Pine (scientific name: Pinus) the world's nearly eighty kinds of pine species, not only the variety and wide distribution, such as distributed in the north and northwest several provinces Chinese pine And, the black pine and Pinus sylvestris Pine Mount Huangshan Province, central China, Masson pine, pinus densata , Qinba mountain pine and Pinus henryi, and Taiwan Jack Ye Song Most of our country, the main tree species of afforestation.
Pine for the round shaped branch, internode length, branchlets straight or slightly curved downward relatively thin, slender needles into bundles. The crown looks pine canopy is not compact, "pine" is the crown feature image description. So, "loose" is a kind of tree canopy pine. Pine solid, life is very long.
Clover three needle pine forest area in Qinling Mountains has distribution, Pinus bungeana, Sichuan Yunnan area of Yunnan pine, Simao Pine Introduction of Southern China, central China Slash pine , Loblolly pine Etc.. Four needle pine species, only U.S.A California distribution. In addition, Pinus OOCARPA, Ravi Xun Song is the four needle or white beam. Bunches of pine species, widely distributed, northeast of pine, northwest and southwest provinces of Huashan pine, and Joe pine Guangdong, pine, Anhui pine, Pinus dabeshanensis Cheng et Law , Yan Song , Taiwan pine Etc.. Most are tall Tree High, 20 to 50 meters, up to 75 meters ( U.S.A The Pinus lambertiana P.lambertiana), very few are shrubby, such as Yan Song (P.pumila) and Pinus yunnanensis (P.yunnanensis).

Pine History of Botany

A young pine tree crown was Pyramid, a wheel with branches. Seedling emergence, cotyledon expansion, first of all, the primary leaves, solitary, spirally arranged, linear lanceolate, margin toothed leaves. 3 years after the primary leaf leaf function exercise ~ 1 only Needle Usually, 2, 3, 5 bundles, apical short branch was born. Each bundle of coniferous base Leaf sheath Early deciduous or persistent. The resin ducts in the mesophyll position in adult plants is relatively constant, can be divided into exogenous and endogenous health, 3 types of. pine needle The cross section of the leaf is visible in 1 or 2 vascular bundle Under special circumstances, can be combined in the vascular Diploxylon pines in the. Flowers unisexual, monoecious. The scales of most cones, mature after lignification. species scale The exposed part of said thickening scale shield, Scale Shield Strumae apex called umbo. Some species of umbo spines, some non. Cone is mature scales open, but a few tree seed shedding; various scales long kept closed. Each kind of scale with 2 seeds, seeds with a long upper wing, with few short winged or wingless .
The most obvious characteristic is the Ye Cheng pine needle, 2 needle and 3 needle or 5 needles in bunches. as Chinese pine , Masson , Mount Huangshan Pine The leaves of 2 needle, White bark pine The leaves of 3 needle, Korean pine , Huashan pine , White pine The leaves of 5 needle.
For pine Monoecism Plants and spores of the Ye Cheng cone shaped arrangement, the formation of the female and male flower. Female flowers single or 2 4 was born in the new top, most male flowers gathered in the lower branches. Pine cones generally open in the spring and summer, but
 The pine tree The pine tree
Pollen to the female cones after second years before the summer to germination, the female fertilization develops into cones (commonly known as pine or pine cones, not fruit). In the autumn cone scales mature, open, each kind of scales with two seeds.
Most of the species in the genus Pinus is tall trees, and lack of good material, dongliangzhicai. China northeast "Wood King", pine of western North America widely distributed tall trees (75 meters high), ponderosa pines, originating in the United States California The coastal pine - the fastest growth rate Radiata Native to the southeastern United States, p.ellottee, America Caribbean The origin of the Caribbean pine, area widely distributed in the western and northern Eurasia Scots pine And so on, are all famous timber species.
Pine ornamental value is Be obvious to people The. In China, can see the pine shadows from the Royal classical gardens to modern residents of the home, such as Beijing, the Summer Palace in Beihai Chinese pine , White bark pine , Stump Widely used in bonsai pine trees, some mountain resort, is a mountain with pine, Pine Mountain famous with strong potential. Mount Huangshan Guest-Greeting Pine Huashan Huashan pine Changbai Mountain Beauty pine ...... Without the visitors praise.
In addition, the root parts of pine trees often have large fungal growth. Some of them are wood rotting fungi, can decompose the pine trees, causing root rot; some ectomycorrhizal fungi, interchangeable nutrition and pine trees to prevent nutritional deficiencies, resulting in the effect of growth.

