir, spruce, larch and pine like minority cold climate and habitat requirements of wet or dry cold climate, distributed in High latitude To the frigid zone Cold temperate zone Southward, to the warm temperate zone and subtropical alpine and sub alpine,. boreal coniferous forest . Hemlock spruce A few, spruce, fir, larch and pine require cool, wet or dry, four seasons, mild cold climate in winter, mainly distributed in the temperate and subtropical regions above Zhongshan, composed of temperate coniferous forest. Fir, Douglas fir, golden Larch and pine fortunei, part for the warm and humid climate, mainly distributed in the subtropical Zhongshan, South to the tropics distribution higher wet cool mountain,. Warm coniferous forest .


The pine tree on the terrestrial environment adaptability. They can endure high temperature and low temperature of 50 DEG C or -60, in the mineral soil, bare sand, Ash Calcareous soil, limestone soil, and by Podzol To the growth of red soil in various soils, drought resistance, barren, like sun, therefore is famous Pioneer species .

Pinaceae Reproduction

The Pinaceae is divided into reproductive organs Male flowers and Female flowers Two. Male ball flower pollen; female flowers seeds in between the wood flake.
A young male cones of long scales Pollen sac That will produce a lot of pollen sac. Pollen The size is about 1/50000 to five thousand
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Between one cm and the weight is very light. When the pollination season comes, the wind of pollen from the male Thyrsiflorum Blow on female cones. some Pinopsida Plant flowers are monoecious, in order to avoid geitonogamy, female and male flower ball mature at different times, and the female flower ball growth in the higher branches of the top. In the mature pollen and female cones also ready for pollen preparation. Female flower ball will flake open, exposed ovules. There is a viscous liquid ovule, when the pollen arrived, just stuck, avoid flying away. After pollination, the female cone scales to closed cones, gradually dilated and keep green cones. In the cone, pollen will slowly seep into the ovule, and the formation of a tube. Through this small tube, sperm and Egg cell With the completion of. Fertilization . In a few months or years, ovule Seed growth. When Mature seeds After the scale open again, seeds can be spread by wind. Once the seed landed, bud root, grow into a new strain of gymnosperms.

