Silver fir (scientific name: Cathaya argyrophylla
Chun et Kuang): bark dark gray. Big flat, upper internodes branchlets thick, or a small lateral spurlike. Pulvinus
In the bar, slightly uplift, apex with nearly circular, circular or square shaped leaf scars, its color is light. How many sickle leaves linear, curved or straight, apex rounded, base tapering into petiole inconspicuous, dark green above, puberulous along midvein, Sag have dense brown pubescent. Male flowers
Before the opening of long oval shaped oval cylindrical spikes in full bloom, nearly sessile, translucent bracts membranous, base on the back side of the convex edge, with irregular sawtooth, Stamen
Yellow, female cones base without bracts ovate or elliptic, long ovoid, ovuliferous scale suborbicular or reniform oblate, yellow green, brown bracts triangular, oblate or triangular ovate, apex long caudate acuminate, margin undulate irregularly denticulate.
cathaya argyrophylla cone
Immature green, cooked by the dark chestnut brown, ovoid, long ovoid or oblong, or suborbicular with oblate to ovate rounded, abaxially densely pubescent slightly transparent; seed
Slightly flat, obliquely obovoid, base sharp, olive green with dark green, with irregular light markings for wings membranous, yellowish brown, asymmetrical oblong or elliptic obovate.
The specialty of rare species, local mountain born in 940~1870 meters above sea level areas, such as broad-leaved forest
And so on. Located in China Guangxi
Guizhou, etc.. (overview picture reference source: )
cathaya argyrophylla Morphological character
The fruit of cathayaargyrophylla
Silver fir, Gymnosperms
There is a high, and ten to 20 meters Evergreen trees
. The height of 40 cm above. Bark dark gray, is split into irregular flakes when old. Big flat top branchlet internodes grew slowly and coarse, or a small number of lateral branchlets due to the death of terminal bud and spurlike. Annual branches yellow brown, densely gray yellow pubescent, gradually falling off. Biennial branches dark yellow. Near the occipital strip, slightly elevated, suborbicular, apex with circular or square shaped leaf scars, its color is light. Winter buds ovoid or conical ovoid, apex obtuse, yellowish brown, glabrous, usually 6-8 mm long. Leaves spirally forming radiation stretch in the upper branch internode closely arranged, clusters of students, under which side evacuation growth, the majority of 4-6 cm long, 2.5-3 mm wide, margin slightly revolute in cross section, both ends of the round, with both sides below along midvein significantly white stomatal bands, each stoma
With the 11-17 line of stomata, stomatal bands generally shallow green leaf margin side band width. Lateral branchlets short internodes, leaves more dense, upper leaves dense, nearly round shaped clusters, the majority of not more than 3 centimeters long, flat or nearly flat edges in cross section, both ends of the inclined tip, the white powder with 9-13 for stomatal pores, and the width of the sideband subequally. How many sickle leaves linear, curved or straight, apex rounded, base tapering into petiole inconspicuous, dark green above, puberulous along midvein, Sag have dense brown pubescent. Leaves the hair more along the leaf margin with eyelashes, eyelashes soon fall off, leaving only traces.
Male flowers open before long elliptic ovoid, ca. 2 cm, 8-9 mm in diameter, when the cylindrical spikes, 5-6 cm long, nearly sessile, translucent bracts membranous, base on the back side of the convex edge, with irregular sawtooth, located in the interior of the bracts large, broadly ovate, 6-8 mm long wide, 4-5 mm, outside Bracts
For the triangular oblate deformation support base leaves soon fall off, Stamen
Yellow, ca. 6 mm; female flowers without basal bracts ovate or oblong, ovoid, 8-10 mm long, a diameter of about 3 mm, ovuliferous scale suborbicular or reniform oblate, yellow green, brown bracts triangular, oblate or triangular ovate, apex long caudate acuminate, margin wavy irregular serrulate. cone
Immature green, cooked by the dark chestnut brown, ovoid, ovoid or oblong, 3-5 cm long, 1.5-3 cm in diameter, for 13-16 scales, with nearly round or oblate to ovate oblong, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, abaxially (especially covered part). Roma was slightly transparent; bracts long scales of 1/4-1/3; seeds slightly flat, obliquely obovoid, apex base, 5-6 mm long, 3-4 mm in diameter, olive green with dark green, with irregular light markings for wings membranous, yellowish brown, oblong or elliptic obovate asymmetry, long 10-15 mm, 4-6 mm wide.
cathaya argyrophylla Growth habit
Fir growth needs certain Illumination
But in general, Lin Cathaya to 20 strains of several strains, some only 1 strains, easily fast growing broadleaf trees to shade, seedlings and saplings of forest growth and death, if you do not take protective measures, the risk will be faster growing broadleaf species alternation of extinct. In May June the following year pollination, fertilization, cone is mature in October. Cones ovoid, brown or green brown. seed
Dark green. China
Unique relic species.
Cathaya distribution area is located in the humid climate, the annual average temperature is 8.4-14.8 DEG C; foggy, annual average relative humidity above 80% in the subtropical zone, the local mountain was born in Zhongshan. The origin of the summer climate Liangdong cold, rainfall, humidity, fog, limestone soil, shale
And a yellow sandstone, Yellow brown
PH3.5-6.0, or yellow limestone soil, shallow soil, gravel.
Positive species, Root system
Developed in shallow soil, bare rock, usually only 2-3 meters wide, on both sides of the steep narrow ridge of 60-70, the top cap or isolated hills or cliffs, gaps between cliffs. Fond of light, fog, strong cold resistance, low temperature, -15 can tolerate drought tolerance, barren soil and wind characteristics of seedlings to shade.
cathaya argyrophylla Distribution range
Located in China Guangxi
Huaping and Eastern jinxiu
Lei, county and southwestern Chengbu County
Shajiao hole, Chongqing Jinfo Mountain
Zhushan, cypress hill, and Jing Wulong County
Baima Mountain, Guizhou Daozhen County
Shahe and Tongzi County
cathaya argyrophylla The main value
Could the ancient relic plants, the species of pollen in Eurasia The third century
Found in the sediments. The special form, embryonic development
Study on plant similarity Pinaceae
Plant System development
Ancient geography and Quaternary glaciation
The climate, are more important research value. At the same time, but also a good fir species, its hard material, fine texture, is made of fine furniture materials.
cathaya argyrophylla Breeding technology
cathaya argyrophylla Seed propagation
The silver fir leaves
Reproduction。 The October harvest mature cones, put in ventilated place to dry shade, seed shedding, rub to fin, mix the wet sand storage, second spring Sow
. At the bottom of the nursery should choose good drainage of the Zhongshan hill, or seedlings in thin forests. Upland seedling, should as far as possible to create ecological environment need Cathaya especially should pay attention to, the control of temperature and humidity. use Cutting method
or Grafting method
When the low survival rate of reproduction.
cathaya argyrophylla Breeding method
cathaya argyrophylla Vegetative reproduction
 cuttings, grafting, layering, low survival rate. The cutting lasted 3 months before the formation of callus, but no rooting. High reproduction after 128 days of callus formation and shoot part begins to take root, the survival rate of 20%, to slash pine for grafting, Stock
And the cut grafting, only a few survived, therefore, silver fir breeding remains to be further studied.
cathaya argyrophylla Pests and diseases
Find harm Huaping Nature Reserve
Silver fir (Cathaya argyrophylla) Artificial forest
There are 3 diseases, pests of 17 species, belonging to 5 families and 13 orders. Preliminary determination of main pests: needlecast, fuliginous, dendrolimus kikuchii matsumura
cathaya argyrophylla Protection of the status quo
cathaya argyrophylla The level of protection
For China Cathaya "national level protected plants" That is called a botanist" Plant Panda
"Silver fir, three million years ago quaternary glaciation
After remaining treasures today. Hunan
province Chengbu Miao Autonomous County
The insurance company to do fire insurance for cathayaargyrophylla. In Chengbu County Sha Zhou Dong Cathaya reserve, the growth of 58 strains of leafy branches stout fir tree, their number is rare at home and abroad. Although the "national treasure" has been listed as a national level species, were especially cherish and protect, but because the shade not Cathaya Xiyang, always grows in dense Virgin forest
So at any time by zone, forest fire threat, forestry research workers are very but heart. In order to survive, in order to "national treasure" Cathaya eons, Chengbu County insurance companies in the forestry sector to actively support and close cooperation, carried out a feasibility investigation of the reserve, formulate relevant clauses and the corresponding prevention measures and insurance, 58 of cathayaargyrophylla do fire insurance.
After all that silver fir, the local government and relevant units are very seriously, and take some protective measures. Has been in Guangxi and Jinfo Mountain in Chongqing Huaping Nature Reserve was established to protect the fir based, to carry out the test and introduction of silver fir. In order to promote natural regeneration and expansion of the distribution range of silver fir, suggest that growth in the only plant canopy density is large, silver fir forest trees have distribution points, choose the appropriate cutting part of the fast growing trees or in the upper layer; the growth of silver fir on both sides of the ridge, cutting some trees, saplings and seedlings, with the growth of silver fir.
cathaya argyrophylla Huaping reserve
Huaping reserve is a towering mountains, Hai Hiro's original forest, the main peak 1895 meters above sea level Qingling. The annual average temperature of 12-14 DEG C. The area is a great mystery plant treasure, it with the elevation difference, and valley, mountain Topography and climate
Different, there are subtropical Broad-leaved evergreen forests
, Deciduous broad-leaved forest
, coniferous forest
Temperate plants, and other mixed vegetation types. A wide variety of plants, only there are more than 1000 kinds of higher plants. The most rare is the botanical world thought, silver fir, ice age had grown on earth silver fir plants. Huaping rock is sandstone and shale, faulted, steep.
cathaya argyrophylla Jinfo Mountain reserve
Be situated Chongqing Nanchuan District
The national scenic area within the territory Jinfo Mountain
On the growth of an ancient relict plant
- cathayaargyrophylla. Jinfo Mountain has a maximum of 1978 strains of silver fir, height 16 meters, diameter 53 cm. Could love low temperature cloud, humidity, rainfall, sunshine less alpine climate. The silver fir growth at an altitude of 1300 meters to 1800 meters in the area. Jinfo Mountain preserved many silver fir, because in two million and five hundred thousand years ago The Quaternary Period
Continental glaciers covered most. The Northern Hemisphere
The dense forest area, the third century and China before the mass extinction. Jinfo Mountain is located at the junction of North Guizhou, is Qinling Mountains
The south, daloushan mountains, towering, like a big barrier, blocking the attack and the valley glaciers, affected by the monsoon climate, glacier activity is limited in local area, flora was not "complete failure" of doom, silver fir can be preserved.
cathaya argyrophylla Jinxiu Yinshan Park
Jinxiu park is the most Chinese guests Cathaya south point distribution which has a silver fir, cathayaargyrophylla DBH
86.9 cm, height 30.65 meters, more than 50 years old, known as the king of the silver fir. The park has 10 cathayaargyrophylla, and Pinus kwangtungensis
, rhododendron aureum
Many of the rare species composition Mixed forest
cathaya argyrophylla History of Botany
As far as geology
During the period of Cenozoic era
The third century, silver fir had been widely distributed in The Northern Hemisphere
The The Eurasian continent
And before Soviet Union
It has been found the fossils, however, about 200-300 million years ago, the earth covered with a lot of glaciers, almost swept across Europe
and North America
But, the Eurasian continental glaciers force is not large, some area unique geographical environment, has not been attacked as glaciers, some biological haven. Silver fir, Metasequoia
Other rare plants and it was preserved, become a witness of history. In cathayaargyrophylla China
When first discovered, and the Metasequoia, also has caused the world The plant kingdom
The great sensation. In the summer of 1955, China botanist Zhongjixin
Led an investigation team to Guangxi Guilin
Nearby Long Shenghua Pinglin District
Investigation, found a plant appearance
Like Keteleeria seedlings, and later taken to complete the specimen trees, he will be sent to this batch of precious specimens chun woon-young
Professor and To let
Professor, after they identified, that the earth is already extinct, leaving only the Fossil
The rare plants - silver fir. The number of cathayaargyrophylla found in 50s is not much, and the area is very small, since 1979, in the Hunan
To found a dozen, more than 1000 strains.
cathaya argyrophylla Plant culture
There is a "dark" silver fir's name, but the same is not akin to Chinese fir. It is a long green large tree. It's straight trunk, branches spreading, vigorous and graceful manners. The pagoda tree like tota kings, standing on the ridge above. Trunks covered with scales, like the pines; and that The grass is green and luxuriant. needles, and cedar and similar. This "non pine pine, fir fir tree like non", is the appearance of the silver fir. The suspect as its narrow dark green leaves back, will find two long bright white, when a mountain breeze, visible tree full of glittering, beautiful. This is the origin of the name of cathayaargyrophylla.
People love to give it many beautiful silver fir, the name: "living fossil plants", "plant Panda", "Chinese forest treasure" and "Linhai pearl" and so on, in order to highlight the unique Chinese for Cathaya flora of the rare species in the world, "the national treasure".