Pine Morphological character

After the maturity of up to 45 meters, DBH 1.5 meters; bark red brown, lower gray brown, split into pieces of irregular scaly; branches spreading or oblique, crown wide tower or umbellate, branches grown every year round, but in the south of Guangdong is usually growing two rounds, light yellow brown, no pigment, rare white, glabrous; winter buds ovoid cylindrical or cylindrical, brown, tip, bud scale margin filiform, apex acuminate or long pointed, micro music.

Pine leaf

 The pine leaves The pine leaves
Conifer needles in bunches of 2, thin needles in bunches of 3, 12-20 cm long, slender, slightly distorted, both sides have stomatal lines, margin serrulate; cross section skin layer cells single type, the first layer of consecutive second layers by the individual Cells Intermittent arranged, about 4-8 resin on the back side, there are 2 students, or ventral edge; leaf sheath at the beginning of a brown, after gradually into the black, persistent. Male flowers reddish brown, terete, bent, 1-1.5 cm long, crowded on lower branches in bract axils, spicate, 6-15 cm long; female flowers solitary or clustered shoots was born in 2-4 near the top, purple red, round or oval fruit annual ball, diameter of about 2 cm, brown or purple brown, the upper ovuliferous scale the umbo with short spines on the upright, blunt umbo lower ovuliferous scale unarmed. Cones ovoid or conical ovoid, 4-7 cm long, 2.5-4 cm in diameter, with short stems, drooping before mature green, cooked chestnut brown, gradually glabrescent; middle scales near oblong obovate, or nearly oblong, ca. 3 cm; placoid rhombic, slightly raised or flat, slightly obvious transverse ridge umbo, slightly concave, unarmed, was born in the dry environment often with short spines; seed ovoid, 4-6 mm long, with wings 2-2.7 cm long; cotyledon 5-8; 1.2-2.4 cm long; primary leaf shaped, 2.5-3.6 cm long, leaf margin with sparsely serrate bristles.
The pine tree is pine kossen genus collectively, evergreen coniferous trees, monoecious. Branch whorls, a section or a number of annual festival, winter bud bud scales most significantly. Bud and leaf scales (primary leaf), stamens, bracts, and scales are ovuliferous scale spiral arrangement. Scale leaves solitary, young green, linear, and then gradually degenerated into brown, membranous bractlike, in the axilla (out of coniferous leaves; 2 times), 3 or 5 conifer needles in bunches, born in undeveloped short branches, the base of each beam needles surrounded by membranous sheath.


 Pine flowers Pine flowers
Monoecious, flowers unisexual; male flowers solitary shoots lower bract axils, mostly aggregated, 2 stamens numerous, anther, pollen chamber crack, developed with two airbags, airbag and body contact surface is small, well-defined, generally have significant amplitude margin; female flowers with 1-4 shoots was born near the top, with most of the Pearl scales and bracts, ventral basal scales with every bead two anatropous, when pollination, second years will increase rapidly as the cone. 2 years when ripe mature cones, scales of open, not open, thin, long ovate, ovate suborbicular or terete, erect or pendulous; scales of woody, persistent, above parts usually have obvious hypertrophy as scale shield, transverse ridge or transverse ridge, apex or central multi scale shield with strumose convex or concave umbo, spiny or unarmed, developmental scales with 2 seed; on upper wing, cotyledons 3 ~ 18, germination unearthed.

