Sodium chloride (Sodium chloride), chemical formula NaCl, colorless cubic crystal or fine crystal powder, taste salty. The appearance is white crystal, which is the main source of water is the main component of salt. Soluble in water
Slightly soluble in. ethanol
), liquid ammonia
Insoluble; Hydrochloric acid
. The impure sodium chloride in the air there Deliquescence
. Good stability, the solution is neutral, the industry generally uses electrolytic method to produce saturated Sodium Chloride Solution hydrogen
Chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and other chemical products (commonly known as the chlor alkali industry) can also be used for ore smelting (electrolysis of molten sodium chloride crystal production of active metal sodium), used to configure the medical Normal saline
Life can be used. Condiment
sodium chloride Physicochemical properties
sodium chloride Physical property
The melting point of 801 DEG C (about 1074 K)
The boiling point of 1465 DEG C (about 1738 K)
Density: 2.165 * 10 Kg/m
Sodium chloride crystals of cubic symmetry. his crystal structure
In the larger Chlorine ion
A row of cubic Close packed
The smaller, the sodium ion is filled chlorine
The gap between the eight sides of ion. Each ion are surrounded by six other ions surrounded. This structure also exists in many other compounds, called Sodium chloride type structure
Or halite structure.
Sodium chloride is a white odorless crystalline powder.
The melting point of 801 DEG C
The boiling point of 1465 degrees.
Slightly soluble in ethanol, Propanol
In, and butane miscible into Plasma
Soluble in water, water. solubility
35.9g (Shi Wen). NaCl dispersed in alcohol
Can be formed colloid
Because of its water solubility. hydrogen chloride
There is less, almost insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
sodium chloride Chemical property 1 electrolytic molten metal by sodium chloride sodium
2 salt water electrolysis
3 and the reaction of silver nitrate
(in fact for Cl The nature) 4 with concentrated sulfuric acid reaction (hydrogen chloride preparation laboratory)
Representative concentration, Excess
On behalf of excess) 5.NaCl test
A: Sodium Chloride Solution to drip nitric acid
The acidification silver nitrate
There is a white precipitate (solution. Silver chloride
Have proven Cl, precipitation) .
Two: take a small amount of solution with platinum wire dipped in. Alcohol lamp
On burning, the flame is yellow, can contain Na card .
Three: in order to eliminate the interference, the original solution with desirable saturation Barium hydroxide
To significantly alkaline, then most cations and PO Four
Other anions will be precipitation. The solution of Ba Should be followed by Ammonium carbonate
In addition, the burning method to remove ammonium salt. The residue of water heating leaching, get the solution to HAc
According to the number of drops of acidification, 1:8 plus Uranyl zinc acetate
Reagent, and with a glass rod friction wall, such as lemon yellow crystalline precipitate, showed Na There.
sodium chloride Preparation method Industrial method
By the sea water (containing an average of 2.4% sodium chloride) Introduction Are concentrated, get salt (sodium chloride containing 160 ~ 180g/L) after precipitation of gypsum brine evaporation, Centrifugal separation
The prepared sodium chloride, more than 95% (2% moisture) and then dried salt can be prepared. Also available rock salt
, Salt Lake
Brine as raw material, after sun drying, preparation of crude salt. Underground brine and Well salt
As the raw material, through three or four effect evaporation, crystallization, centrifugal separation system. Laboratory method
The salt is dissolved in water, the removal of insoluble impurities, such as adding refining agent sodium hydroxide
and sodium carbonate
So, the SO Four
Ca Mg Other soluble impurities into precipitation, remove the filter finally with pure hydrochloric acid pH is adjusted to 7, concentrated solution to obtain pure sodium chloride crystallization.
In the laboratory the preparation method is equal to the amount of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, generation of Sodium Chloride Solution. The solution can be distilled, sodium chloride crystal. The main reaction:
In addition, sodium metal in chlorine environment light will produce sodium chloride, the chemical formula for:
sodium chloride Storage method
Operation note: airtight operation, strengthening ventilation. The operator must go through specialized training, strictly abide by the rules. Recommended operating personnel wear self absorption filter anti-dust masks, wearing protective chemical safety glasses, wear protective overalls on infiltration, wearing rubber gloves. To avoid dust. Avoid contact with oxidizing agent. When moving to light light unloading, prevent damage to packaging and containers. Equipped with emergency treatment equipment. Empty containers may be harmful remains.
Storage note: store in a cool, ventilated warehouse. Keep away from fire and heat source. With the Oxidant
Separate storage, avoid mixing reservoir. The storage area should be equipped with the right material for leakage.
sodium chloride application area
sodium chloride Industry
1, the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, will produce hydrogen and Chlorine
Chlorine, it is widely used in chemical industry, can be used for the synthesis of polyvinyl chloride
And pesticides, such as hydrochloric acid.
2, when the preparation of metal by electrolysis of molten sodium: sodium chloride and calcium chloride
The preparation of sodium metal mixture. Calcium chloride can be used as fluxing agent, sodium chloride to decrease the melting point of 700 DEG C. calcium
Less sodium, not the introduction of impurities.