Pinaceae life history

Pinus Sporogonium Tall perennial evergreen trees, Single axis The trunk, erect, branches whorled, with long and short shoots. Dictyostele, by 90 - 95% Tracheid Form, Resin canal About 1%, accounting for about 6% of the wood ray. Long branch on the scale leaves, axillary endogenous short branch, short branch is very short, the top 1 beam needle-shaped leaves Usually, 2, 3 and 5 leaves per beam, the base often have 8 - 12 sheath film shaped pieces (by Bud scales 1) become surrounded by leaves or 2 bundles and several resin.
Sporophyl The ball is unisexual, monoecious. Microstrobil arranged like spikes, born in long branches at the base of the new year, born in axil of scale. Each microstrobil has 1 vertical axis, vertical axis helical arrangement of Microstrobilus, back microsporophylls (abaxial) with 1 pairs of long small
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Sporangium. Microsporangium In The microspore mother cells After two times, successive divisions (one of which is Meiosis 4), the formation of microspore (pollen grains). microspore There are 2 layers of wall, outer wall protruding sideways into a balloon, can make the microspore floating in the air, easy to spread the wind.
Megasporophyll The ball was born in 1 or more per year of the branches near the top, the red or purple, then turn green and brown when mature. large Strobile It is composed of megasporophyll, megasporophylls is spirally arranged on the vertical axis, but they are not simple spores, it consists of two parts: the small sheet called bracts; above large top hypertrophy part is called the Pearl scale, also called Fruit scales Or kind of scales, that is ovuliferous scale megasporophyll, bracts is losing the reproductive capacity of megasporophyll. In the bract scale of Pinaceae plants and ovuliferous scale is completely separated, the base of each of the 1 cone scales on the adaxial surface with 2 ovules and ovule is composed of 1 layers of the integument and nucellus, The beads are Surrounded by the formation of Micropyle . The large sporangia, with 1 cells developed into large Sporocyte , after two consecutive division (one of which is the formation of 4 meiosis), megaspore, arranged in 1 columns called "chain Four split ". Usually only Point 1 end megaspore develops into the female gametophyte, the remaining 3 degradation.
male Gametophyte  
The male gametophyte is the 1 major structural decline, is composed of only a few cells.
microspore (mononuclear period of pollen grains) is the first cell of male gametophyte, Microspore in Microsporangium Germination, cell division 2, the smaller is the first 1 Prothallus (cell Vegetative cells ), the other 1 big called embryogenic cells, embryogenic cell division is 2, namely second prothallial cells and The sperm is The original cell ( The central cell Antheridial initial), and then split into 2, forming cells and tube germ cell . The mature male gametophyte of 4 cells: 2 degraded prothallial cells, 1 cells and 1 germ cell.
The female gametophyte
from Megaspore The development of A. Therefore, the first is the megaspore cells of the female gametophyte in it, Megasporangia (Zhu Xin) in the germination, were free nuclear division, formed with 16 - 32 free nuclei, not the formation of cell wall. Around the female gametophyte with 1 thin cytoplasm, the central 1 large vacuoles, the number of free nuclei evenly distributed in the cytoplasm, when the winter comes, the female gametophyte enters dormancy. In the spring, the new female gamete weight began to perk up, continue to free nuclear division, mainly the number of free nuclei increased significantly, increased volume. After the free nuclei of female gametes around the body begin to form cell wall, at the micropylar end of some cells become swollen, The archegonium The original cell. After a series of original cell division, the formation of several archegonia, female gametophyte contains 2 - 7 archegonia and a large number of mature endosperm.
Pollination and fertilization
Pollination in late spring, the megastrobilus axis slightly elongated, so young Bracts and Cone scales Slightly open. At the same time, Microsporangium Split a straight back, in the male Gametophyte The stage of pollen, spread by the wind, falling in the micropyle overflow in the pollination drop, and with liquid
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
The dry body is drawn into the micropyle. Then the megastrobilus ovuliferous scale continued closure. male Gametophyte The reproductive cell division in 2, form 1 Stem cell And 1 individual cells, and duct cells began to grow rapidly and elongation. Pollen tube . But at this time Megaspore No female gametophyte formation, the pollen tube to a considerable distance after the nucellus, temporarily stopped elongation, until second years spring or summer archegonia differentiation to continue after the formation of pollen tube elongation, the body cell division to form 2 sperm ( Spermatium ). Fertilization Usually in the 13 months after pollination was carried out, namely pollination in the first year of the spring, summer fertilization in second years. When the megastrobilus had grown and reached or will reach its maximum volume, the archegonium has fully developed. When the pollen tube elongation to The archegonium Destroy, neck cell arrival Egg cell At its apex, then rupture, 2 sperm cells and stem cells, all together into the egg cytoplasm, 1 of which with the function of sperm immediately to the central move, and close to the egg nucleus, and finally combined with the egg nucleus to form the zygote, this process is known Be fertilized .
