Brown bear

The brown bear (scientific name: Ursus arctos Also known as:) Grizzlies . Is the largest body of land Carnivora Mammal One of the 1.5-2.8 meters long, 0.9-1.5 meters high shoulder, male female body weight 80-250 kg 135-545 kg. The head is big and round shape, vigorous, shoulder uplift. Cumi winter coat, up to 10 cm; different colors, such as gold, brown, black and brown. The forearm is powerful, their front claw to 15 cm long. The tip is not like Catamount That return to claw sheath, these pettitoes are rough. Forearm strength when swing powerful, blunt claws can be devastating.
Brown bear
The main habitat in the cold temperate coniferous forests, many in the daytime and walk slowly, there is no fixed place, usually alone. Omnivorous, including a variety of plant roots, tubers, fodder, grain and fruit, like to eat honey, including animal ants, ant eggs, insects, rodents, ungulates, fish and carrion. During hibernation hibernation, body temperature, heartbeat and detoxification system will stop operation, to reduce heat and calcium loss, prevent the loss of temperature and osteoporosis. When running at speeds up to 56 km / h. During hibernation per litter, fetal 1-4 Aberdeen, spring female bears often play in the forest with little bear. Eurasia, and most areas of the North American continent.

Brown bear Morphological character

The brown bear is the largest body of land Carnivora Mammal One of the 1.5-2.8 meters long, 0.9-1.5 meters high shoulder, male female body weight 80-250 kg 135-545 kg. The heaviest kodiak bear Up to 800 kilograms, erect up to 3 meters high. The light Ursus arctos syriacus Only 90 kg. The shape of strong shoulder and neck muscles bulge. Cumi winter coat, up to 10 cm; different colors, such as gold, brown, black and brown. In America, because of their lighter hair color, silver grey endings (from the word "grizzled" to mean "grey"), it is also called "grizzly bear (grizzly)". The brown bear strong feet fur color varies according to its distribution in different regions, from almost all black to chocolate brown and gray, red and brown to light.
Brown bear smell Excellent, is 7 times the hound, vision is also very good, can see the fish in the water fishing. The muscle on their back to their forearms very strong, their front claw longest to 15cm. The tip is not like Catamount That return to claw sheath, these pettitoes are rough. Forearm strength when swing powerful, blunt claws can be devastating. The bear paw is long, but not good at climbing trees, and a large head than their ears, it is rather small, when they put on the thick hair of the winter, small ears only partly hidden and partly visible. Bruins snout is wide, has 42 teeth, including two large canines. Like other XiongKe animal, they also stumble type animal, and has a short tail.

Brown bear Habitat

The bear is a relatively strong adaptability of animal, from the edge of the desert to alpine forest, even the region of ice can live strong. Living in North America Love bears more open areas, such as the tundra and alpine meadow area, near the coast are often able to see their footprints. Eurasia The brown bear is more love in the woods, easy to hide during the day.
Mainly found in mountainous coniferous forest or coniferous forest, forest area, forest in the wind, but this, many types of habitat burned forest, swamp, river valley, and along with the season change, vertical migration phenomenon, the summer in the mountain forest, spring and autumn than in low the life in the woods.

Brown bear Living habits

The brown bear is omnivores . Their diet varies with the seasons. Generally, plant food accounted for more than 60%, which includes a variety of plant roots, tubers, fodder, grain and various fruits etc.. The rest is for animal food, such as insects, rodents, animal hoofed animal (such as elk, moose, caribou, bison, wild boar and so on), fish and carrion. Living around the coastline bears every year in the salmon spawning season will prey on salmon . Alaska bears special love to eat salmon migration. Grizzly bears is a preference of carrion.
Bear good at swimming and fishing in the river, can also climb trees and walk upright, but the action is not flexible enough, usually walking very slowly, this is when he walks on the same side before and after the legs together and into account, but the running speed is quite fast, sometimes can easily catch up.
The main activities during the day. Nature alone, except during breeding and nursery period, are separate activities. In the forest, each individual has their own field, often left with the mouth bite marks on the trunk, stood up in the trunk with its claws scratching mark left on the tree body and wipe miso mark left, as a symbol of their field boundaries, so as to avoid each other. Living in the interior of the great bear territory, male bear territory nearly 700-1000 square kilometers of the giant, even adult females have 100-450 square kilometers to patrol; and those living in the Islands Sea territory to many small ones, male bears usually only 133-219 square kilometers, the bear is 28-92 square kilometers. Brown bears territory of intersection of the situation is more common, male bear territory and sometimes a few bear cross.
The seasonal variation of the change will bring food and resources, such as salmon spawning and Berry High yield of the harvest season, then temporarily walking hundreds of kilometers, migrate to places where food is the most abundant. The brown bears crowd together, is the highest level of the big male bear those huge size, they will stand in the most favorable terrain, and the lowest level of threat, the smallest is just those newly independent young men and women. With the child of a single mother bear is ranked second, but it is quite dangerous, because of the son's love, the mother bears very aggressive.
Brown bears out general activities in the twilight, and the day is hiding in the nest rest, some brown bears may ever walk around. The nest is usually built on the hidden good hillside, or The big stone Under the tree roots, they sometimes do it yourself to dig a nest, and then collecting some hay like shop into the nest, such a nest sometimes for several years.
The bears have the habit of hibernation, from the end of October or the beginning of November, has been to the next 3-4 months. In order to accumulate the required for hibernation of about 50 kg of fat, autumn must eat 400-600 kg of berries and other food. When winter approaches begin to choose those caves, is full of fallen wood sticks, the weak sunny areas, many choose to live trees or rock hole slot, sometimes in the swamp on the dry mining crypt on the mound. With the forepaws cave to pave the way for the grass, leaves and moss. Each individual living alone in a cave, only females under the age of 3 with the cubs to live together. Into the hole before a turn around the hole, and then jump into, or back into the nest, or mess up their footprints, to avoid predators found cave, better hide. In the hibernation period mainly rely on stored body fat to maintain life, if there is danger, will wake up at all. In the warmer days, sometimes to the outside activities for a period of time.
Because the rate is not bear in hibernation as the real The new supersedes the old. hibernating animal that dropped to very low, and the sleeping bear might wake up at any time. Not all the bears will hibernate. For example, those living in the south of the brown bear, the climate is not so bad, winter food is guaranteed, the bears hibernate time may be very short. The bears have started to re active season in second years 3-5 months, but the specific time should be in the place of residence, climate factors and so on. During hibernation on reserve fat life. To save energy, reduce their body temperature of about 4 degrees Celsius, the heartbeat and breathing frequency is reduced.
The brown bear is quite aggressive animal, especially in the protection of territory and food. In order to protect the food, they will get rid of The wolves and Mountain Lion The other, the bears will beat the invasion of their territory. But most of the fighting is still concentrated in the mating season. Mother bear to raise children, usually every 3-5 years before mating time, in order to let the mother bears as soon as possible into the mating stage, male bears will look for opportunities to kill the mother bear children, despite the brave mothers in the face of these body it 1.5 times or even two times the guy struggled to fight, but in there are still 45% deaths in young male bears as.

Brown bear Distribution range

Origin: Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, India, Iran, northern Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Macedonia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Norway, Nepal Poland, Romania, Pakistan, Turkey, Serbia, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the United States.
Probably extinct: Bhutan
Area of extinction: Algeria, Egypt, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Lebanon, Mexico, Liechtenstein, Moldova, South Korea, Morocco, Palestine, Portugal, San Marino, Syria, switzerland.
 The distribution map The distribution map

Brown bear The mode of reproduction

The mating season is generally brown in the annual 5-7 month. Mother bear Pregnancy About 6-9 months, early spring growth, will produce 2-4 Zi in the winter cave, usually two. The mother bear with about one and a half years raising bear. When the cubs born is very small, only 300 grams, hairless, eyes closed, 30-40 days to open, half a year after the start with plants and small animal feed. Young love walking upright, lively and lovely, with each other, often play slapstick. They will be together with the mother until two and a half to four and a half years old, learning all the skills needed to survive, then they have to find their own territory. The male beast does not assume parenting tasks, sometimes even attack young cubs to grow to 4-6 years before sexual maturity, physiological maturity to 10-11 years old. In the life of brown bears and wild life is about 20-30 years, under captive conditions, the longest life bears lived to the age of 50.

Brown bear Subspecies differentiation

The brown bear (20 subspecies)
Chinese.
Latin name
One
Ursus arctos alascensis
Two
Ursus arctos arctos
Three
Ursus arctos beringianus
Four
Ursus arctos californicus
Five
Ursus arctos collaris
Six
Ursus arctos crowtheri
Seven
Ursus arctos gyas
Eight
Ursus arctos horribilis
Nine
Ursus arctos isabellinus
Ten
Ursus arctos meridionalis
Eleven
Ursus arctos middendorffi
Twelve
Ursus arctos nelsoni
Thirteen
Ursus arctos persicus
Fourteen
Ursus arctos pruinosus
Fifteen
Ursus arctos pyrenaicus
Sixteen
Ursus arctos sitkensis
Seventeen
Ursus arctos stikeenensis
Eighteen
Ursus arctos syriacus
Nineteen
Ursus arctos yesoensis
Twenty
Ursus arctos lasiotus

Chinese.
Latin name
One
Kodiak
Ursus arctos alascensis
Two
European Brown Bears
Ursus arctos arctos
Three
The Kamchatka brown bear
Ursus arctos beringianus
Four
California Grizzlies
Ursus arctos californicus
Five
Ursus arctos collaris
Ursus arctos collaris
Six
Ursus arctos crowtheri
Ursus arctos crowtheri
Seven
The giant bear
Ursus arctos gyas
Eight
Grizzly
Ursus arctos horribilis
Nine
Himalayan Brown Bear
Ursus arctos isabellinus
Ten
Caucasian bear
Ursus arctos meridionalis
Eleven
Kodiak bears
Ursus arctos middendorffi
Twelve
Mexican grizzly bear
Ursus arctos nelsoni
Thirteen
The brown bear
Ursus arctos persicus
Fourteen
Ursus arctos pruinosus
Ursus arctos pruinosus
Fifteen
A brown bear
Ursus arctos pyrenaicus
Sixteen
Sitka Bruins
Ursus arctos sitkensis
Seventeen
The Stikine River
Ursus arctos stikeenensis
Eighteen
Ursus arctos syriacus
Ursus arctos syriacus
Nineteen
Ursus arctos yesoensis
Ursus arctos yesoensis
Twenty
Ursus arctos lasiotus
Ursus arctos lasiotus

Brown bear Population status

One of the Bruins are threatened by trade animal, their number decreased in early to mid twentieth Century is extremely powerful. To 2012, the number of the world bears estimate at around 100 thousand. West Asia, South West Asia, Chinese Tibet and Kashmir Brown was on the verge of extinction. The European brown bear before the distribution area has a large area of extinction. In some areas there are a small number of bears, including the Scandinavia Peninsula, Russia, Slovenia, the Pyrenees, and Italy (Abruzzi mountains) and the Abruzzi mountains Trentino Valley (Trentino Valley).
In addition to the human, the bears in the wild state has no natural enemies. The bear needs a larger space foraging and life, the scope of its activities to reach nearly 1300 square kilometers. However, with the range of human settlements continue to expand and extend the rise, logging, mining, road construction and human activities, so bear habitat gradually reduced. The natural habitat is limited, as a threat to their survival. With a large number of European settlers came to America, the bear population began to decrease. In less than one hundred years, the bear population from 100000 initially reduced to 10000 only at present.
For business development, living and leisure purposes, the road into the forest area and plain area, forcing the bears had to move to the mountains. The brown bear foraging space narrowing, forcing them into the human living space, and here the brown bear is thought to threaten the safety of livestock. People often put the bears as a trophy to be hunted, poachers believe Paws And the bear has a magical effect. The main factors to reduce human hunting, entertainment and other commercial behavior is the uptake of xiongdan wild populations.
WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) believes that there is an urgent need to plan more protection for the bears.

Brown bear The level of protection

Included in the " The World Conservation Union "(IUCN) 2008 Red List of endangered species ver (LC) 3.1 - no danger.
Himalayan Brown Bear and Mexican grizzly bear Included in the " Washington Convention "CITES Appendix I protected animal; the rest of the bears are included in Appendix ii.
The three subspecies Chinese territory, Himalayan brown bear, Ursus arctos lasiotus and Ursus arctos pruinosus Included in the ". The list of national wild animal protection China "2.
Note: all bear atlas.