Pine fruit

 Pine nuts Pine nuts
Some kind of solid pine earlier, 5 to 6 years can have a small amount of fruit, 15 ~ 20 years increased significantly (masson pine, Yunnan pine, etc.); some kind of strong late, such as Korean pine in natural forest conditions, to 80 to 140 years to start strong (but in artificial forest under the condition of 15 ~ 20 years has been strong). Most pine strong interval of every 2 to 3 years or more in annual harvest time. The base is located in the new Matsuki O cone tip, female Thyrsiflorum The most common in the main shaft end. Mature cones have a fairly long process. A few tropical pine pollen cones and female cones in winter at the end of the bud, the pine cones in most early spring, late spring or early summer from bud in. Male flowers fascicled, mature before green or yellow to red, pollen shedding is light brown or brown, mature shortly after falling off. Female flowers appear immediately in male flowers, green or purple red. When the female cones in pollination zhilizhuang. After pollination, the scales began to slow growth cones closed. About 13 months after pollination after the spring or early summer Be fertilized Then, cones begin to grow rapidly, usually at the end of the summer and autumn of second years after the mature, mature cones, its color gradually changed from green to purple, yellow, light brown or dark brown. Most mature pine cones shortly after the scale is opened, the seed falls off rapidly (masson pine, Pinus tabulaeformis); there are a few pine scales open and seed shedding process to continue for several months. Some pine trees, all or part of a cone years is closed or not regularly open in the tree. Cones large and heavy, immature and easily by the wind.

Pine Distribution range

Because of the difference of geographical distribution in origin, native China pine, Pinus sylvestris, Xinjiang pine, Pinus pumila most cold, heat of minimum requirements. The heat has a lower requirement of Korean pine. Akamatsu, Chinese pine, Pinus bungeana, Huashan pine, mountain pine, Mount Huangshan pine, Pinus henryi for tree species in warm temperate zone and subtropical high altitude areas of heat medium. Masson pine, Yunnan pine, Simao pine and pine Joe distributed in more southerly regions, requiring high heat. South pine is tropical pine, to heat the highest requirements. On the wet conditions, White pine The two is generally higher than the pine needle, but also different. As for the cases of Pinus koraiensis and Huashan pine, the former than the latter more humid conditions; the same as the two needle pine pine and Pinus massoniana of moist condition is higher than that of pine and Yunnan pine. This is related to the geographic distribution of substitution with the longitude and the occurrence of.

Pine Growth environment

Pine Soil requirements

The pine tree can grow in a variety of soils. Because the needles can endure low ash content, poor soil, but in the fertile soil of the high productivity of osteoporosis. In humid areas most suitable acidity soil of pine. While some pine trees, such as pine and Chinese pine, can adapt to the amount of calcium and high soil pH. Pine root mycorrhiza Symbiotic bacteria. The main body of the ectomycorrhizal mycelia into the sheath surrounded by short lateral roots, is conducive to the absorption of water and nutrients. It is essential to induce mycorrhizal development of some Pine Afforestation success. Most pine trees cannot grow in saline soil, and not near Seaside Growth. But some such as pine from Japan introduced to China with lodgepole pine, stronger salt tolerance.

Pine Negative resistance

Most pine especially two needle pine is the light tree species, weak negative resistance. The shape is a sparse crown, natural pruning; physiological manifestations compensation point is low; in the forest on the characteristics of pioneer tree species. When the original forest is destroyed or after the fire, they are easy to develop and occupy the bare space. Such as the southern region of China evergreen broad-leaved forest destroyed, very easily by Masson pine or Yunnan instead of. But the pine is not stable, when they formed the appropriate forest environment, and some of the more basic shade of the forest species were mainly aspen and birch and other broad-leaved trees, then appear pine, and because of the pine with shade and long life characteristics, and finally restore its dominant position. In addition to each other outside the Korean pine and Aspen, birch replacement, and Mongolia oak (oak) each replacement and the phenomenon of Korean pine.

Pine Drought resistance

The pine tree has the xeromorphic structure: the leaves are narrow, developed cuticle, surface area and volume ratio of small, sunken stomata, sclerenchyma fully developed. In physiology, compared them and born in the broad-leaved species, more tolerant of water shortage and damage. In ecology, pines are xerophils. In a variety of pine distribution in different climate zone mostly grow in arid habitats in rocky and shallow soil. In general, two needle pine pine strong drought resistance ratio. Excessive soil moisture on pine growth disadvantage.

Pine Growth climate

The pine tree on the terrestrial environment adaptability. They can withstand -60 low temperature or high temperature of 50 DEG C, in mineral soil, bare sand, Volcano Grey, calcareous soil, limestone Soil and podzolic soil to soil by growth in various soils, drought resistance, barren, love the sun, it is the famous pioneer species. Chinese is one of the most abundant gymnosperm species of the countries in the world, only from the point of view can be fully demonstrated the Pinaceae, China is worthy of the name "hometown of gymnosperms". In Chinese vast mountain wilderness, not only with lush pine, larch , Spruce , Fir In the forest, and some of the many hidden in the dense forests in the deep mountains is very precious and rare species of pinaceae. In the first national publication focused on the protection of rare and endangered plants, there are 39 species of Pinaceae plants (389 species), accounting for 1/10. among cathaya argyrophylla Is listed as a key protected plant, abies beshanzuensis , Speciesis 17 listed two key protected plants, Keteleeria davidiana var. calcarea , Pinus sylvestris 21 listed three key protected plants.