The embryos of Pinus, is quite complex, with obvious phase, usually can be divided into Proembryonal Stage, embryo selection stage, embryo and organ Tissue differentiation Mature stage, embryo. But these phases are continuous development in order that is interacted.
1 proembryo stage: From the beginning to the formation of the fertilized egg cell proembryo, after the division of free nuclei, cell wall Produce and proembryo.
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
The fertilized eggs of 3 successive free nuclear divisions, the formation of 8 free nuclei, 8 free nuclei in the archegonial base arranged in the upper and lower two layers, each layer 4, the cell wall is formed at this time, but the upper upper 4 cells do not form cell wall, the cell the cytoplasm and Egg cell Quality is called open the lower layer; the 4 is called the primary cell Embryo cell Layer. Then open the primary embryo cell layer each layer and then split 1 times, forming a 4 layer, called the upper layer, layer, rosette suspensor (primary suspensor layer) and germ cell layer, composition Proembryonal .
The 2 stage: selection of embryo suspensor system development and polyembryony is the main characteristics of this stage. 4 cell proembryo from top to bottom, the first layer (layer), the initial absorption, shortly; the second layer rosette layer disappeared after several split; third layer layer 4 cell suspensor, its primary suspensor, do not divide, but the elongation; germ cell embryonic cell layer fourth layer the extension of the suspensor cells at the same time,
Followed by embryo cells following division and elongation, called secondary suspensor, because Suspensor And the secondary suspensor (germ tube elongation) rapidly, forming multi winding. Suspensor system . While the front layer cells of the embryo cells develop into embryo itself, but they do not consist of 1 embryos, and separated from each other in a vertical plane, each individual develops into the embryo, called polyembryony. This common phenomenon has two kinds: one kind is Simple polyembryony That is, in the same ovule within the archegonium. More than 2 of the Egg cell At the same time, can be fertilized, and so on embryonic development In the early stage, can produce more than 2 Proembryonal ; another is cleavage polyembryony, 4 germ cells from 1 zygote formation, respectively developed into 4 embryos. In the process of embryonic development, the embryo selection, usually only 1 (rarely 2 or more) normal embryo differentiation and development, become a mature seed embryo.
Most conifers with archegonia of more than 2, so simple Polyembryony Is a common occurrence, as cleavage polyembryony, is limited to a few conifers of the genus visible.
3 embryos and organs Tissue differentiation Stage: The embryo become 1 cylinders of elongation in further development. Near the axis of the cylinder.
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Area (base) is connected with the suspensor system, mainly Transverse division Cells, slightly larger than the rule of the formation of root and then develop into the ranks. Root cap Organization; while in the far axis zone, cell division If no specific direction, small cells and by these cells further differentiation, finally split Hypocotyl Embryo and cotyledon.
4 mature embryo: The mature embryo including Radicle , Hypocotyl (caulicle), germ and cotyledon (usually 7 - 10). The female gametophyte surrounds the embryo (endosperm) continue to grow, finally Nucellus Only a thin layer. The beads are developed into seed, seed coat is divided into 3 layers: the outer layer of the meat (not developed), the middle layer of stone, paper.
embryo A seed and seed coat and endosperm.
Gymnosperms The seed is composed of 3 generations, the embryo is new Sporophyte generation (2n); endosperm Is the female gametophyte (n); seed coat Is the sporophyte old (2n). After fertilization, megastrobilus continued to grow and become woody ovuliferous scale scales, scales of the top part is exposed to expand Scale Shield The middle scale shield, uplift or depression part Umbo Part of the epidermis, ovuliferous scale separated out to form seed appendages that spread wings, to wind. Seed germination, root through the micropyle out of seed coat, and quickly produce lateral roots, early in cotyledon in the seed, to absorb nutrients from the endosperm, with the continuous development of hypocotyl and cotyledon and cotyledon testa rupture, exposed, with the top of the stem growth, produce new plants.

Pinaceae classification

Pinaceae Overview

There is a very natural group gymnospermae, there are two kinds of views on the classification: according to single leaves linear and the formation of needle beam cauliflower at their extreme degradation of short shoots for the top Pinaceae fir subfamily (Abietoideae) subfamily (Pinoideae He Song). Or according to whether the slow growth of the calcarine short branch, then the Fir subfamily Divided into two subfamilies, namely fir subfamily and Larix mill (Laricoideae).
Pine (Pinus)
Is a large genus of about 80 species in the northern hemisphere. There are 22 kinds of China, are evergreen trees, leaves a fine needle, usually 2 to 5 needles in bunches, with students in the development of short shoots at the top. Monoecism Male, spring shoots ball peanut base, the top shoots grow 2 ~ 4 of female cones and cones after pollination to second years to mature in autumn, known as pine cones. Needles and cones is an important feature of pine cone. L
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Quality, persistent, the upper part is exposed Scale Shield There was apophysis, apex protuberance of the umbo; seeds usually have upper wings, is conducive to the spread of wind. Chinese pine (P.tabulaeformis) is a common species of northern coniferous needles in bunches of 2, leaf sheaths persistent. Beijing Tanzhe Temple, Daigakuji Park, the temple of the pines for Pinus tabulaeformis, Shandong Taishan The People look loose , Five doctor Is the fruit of Taihang Mountain pine, Henan pine Songling Taihang, Hebei Wuling Mountain Wulingbitong are loose Chinese pine . Pine is the endemic species of China, China distributed in northern and western provinces, often consisting of pure forest or plantation. Masson And Chinese are very similar, and coniferous needles in bunches of 2, but Xirou leaves, diameter less than 1 mm, suitable for growing in the South Acidic soil , produced in the middle and south, Southeast and southwest provinces.
Grown in Mount Huangshan, Mount Lu, Mount Tianmu Mount Huangshan Pine (P.taiwanensis) and Pinus tabulaeformis are very similar, but students can distinguish in leaves of resin. Mount Huangshan famous Guest-Greeting Pine Is this kind of. White bark pine (P.bungeana) white bark, Leaf three A needle beam, leaf shedding. The common cultivation in Beijing temple, in the park, as a famous ornamental tree. Korean pine (P.koraiensis) and Huashan pine (P.armandi) are coniferous needles in bunches of 5 balls, fruit large, long 9 - 20 centimeters, unwinged seed, the difference between them is that the former does not open at maturity scale cone, seed shedding, branchlets densely hairy, which scales the opening of seed shedding. Branchlets glabrous. The pine and Huashan pine seeds, can be fried, can be edible oil or industrial oil.
Larch (Larix)
It is Pinaceae, and Pinus is the difference Deciduous trees Leaves, narrow strip, most clustered on short branches, cones when mature, Bracts A kind of scale for long, obviously exposed. The growth in the temperate mountain. larix principis-rupprechtii (L.principisrupprechetii) in Northeast China Larix olgensis (L.olgensis)
And in Gansu, Sichuan Sequoia (L.potaninii) is the famous mountain afforestation tree species.
Cedrus (Cedrus)
Cedar leaf needle, many fascicled on short shoots, cone is mature scales and seeds fall together. In distribution Afghanistan To India. Chinese around the introduction and cultivation of beautiful tree pose, as one of the world's three major tree species.
Pseudolarix (Pseudolarix)
Only 1 kinds of Larch for deciduous trees, Ye Bianping, linear, fascicled on short shoots, cone is mature Seed scales Together with the seed shedding.
Chinese endemic species, is listed as the two key protected plant Chinese, produced in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei and Sichuan. The autumn leaves Chengjin yellow, like money, very beautiful, can be used as ornamental tree species.
In addition there is "some genera of Pinaceae fir" name, have pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga), Hemlock (Tsuga), Picea (Picea), Abies (Abies) and Cathaya Etc..

Pinaceae Number

Pine (Pinus) - about 115
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Larix mill
Cathaya (Cathaya) - only one
Larch (Larix) - about 14
pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga) - 5
Fir subfamily
Abies (Abies) - about 50
Cedrus (Cedrus) - 2 to 4
Pseudolarix (Pseudolarix]] - only one
Keteleeria (Keteleeria) - a total of 3
The genus Tsuga (Nothotsuga) - only one Hemlock (Tsuga) - a total of 9
Picea (Picea) - about 35
In addition there is a way to

Pinaceae Sonyako Pinoideae

Pinus Pinus

Pinaceae Spruce subfamily Piceoideae

Picea Picea

Pinaceae Larch subfamily Laricoideae

Cathaya Cathaya
Larix Larix
Pseudotsuga Pseudotsuga

Pinaceae Fir subfamily Abietoideae

Abies Abies
Cedrus Cedrus
Pseudolarix Pseudolarix
Keteleeria Keteleeria
tsuga longibracteata genus Nothotsuga
Tsuga Tsuga


Pinaceae purpose

Pinaceae mostly tall trees, usually faster growth, Timber volume Many are the main sources of construction materials and industrial materials. Some famous tree species Landscaping With ornamental plants, such as larch, cedar, etc..
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
The chemical composition of the Pinaceae is complex, its common feature is containing resin and volatile oil, the lack of Alkaloid The lack of biflavones. Resin stored in resin, and the coexistence of volatile oil. Contains a variety of resin organic acid (containing more than 90% resin acids in rosin), and Alcohol resin And a lot of resin, resin ester Hydrocarbon . The volatile oil contained in the needles and resin, the volatile oil contains a variety of alkenes. There are 3 kinds of common coexistence characteristics of fatty acid in seed oil of Pinaceae, CIS -5,9 eighteen carbon two acid (18:2) and eighteen CIS -5,9,12 carbon (18:3) and -5,11,14 acid three, twenty carbon three acid.

Pinaceae On behalf of the plant

Also called Kanamatsu And the water tree, is large deciduous trees, genera of pinaceae. Straight trunk, up to 40 meters high, 1.5 meters diameter. Bark dark brown, deep split squamous pieces. Branchlets with branches whorled and flat, the length of. The blade bar, flat soft, spirally scattered on long branches, on short branches 15 - 30 gold clusters, spreading to the surrounding radiation, then turn golden, round as coins, hence the name.
Pseudolarix flowers Monoecism The number of clusters in a ball, the male short branch top female flower single short branches in the top. Period of four or five months, early October mature cones. Seed scales will automatically fall off, winged seed, can travel on the wind.
Located in the Yangtze River Basin area Chinese Larch mountain, like light and fertilizer, suitable for acidic soil. Because of its large canopy, tree trunks tall and straight, dignified posture, beautiful world botanical garden is widely planted in the appropriate introduction, pool, waterfall, creek and other trees or planting clumps, do not have a taste.
The golden Larch seed can be oil. Wood brown, rough texture structure, but also straight, resistant to moisture, for buildings, bridges, ships, furniture and other timber; the root bark of medicine, called" Cortex Pseudolaricis ". Have strong fire resistance of Pseudolarix, in deciduous period in case of fire, even withered branches, trunk trunk injuries, spring can still shoot germination, restore vitality.
Huashan pine  
Evergreen trees, up to 35m, diameter 1m; wide conical crown. Branchlets smooth invisible hair, Winter buds A small, cylindrical, chestnut brown. Tree bark grayish green, old is split into square thick pieces fixed on the tree. Leaves long needles in bunches of 5, 8-15cm. Soft, margin serrulate, resin for more than 3 students, or on the back of 2 sides, 1 Chinese students, Leaf sheath Caducous. cone Conical long oval, long 10-20cm, long 2-5cm handle, mature scales open, seed shedding. Seeds wingless or nearly wingless, florescence 4-5 month, 9-10 month following cone.
 Pinaceae Pinaceae
Positive tree seedlings slightly like a Shade . Hi cool, humid climate, high temperature, drying is the main factor influencing the distribution of. Cold and strong in the northern part of its distribution area, even for -31 low temperature. Not resistant to heat, in high temperature season in poor growth. Hi good drainage, can adapt to a variety of soil, the most appropriate deep, wet. Shanxi, Henan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, Hubei, Yunnan, Guizhou, Taiwan and other provinces (regions) are distributed.
Tall pine needles, Huashan green, beautiful crown, rapid growth, is an excellent garden greening tree species. Huashan pine as available in the garden Landscape tree , Shade tree Trees and forest trees, can also be used for Clump planting Group planting, and excellent scenery mountain scenic areas of the forest tree species.
cathaya argyrophylla
Genus of gymnosperms pinaceae. National protected plants . Alias shirt childe, is a high of ten to 20 meters of evergreen trees. It is a special product of China belongs to the third century Relict Rare plants down.
Evergreen trees , with branches in, up to 24 meters, diameter is usually up to 40 cm, 85 cm to dilute; straight trunk, bark dark gray, split into irregular flakes; branchlets and upper branch growth slow, fawn, glabrous, or early pubescent, glabrescent, with slightly raised Pulvinus No bud; resin, Bud scales Fall off. Leaves spirally arranged, radial scattered, more dense, linear in the upper and lateral branchlets slightly curved or straight, usually 4~6 cm long, 2.5~3 mm wide, apex rounded or obtuse, base tapering into petiole inconspicuous, above midrib sag, dark green, glabrous or pubescent, lower; both sides have obvious surface along midvein white stomatal bands, edge micro - volume, cross section 2 edge resin road; leaf margin with eyelashes. Monoecious, male flowers usually solitary in 2 leaf axils; female flowers solitary in the leaf axils. Two cones mature, ovoid, 3~5 cm long, 1.5~3 cm in diameter, cooked brown or chestnut brown; scales of 13~16 pieces, wood, clamshell shaped, suborbicular, abaxially with short hairs, ventral base of students and two seeds, persistent; bracts small, ovate triangular, long pointed out, not exposed; seed obovoid, 5~6 mm long, dark olive green, with irregular spots, a winged 10~15 mm.

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