Egg

Also known as chicken eggs, egg chicken, hen eggs. It has a hard shell, inside there Air chamber , Egg white and Yolk Part。 Be rich in Cholesterol , rich in nutrition, an egg weighs about 50 grams, containing 7 grams of protein. Egg Protein The Amino acid The proportion is very suitable for human physiological needs, easy for the body to absorb the utilization rate as high as 98%, high nutritional value, is one of the most commonly eaten food.
Egg

Egg structure

Egg Eggshell

 Egg structure Egg structure
Complete eggshell is egg round, a large head and a small head, accounting for about 11%~11.5% of the volume of the whole egg. Eggshell It can be divided into shell membrane, shell leather and gas chamber. Is the main component of egg shell calcium carbonate (calcium carbonate), accounting for about 91% to 95% of the quality of the eggshell, and its composition of Pearl calcium, Oysters , Bovine bone Dried fish, is the same. calcium A good source of quality. In addition, the eggshell is water accounts for about 5% of the Magnesium carbonate (magnesium carbonate), and 2% calcium phosphate (calcium and phosphate) Colloid (colloid).
The shell membrane: in the shell outside, a layer of opaque, the structure of the role is to prevent the egg membrane; Water content Evaporation.
In the inside of the shell after shell Film A total of two layers, air can freely through the membrane.
The gas chamber: the gap between the two layers of shell eggs in the hypodermis; if the gas chamber is lost, will continue to increase.
In the shell vinegar Or some acid solution For a period of time, the shell will disappear, it becomes no shell egg, leaving a layer of thin film.

Egg Shell membrane

The shell membrane (shell membrane) is wrapped in a protein outside fibre The plasma membrane, is like a Keratin (keratin) a Organic fiber Net. The shell membrane is divided into two layers: the outer membrane is thick, close to the shell, is a layer of opaque, the structure of the film role is to avoid the egg contents of water evaporation; the inner shell membrane is about the former thickness 1/3, in the inner shell membrane attachment, atmosphere Through this free film. The inner shell membrane and shell membrane are closely connected, only in the end of the two egg chamber (air blunt separation form sac). The gas chamber is only after the egg output, is outside the body temperature caused by the contraction and the formation of voids in the shell membrane; if the egg water Branch lost, gas chamber will continue to be increased; Be fertilized The eggs hatch, with embryo The Development Increased.

Egg protein

protein Is a gelatinous substance in the shell under semi flow, volume About 57% - 58.5% eggs. Protein containing approximately Protein 12%, mainly Ovalbumin . protein Also contains a certain amount of riboflavin , Niacin , Biotin and calcium , phosphorus , iron etc. material .
Protein and protein concentration, dilute protein. Concentrated protein: near Yolk The protein concentration was higher. Dilute protein: protein part near the egg shell, concentration of dilute.

Egg Yolk

Yolk How is the central protein, by lacing hung on the poles. About the whole egg yolk volume 30%~32%, as the main constituent Vitellin In addition, Fat The content of fat is 28.2%, belongs to a class of phospholipids Lecithin . On the aspect of human nutrition, rich in egg yolk Vitamin A and Vitamin D , and contains a high iron , phosphorus , sulfur and calcium etc. Mineral . With egg yolk Blastodermic .

Egg Blastodermic

In a white spot on the surface of the egg yolk, not Be fertilized The call ovule Fertilization, call Blastodermic . Fertilized eggs that diameter of about 3 millimeter Ovules, smaller unfertilized eggs.

Egg Yolk

Yolk General stratification, by Huang Luanhuang and white yolk in concentric circles formed alternately, egg yolk in the middle yellow heart, heart and neck connected along the long axis of blastoderm, egg yolk, and both ends of the thick protein composition of yolk, it makes egg cells maintained in the center of the protein, plays a buffer role, to prevent the eggs the shock to the hatch.

Egg Cuticle

The eggshell surface layer again, similar to the skin cuticle.

Egg Vitelline membrane

Vitelline membrane Some birds, eggs, close to the membrane surface of eggs. Is the primary Egg membrane That is the cell membrane of the egg development and has the function of protection. It is in the ovary In the formation of. It is generally considered to consist of follicular cell secretion, egg itself may also be involved in the formation of the vitelline membrane.

Egg Eggshell

Eggshell From the inner shell membrane, gas chamber, the outer shell membrane, shell, protective film composed of it. The inner shell membrane and outer shell membrane as shell membrane. Close to the two film in the other part, but in the blunt end separated to form an air chamber. The inner film thickness is only the outer membrane thickness of 1 /3. The film is transparent, only allows water and small molecules pass through, mainly composed of keratin and a small amount of carbohydrate. Chorion birds can maintain the osmotic pressure and respiration during embryonic development, the protection of the embryo. It is mainly composed of a shell organic matter (2%) and Calcium salt (98 % ), also have a small amount of citrate , Phosphate and sodium , potassium , magnesium The composition and proportion, they are different in different kinds of birds, such as eggshell of organic and inorganic materials ratio of 1: 50. Cuticle were closed, transparent protein film. But the gulls eggs have no protective film. Film is divided into two layers, the inner shell stick really contains red and blue, brown pigment green pigment, the formation of porphyritic textures, outer cuticle formation of eggshell color. The film does not affect the egg gas exchange, but can prevent the excessive loss of water in the egg and to prevent microbial invasion, hence the reason for this is washed bad egg. Stomatal eggshell, observed at high magnification, the stomatal oval or round ((chicken) Hagdon ). Kongdaosi funnel Like more and more narrow, from outside to inside. The pore distribution is not uniform, the stomatal density of blunt end is often greater than the sharp end of the stomatal density.
The function is mainly manifested in several ways: embryonic gas exchange with the outside world in the process of incubation, and light, heat And sound transmission; Prevent Excessive water evaporation of eggs; the hatching birds in bear weight To prevent, mechanical damage and microorganism; provide embryos required in the process of calcium; because of the shape of the eggs in the nest and to increase stability in a small space, is conducive to the surface of egg hatching; has good camouflage.

Egg formation

Oocyte stay ovary In the growth and development, the yolk in the egg gradually increased. The yolk in concentric circles as the level, the formation of dark and light colored yolk yolk (Huang Luanhuang) (Bai Luanhuang) are arranged alternately Yolk The structure, form a latebra by white and yolk, which extends to the animal pole, slightly swollen at the end, most known as the pan nuclear expansion. White egg yolk contains more Protein Huang Luanhuang, rich in lipid material. The egg cytoplasm in a few areas are mainly located in the animal pole at the top of the yolk, the nucleus is located here. With the increasing of yolk in the oocytes, volume Large follicles in ovarian surface. Ovulation, Primary oocytes The completion of the first meiotic division, from the first Polar body A secondary oocyte. Then enter the second time metaphase of meiosis. Ovulation, follicular membrane rupture, the secondary oocyte is released from the ovary, fallopian tube was immediately very active in the umbrella. In the umbrella of the Department about stay 15 minutes here and meet if sperm fertilized and discharged second Polar body .
Fallopian tube Will be divided into 5 parts: the umbrella, albumin secreting part (ampulla and isthmus), uterus , Vagina . The chicken will take about 24 hours to generate a complete egg. The umbrella is funnel Thin edge shape, the formation of wrinkles. This chicken eggs for 15-18 minutes and complete fertilization. Albumin secreting part of tube wall thickness, mucosa The formation of a longitudinal fold, Gland The secretion of concentrated protein in the yolk egg bag outside, formed by thick tie down rotating twisted protein at the ends (eggs). This chicken eggs for 3 hours. Isthmus lumen narrow, gland cell secretion is formed inside the shell membrane. Chicken egg stay 75 minutes. Uterine tubal mucosa swelling parts, forming deep pleats, muscular. egg Cells The water absorption in the formation of lean protein, shell gland secretion of calcium Chemical compound The formation of eggshell. Laying 4-5h before the wall of the uterus Pigment cell The secretion of pigment is coated on the surface of the shell, the formation of a variety of Splash . Egg stay 18-20h. Vaginal tubal end opening left cloaca. Leave the egg uterus After entering the cloaca, strong cloaca wall muscle contraction can be excreted. At this point, Egg Always with thin ends before moving, but in its output before half an hour, it will be over quickly, so in the egg, the egg is the first production out of the thick end.
The early development of fertilized chicken eggs
 Egg yolk Egg yolk
The chicken is oviparous animal, embryo Growth in eggs. After fertilization, the zygote in the fallopian tube after 24 to 27 hours of development. In such a long time, has been developed to the early stage of zygote and blastocyst stage of gastrulation. At this point in the yolk is visible on the slightly larger white disk called the germinal disc, which contains hundreds of cells, so that the egg, is no longer a Cells The. If you do not accept the rooster hen mating, the laying eggs remain in the middle of the second division of meiosis so that each egg (technically egg yolk) can be seen as a big cell.
Blastodermic Always upward
Laced hanging egg yolk granules, due to gravity, like a tumbler, its center of gravity is always in the second half, so that no matter how the location of the egg, which is always in the blastoderm, towards the hen warm body, to accept the birds hatch.
The gas chamber in the blunt end of the egg
A blunt head slightly pointed an egg. The blunt end of the gas chamber, the focus should be to make the egg head offset. Due to the shape and the center of gravity, when the egg yolk is flat, inclined to the pointed end, if rolling, rolling circles and not roll away, and rolling, always head outside, if there is little damage, does not affect the whole egg. If the gas chamber at the blunt end, egg became "tumbler", is not conducive to the protection and hatching of embryos. The blunt end of the air chamber, when the chicken is hatched, it often head toward here, then the mouth into the gas chamber. It can be directly breathing room air. The shape of the egg, and is closely related to the chicken eggs in the form. End of the egg is chicken feet support, play a strong supporting role, so that the original peck on the eggshell tends to blunt end.
Many yellow eggs and soft shell eggs
Egg yolk , Yellow eggs The hen is mainly in the ovarian follicles mature too close or mature at the same time, mature eggs continuously to the fallopian tube, so that the two or three egg encounter in the fallopian tube, or by egg shell membrane bag together, in which two or three egg yolk wrapped in one shell, a yellow egg or yellow eggs, during the formation of mostly just egg chicken. The shell is very thin, even no eggshell, called soft shelled egg. The main components of the eggshell is calcium carbonate, the hen food that contains a lot of calcium, if the food lack of calcium or vitamin D, or due to injection of Newcastle disease vaccine after the reaction, or because of frightened chicken Fallopian tube Peristalsis strengthened, not the formation of eggshell output may produce soft shell eggs.