Pine Breeding method

The main pine seedling breeding by seed seedling or branch cuttings, in addition, direct otherwise founded by Chinese researchers with pine needle beam method for clonal seedling breeding, i.e.: Shu Yumiao needles .

Pine cultivation techniques

Pine seedling technique

Planting seedling selection []
 Sapling Sapling
Seedling should choose loose soil, deep soil sandy loam, flat terrain, good drainage and irrigated plots as well. It has root mycorrhizal fungi symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi on promoting seedling growth with good effect, which can promote seedling root absorption in soil moisture and nutrients, improve the ability of seedlings to drought and disease. Therefore, the suitable cropping seedling of Pinus bungeana.
[and] sand Seeds Germination
The winter indoor stratification and Germination . Sand germinating in soil Freeze Before. Select clean and intact house doors and windows were all disinfected, sterilized and the humidity is about 60% of the pure sand piled up inside, with pure bag seeds and sand according to the proportion of 1:3 installed, the sand and seed volume of total volume of bag 30% ~ 40%, and then the bag is flat layer buried in the sand, the sand covered straw pay attention to ventilation, moisturizing frost. When the seeds have 40% ~ 50% gap can be sown.
The container nursery seedling or seedling bed. Nursery use drilling, sowing rate of 40 to 50 kilograms per mu, after sowing, covered with plastic film or straw, straw covering of 1% concentration formalin Or carbendazim disinfection solution.
25 ~ 30 days after sowing, seedling emergence with shells, shell about 15 days off on their own, in this period to prevent the destruction of animals and birds. To strengthen the prevention should be off after the shell off, a week of carbendazim, ferrous sulfate 2 times to 3 times alternately spraying seedlings. With the concentration of ferrous sulfate is 0.3% ~ 0.5% water solution, in front of a man behind a person with water spray, wash, otherwise prone to injury. The seedling growth process should pay attention to proper watering, weeding.
Pinus bungeana seedlings grow slowly, first year seedling height only 4 cm to 5 cm, 10 cm in second years, 4 years to 5 year old seedling height of 30 cm to 40 cm, 10 year old seedlings of 1 meters high. Seedlings after 2 ~ 3 times to cultivate seedlings transplanted in the training process. Usually 1 to 2 years old seedlings were first transplant, 1 years to 2 years of re cultivation for forestation. The 5 year old seedlings of second transplant, 8 years to 10 years were third times of transplantation. After third times after transplantation, can be used in landscaping.

Pine Planting afforestation

Planting afforestation techniques vary depending on the types of seedlings. Container seedling balled planting process, the root is not easy to damage, so the higher survival rate. Afforestation technology is also relatively simple. Bare root transplanting process in seedling root activity, most of the small damage, its survival depends on root regeneration ability and environmental conditions, but also affected by various factors such as age, quality of seedling, planting season and planting method. Because the transplanted seedlings root, rhizome ratio, survival rate is generally higher than that of native seedlings. The afforestation seedling mainly depends on species, generally 2 to 3 years of Korean pine seedlings is appropriate, but in deforested weeds lush lots, with 3 ~ 4 year old seedling is appropriate. Chinese Pine Afforestation in rainy season in North China with more than 1.5 year old seedlings, planting in spring with more than 2 year old seedlings or transplants. With 1 years of Pinus massoniana seedlings even with autumn sowing in spring in the hundred days seedling afforestation. General in early spring suitable planting season, and in the spring drought severe north and Northwest China can choose the rainy afforestation in 7 and August. There are two kinds of planting and planting joint planting methods to keep moist, seedling root, plant root that stretch, covered with soil at. For the injured and long roots before planting can be properly trimmed. Afforestation in arid areas can take various measures to weaken the surface evaporation. The seedling planting point configuration, each general is planted 1 trees, but there are also planted, each plantation planted 2 ~ 4 lines. