Larch (scientific name: Larix gmelinii
(Rupr.) Kuzen.) is Pinaceae, larch Tree
Up, up to 35 meters, diameter 90 cm; young branches dark brown bark, splay or nearly flat, ovate conic crown; winter buds subglobose, dark brown bud scales, margin with eyelashes, apex basal bud scales with long pointed. blade
Linear oblanceolate, apex acuminate or obtuse, midrib above does not uplift, young cones purplish red, ripe before Brown, ovoid or oblong, brown or purple brown, gray white seeds obliquely ovoid, 5-6, flowering, cone is mature in September.
Larch is the main tree species China Greater Khingan Range coniferous forest, timber rich, the region is the future of afforestation and forest regeneration of main tree species. Wood slightly heavy, moderate hardness, easy to crack, sapwood heartwood pale yellow, yellowish brown to reddish brown, straight texture, fine structure, the proportion of 0.32-0.52, a resin, durability. For housing construction, civil engineering, poles, zhouche, joinery processing and wood fiber raw materials such as timber industry. The trunk can be extracted from the bark extract tannin resin.
(overview map reference source: Chinese Natural Museum
larch Morphological character
Trees, up to 35 meters, diameter 60-90 cm; tree bark dark brown scaly, split into pieces, tree bark gray, dark gray or gray brown, split into flake peeling, peeling after endothelium was purple or nearly flat oblique branches show, Crown of a tree
Ovate conic; long shoot, thin, yellowish brown or pale brown yellow, ca. 1 mm in diam., glabrous or with scattered hair or short hair, or by or sparsely or densely pubescent, basally often hairy, two or three year old branches brown, brown or gray; spur 2-3 mm in diam. The top end is yellowish white villous between the occipital lobe; Winter buds
Round, Bud scales
Dark brown, margin eyelashes, apex basal bud scales with long pointed. Leaves linear oblanceolate, 1.5-3 cm long, 0.7-1 mm wide, apex acute or obtuse, above the midvein not uplift, sometimes on both sides of each 1-2 hole line below along midrib on each side of the 2-3 air line.
Young red cones, mature
The ovoid or oblong seed scales when mature the upper opening, brown, brown or purple brown, 1.2-3 cm long, 1-2 cm in diameter, a scale of about 14-30; the central five angle scales ovate, 1-1.5 cm long, 0.8-1.2 cm wide, apex truncate, rounded truncate or slightly concave, dorsal scales glabrous that shiny; Bracts
Short length scales of the 1/3-1/2, nearly triangular long ovate or ovate lanceolate, apex acute pointed ribs extend; seeds obliquely ovoid, gray white, with brown markings, 3-4 mm long, 2-3 mm in diameter, with wings ca. 1 cm, lower fin width, upper oblique triangular, apex obtuse; cotyledon 4-7 pieces, needle shaped, ca. 1.6 cm; primary leaves of narrow strip, 1.2-1.6 cm long, flat above the midrib, below midrib uplift, apex obtuse or slightly pointed. Florescence 5-6 month, cone is mature in September.
larch The origin of habitat
Located in China large and small Xingan mountain area 300-1200 meters above sea level. Hi light is strong, the water demand is higher, in different environments (such as the Piedmont, swamp, peat swamp, meadow, river valley and mountain soil moist and rich humus and shady dry sunny and humid etc.) could grow, and was born in deep soil, fatness, good drainage to the north the gentle slope hills and vigorous growth. Often composed of large area pure forests, or composed mainly of mixed forest and larch birch, black birch, Betula, Populus, Pinus sylvestris, clump of Picea koraiensis, Picea jezoensis and other broad-leaved trees. There is also the distribution of the Soviet Far East area. The type specimen was collected from the Soviet Union in Siberia.
larch Growth habit
Larch is strong positive species, light adaptability to soil water condition and soil nutrient conditions to adapt to a wide range of. But the most suitable larch in the wet, good drainage, ventilation, soil deep and fertile under the best growth, but in Larch drought
Barren mountain slope or grow in perennial water water wetlands or low-lying land can also, but the birth of bad. Larch cold in general, the lowest temperature of - 50 DEG C under the condition of normal growth.
larch cultivation techniques
The artificial tree picking fruit seed
in September, will open cone spread drying, beating, screening, and dry storage. During
October to March second, a short period of time can be directly sowing dry Tibet, the screening of seeds after proper drying, placed in ventilated, dry room, second year spring sowing a month before germination of mixed sand. Till
mid March, select the elevation of 300 meters above the shady slope and semi shady slope soil fertile, well drained sandy loam, ploughing and deep leveling, 1 meters wide around the high bed or high ridge, manure is 3000 kg per mu, strict disinfection of soil. Sowing
in late March, seed germination after direct seeding. Otherwise, use 40 degrees Celsius warm water soaking for one or two days, in a warm place for mixed sand or sawdust germination before sowing. Ditching drill, filled with water. 7 to 10 kilograms per mu of planting, covered with crushed small humus soil or sand, not more than 0.5 cm, with the best conditions, then coated with a layer of grass moisture.
From April to July second years after seedling of Qi, necessary shade, light transmittance remained around 60%, the removal of the rainy season. The mid to late 6 and mid July were thinning 2 times, the last time sowing per meter Stay
About 100 seedlings. Pre emergence always maintain the surface of bed wetting, with Watering can
Every day the water 2 to 3 times, after the emergence of water can reduce the number of appropriate, but not too dry bed. After the emergence of 15 to 20 days after ammonium sulfate 5 kg per mu, after every half a month of Continuous Fertilization 3 to 4 times, each unit fertilizer amount gradually increased to about 10 kilograms. July stop amount of nitrogen fertilizer, topdressing fertilizer, seedling blight is the main disease. Chupu
second year spring soil thawing Chupu transplanting. Some 3 to 5 days before watering time, the soil moisture is not easy to loose, seedling root. The root proper pruning, note the sapling don't break bud.
larch Pest control
Spring and summer peak before spraying 1:1:100 ascospores from Bordeaux mixture, 50% tuzet 500 ~ 800 times liquid, 70% Fenaminosulf 500 ~ 800 times liquid, 65% zineb 500 times liquid, 45% Amobam 200 ~ 300 times liquid, 621 young or ill forest canopy cast smoke agent, chlorothalonil smoke or sulfur smoke agent.
larch The main value
Larch wood heavy and solid, compressive and bending strength,
And decay, wood technology is of high value, poles, railway sleepers, bridges, pillars, vehicles and buildings and other excellent timber. At the same time, the growth of larch is tall, crown shape, root system is developed, strong ability of anti tobacco. So, it is a good Landscape tree
You can also make. Arabia galactosan
. Arabia larch arabinogalactan from larch wood with water or dilute alkali extraction processing, belonging to low viscosity and high dispersion Gum
Mainly used in medicine, food, etc..