Egg Nutritional composition

According to the analysis, hectogram egg containing 12.8 grams of protein, mainly for ovalbumin and Ovoglobulin , which contains 8 kinds of essential amino acids, and composition of the human protein very similar to egg protein, the body's absorption rate can be as high as 98%. Hectogram egg containing 11 to 15 grams of fat, mainly concentrated in the yolk, also can easily be digested, the egg yolk is rich in lecithin and sterols, Lecithin And calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin D and vitamin B. The function of these components to enhance be of great advantage, therefore the nervous system, and is a good egg Food for thought .
An egg contains Quantity of heat That is equivalent to half an apple or a half cup milk The heat, but it also has 8% P, 4% zinc 4%, iron, 12.6% protein, 6% vitamin D, 3% Vitamin E 6%, vitamin A, 2% Vitamin B 5%, vitamin B2, 4% Vitamin B6 . These nutrients are essential human, which plays a very important role, such as the repair of human tissue, the formation of new organization And consumption energy And in the complex The new supersedes the old Process.
[protein ]: egg Rich in high-quality protein, 100 grams each egg contains 13 grams of protein, two egg protein is roughly equivalent to 50 grams of fish or meat protein. Egg protein digestibility in milk , Pork , beef and rice Is the highest.
[fat ]: 11.1 grams of fat per 100 grams of egg, mostly concentrated in the egg yolk, unsaturated fatty acid For many, milk fat was melt like, easy to be absorbed by human body.
[ Cholesterol ] contain more in egg yolk Cholesterol , hectogram up to 1510 mg, therefore, a lot of people, especially the elderly to eat egg wary, afraid to eat egg cholesterol caused by increased atherosclerosis. Scientists have found that although the egg contains more cholesterol, but also rich in lecithin. Lecithin into the blood, can make cholesterol and fat particles become small, and keep the suspended state, thereby preventing the deposition of cholesterol and fat in the blood vessel wall. Therefore, scientists believe that the cholesterol in normal elderly, eat 2 egg per day, 100 ml of cholesterol in the blood up to 2 mg, will not cause vascular sclerosis. But also should not eat, eat too much, adverse gastrointestinal digestion, resulting in waste, but also increase the burden of liver and kidney.
[ Amino acid ]: Egg in methionine Particularly rich in content, and Cereal crop And beans are the lack of this essential amino acids.
[ Other micro nutrients]: Egg and other important micro Nutrient , such as potassium, sodium , magnesium In particular, Yolk The iron in up to 7 mg /100 g, but the yolk iron for non heme iron, and lecithin combination, the utilization rate is only 3%; egg is very rich in phosphorus, but the relative lack of calcium, so the consumption of milk and egg together can complement nutrition. The egg is also very rich in vitamin A, B.
[ nutrition] every 100 grams:
Energy 156 Kcal
   Protein 12.8 grams
   Fat 11.1 grams
   carbohydrate 1.3 grams
   folic acid 113.3 micrograms
   Cholesterol 1510 mg
   Vitamin A 194 micrograms
   Thiamine 0.13 mg
   riboflavin 0.32 mg
   nicotinic acid 0.2 mg
   Vitamin E2.29 mg
   calcium 56 mg
   phosphorus 130 mg
   potassium 154 mg
   sodium 131.5 mg
   iodine 27.2 micrograms
   magnesium 10 mg
   iron 2 mg
   zinc 1.1 mg
   selenium 14.34 micrograms
   copper 0.15 mg
   manganese 0.04 mg

Egg Cooking method

Egg eating is varied, have boiled, steamed, fried, fried etc.. On the digestion and absorption of nutrition egg rate, boiled, steamed egg 100%, tender fried 98%, egg 97%, Poached Egg 92.5%, old fried 81.1%, raw was 30%~50%. In view of this, boiled, steamed egg should be the best way to eat. But we should pay attention to eat slowly, otherwise it will affect the absorption and digestion. However, for children, or Steamed custards , Egg & vegetable soup The most suitable, because these two approaches can make the protein solution, easily digested and absorbed by children. Be careful: Tea egg We should eat less, because tea with acid, combined with iron and egg will stimulate the stomach, affect gastrointestinal digestive function.
Egg method
Boiled Egg often occurs when cracking, avoid the basic essentials of broken shell is "cold boiling water boiled eggs".
The reason is due to cracking the egg volume when heated will expand, and the expansion of the liquid rate is greater than the expansion rate of the solid shell, when the content of the volume of liquid is larger than the capacity of eggshell, eggshell will burst.
However, egg protein in the contract when they freeze, if the egg rapid heating, when the egg white outer heat expansion, internal or cold, no expansion, expansion is relatively small, the shell expansion increased capacity and egg chamber capacity can not bear, will burst. Continue heating, internal heating expansion, the outer layer of egg white has solidification shrinkage, the total amount of expansion is relatively small, the shell will not burst. The best method of rapid heating is put directly into the boiling water boiled egg. The specific approach is:
After the water is boiled, put the egg in a small cold Colander In the cook in boiling water for 8 minutes (to eat half cooked egg cooked can reduce the cooking time), which can avoid hot and can prevent the below eggshell, and time is easy to control. Just keep open water, small fire. Egg to cool, just removed from the refrigerator or the egg in the winter the best summer, such as egg storage in the refrigerator, put the egg in cold water soak for a while cold can also reduce the broken shell. The winter is cool, egg and water, use cold boiled water, as long as the small, fast heating, generally do not break the shell.
The wrong way is egg in cold water, small fire slow heating, heat has enough time to transfer to the egg, egg yolk inside and outside at the same time thermal expansion, large expansion quantity, the bursting of the shell. Then often egg white has not reached the solidification temperature, egg white will be out of the shell, solidified into a white flocculent.
How long to cook egg
Boiled Egg eight minutes the nutrition Boiled Egg time is short, not afraid to eat egg yolk solidify, not health; a long time, the egg "old", it is not too good. Many people may have a confused, cooked egg how long the most appropriate? The Ministry of health deputy director of the Nutrition Department of Beijing Hospital dietitian Li Changping's own experience, just a good egg and cook for 8 minutes.
How to peel the egg skin
Boiled chicken egg Sometimes not peel, its reason is not cooked egg, this egg peeling off a piece of a piece of skin protein. Two is the egg is cooked, but the eggshell protein and stick together, even if a piece of the shell is stripped off, protein will be down, is not that time consuming, it does not look beautiful. To this end, can be cooked eggs, while hot and placed in cold water soak, and then peel good peel. (cooked egg should be placed in boiling water after soaking, cooling because the egg itself has many small holes, no water disinfection bacteria will enter the egg through the hole)

Egg Three taboos

Original title: egg nutrition can not eat egg little-known three taboo
Eat different Soybean Milk egg egg little-known three taboo
The egg can not be boiled together with MSG, I believe that many housewives are already known. But you may not know, egg with the following three kinds of food can not eat together! Come and have a look at it!
1, after eating egg do not immediately eat sweets
Many places have the habit of eating sugar Poached Egg, in fact, it will make the egg protein amino acids in the formation of fructose poorammonia acid conjugates. This material is not easy to be absorbed by human body, so it will have adverse effects on health. Original title: Health Alert: 4 food is egg buster eat beverages were killed
2, after eating egg do not immediately drink Soybean Milk
Every morning, the mother will carefully prepare breakfast for children. I hope the children can get enough nutrients in the morning. So many mothers will enter the egg flower in Soybean Milk in. Or in the children eat egg and let the children with Soybean Milk thirst. In fact, drinking alone has a strong tonic effect of Soybean Milk contains a special substance called trypsin, its egg and egg white in a loose combination of protein, will result in the loss of nutrients, reducing the nutritional value of two.
3, after eating egg do not immediately eat goose, rabbit
Egg is not with meat, goose meat to eat together. Li Shizhen in the "Compendium of Materia Medica" said: "the egg into the same rabbit carnivorous diarrhea. "That is because the rabbit of sweet shabby and cold, and the egg gamping slightly cold, all two contain some bioactive substances, total food will react to stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract, causing diarrhea.
Soybean Milk and egg can not be eaten?
About two grams of the reason, the most popular is, egg protein in the digestion and absorption of trypsin and need help, Soybean Milk contains a trypsin inhibitor, can inhibit trypsin activity in the intestinal tract, thus affecting the egg protein digestion and absorption, reduce its nutritional value.
Soybean (including soybeans and beans) does contain trypsin inhibitor, which can inhibit trypsin activity of the human body, thus affecting the digestion and absorption of protein. But the trypsin inhibitors are heat labile and processed into Soybean Milk process, by boiling heat for 8 minutes can be destroyed more than 85%, which still contains a small amount of heat stable protease inhibitors, but the activity is relatively low, not enough to interfere with the digestion and absorption of egg protein.
What's more, even if Soybean Milk is not fully heating, trypsin inhibitor, which is also the first effect of Soybean Milk in protein digestion, don't forget, Soybean Milk is rich in protein food (equivalent and milk content), on which the egg round of "outsiders".
So, Soybean Milk and egg can eat together, the so-called "g" is completely unreasonable. Just need to pay attention to, in addition to soybean trypsin inhibitor, and plant hemagglutinin, lipoxygenase and other anti nutritional factors, regardless of whether the egg and Soybean Milk collocation, are needed to fully cooked, otherwise it will affect the digestion and absorption of protein or small, serious may cause poisoning, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distension and diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. At present, the commercially available Soybean Milk and qualified family automatic machine Soybean Milk homemade Soybean Milk have been fully heated, safe to drink.
In fact, from the nutritional and health perspective, not only can Soybean Milk and egg to eat together, or good nutrition collocation, can learn from each other, complement each other. Soybean Milk protein belongs to high-quality protein, but the disadvantage is that the methionine content is less, and the high methionine content in egg, if eaten together, methionine rich egg can make up for soybean methionine deficiency, so as to improve the overall nutritional value of protein.
In addition, high cholesterol egg has been one of the most feared, excessive intake of cholesterol would increase the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. But Soybean Milk not only does not contain cholesterol, but also rich in dietary fiber can interfere with absorption of cholesterol and phytosterols. Both eat together, so that we can obtain the egg rich nutrition, but also can reduce the harm of cholesterol, is a very good collocation.
In short, Soybean Milk and egg can not only eat, but also good collocation, but must remember, Soybean Milk need cooked to drink.
Other mistakes to eat
Drink beer with raw egg, egg, egg boiling water etc.. To eat these nutritional experts are wrong, because the egg in biological is harmful to human body, which cannot eat destroy biotin.

Egg The related culture

Egg According to different alias

Chicken (" The History of the Han Dynasty "), Chicken eggs (" Shanhaiching "), Rolling head The fruit, peel, rejection, dishes made with scrambled eggs (food industry), giggle (southwest).

Egg Strange customs

[ summary]: in foreign countries, there are many reports of strange customs to eat eggs.
[ Britain ]: In the UK, during the festival feast, people love to break the egg, drops into the water, with its shape for days after the life is happy. Then, mix with sugar steamed, means a happy and harmonious life.
[ France ]: In some remote villages, in France the nanhunnvjia bride love to steal on clothes in the egg. When the nuptial chamber, deliberately fall, let the egg fall out, to show their own "eggs".
[ Yugoslavia ]: Yugoslavia youth, the egg as a sacred symbol of love and purity. When Easter The first arrival on Monday, the youth party dance, love, young men and women in love, love is always true to the core. If the man does not eat the woman to send egg, then not love each other, love or rupture.
[ Turkey ]: In Turkey, the egg is a symbol of fertility. If the girl is determined not to fall in love, if not married, she is a lifetime do not eat egg. Eat egg girl said they want to marry, do mom.
[ Nigeria ]: Nigeria is a traditional concept, that is what women eat egg sterilization, the egg will not have children. Therefore, women generally do not eat egg.
[ Romania ]: In Romania, women eat egg more sons and daughters, a. Therefore, the country's most women love to eat egg.
[ Morocco ]: Morocco has a strange custom, women can not eat egg when her husband's face, otherwise they will be condemned her husband. Therefore, women can only eat egg hide to eat.