3, sodium chloride is essential for many biological reactions, such as a variety of molecular biology experiments in solution containing sodium chloride, bacterial culture medium containing mostly sodium chloride. At the same time when the raw material preparation of soda ash ammonia alkali.
4, organic and inorganic industrial used in manufacture of caustic soda, chlorate, sodium hypochlorite, Bleaching powder
The refrigerant material, refrigeration system, synthetic organic materials and salting out agent. The iron and steel industry used as heat treatment agent. High temperature heat source with potassium chloride and barium chloride with salt bath, can be used as the heating medium, the temperature maintained at 820 to 960 DEG between. In addition, for glass, dyestuff, metallurgical and other industries.
5, analysis of fluoride and silicate trace reagents used as analytical reagents.
6, Hou's soda soda method: second step: the first step to prepare the ammonium bicarbonate solution and the mixture of Sodium Chloride Solution, under the temperature of 10 DEG C by sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride.
sodium chloride food industry
The food industry and fisheries for salt, also can be used as raw materials and refined salt seasoning.
Add some salt to get rid of the smell of raw materials in cooking dishes add delicious, fresh and this is the role of salt. "A tasteless, odorless salty" is that the use of salt should be appropriate, in order to play its unique function.
sodium chloride medical
sodium chloride injection
Sodium chloride is very important for life on earth. Most biological tissues contain a variety of salts. The blood sodium concentration is directly related to the safety level of humoral regulation. By the signal conversion caused by the transmission of nerve impulses is regulated by sodium.
Sodium chloride containing 0.9% water called Normal saline
Because, it has the same osmotic pressure and plasma. Saline is the main fluid substitute, widely used for the treatment and prevention of dehydration, also for intravenous injection
The treatment and prevention of hypovolemic shock.
Human being different from other primates, humans through sweating secrete large amounts of sodium chloride.
Sodium chloride is indispensable to people. The total amount of adult body containing sodium ions is about 60g, 80% of them exist in the extracellular fluid in plasma and in the extracellular fluid. The chloride ion also exists mainly in extracellular fluid. The sodium ion and Chlorine ion
The main physiological function:
(1) maintain the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid;
(2) regulate the acid-base balance of body;
(3) chloride in vivo in acid production, in addition, sodium chloride in maintaining normal excitability of nerve and muscle has the effect.
sodium chloride Agriculture
The solution can be used for selection. According to the species need to configure the NaCl solution, the greater density than water. The seeds in NaCl solution, the float is not full, full sink.
sodium chloride Other
According to the new findings reveal Singapore technology is released, sodium chloride can significantly improve the capacity of hard disk. Specifically, the existing traditional hard disk using the disk storage technology of random distribution, can only reach 0.5TB per square inch data density. Thanks to the new technology of sodium chloride with the help of high resolution lithography factor technology, data density will be more orderly, can reach 3.3TB per square inch without complicated equipment upgrades. The 1TB hard disk using this technology, without increasing the capacity of the disk can reach 6TB.
sodium chloride Matters needing attention
sodium chloride Danger
Risk classification: This product does not belong to the category of dangerous goods.
Health hazards: eating too much to increase blood pressure. That elderly people try to eat less.
Explosion hazards: no inflammable and explosive.
sodium chloride First aid measures
Skin contact: contact with skin and rinse with clean water.
Ingestion: such as excessive consumption, should drink plenty of water (such as: drink syrup, salt drink boiling water) or other measures (such as: injection of saline) to maintain the body's salt, otherwise, the consequences will be grievous (a dehydration symptoms).
sodium chloride Fire protection measures
Dangerous characteristic: This product is non-toxic chemical products, non flammable, no special requirements for fire protection.
Hazardous combustion products: no harmful combustion products.
sodium chloride Emergency treatment
Sodium chloride without danger, you can directly handle.
sodium chloride Handling and storage
Storage note: should be stored in a cool, ventilated and dry place, avoid light at room temperature, can prevent rain and stacking, and shall not be mixed, the end of the stack to the pH placement of wood, with moisture, stacking height of not more than two meters.
sodium chloride Contact control
Respiratory protection: wear masks can be.
Eye protection: if the sodium chloride crystals into the eyes, rinse with plenty of water.
sodium chloride Related news
sodium chloride Cooking misunderstanding
August 12, 2012, science channel CCTV " The road to health
"Program, expert Jin Feng said that as early as salt when cooking, can make sodium chloride volatile out, leaves sodium. This view is users that are in violation of chemical knowledge. Fan Zhihong, associate professor of nutrition and food safety department of China Agricultural University Food Institute said, sodium chloride is a stable compound, decomposition in the cooking temperature not impossible, chloride volatile situation. In August 16th, Jin Feng said in the program's speech has not been verified, with preciseness and proper.
sodium chloride A new compound
In December 2013, researchers now use advanced theoretical understanding and extreme conditions, the refined salt into strange chemicals. A salt of sodium and chloride composition. The experimental results show that the pressure is 20-142 Kyrgyzstan Pascal
Under the condition of sodium chloride can be converted into three sodium chloride, three sodium chloride, two sodium chloride, two sodium chloride, three
And seven sodium chloride
This strange chemicals and keep stable chemical property.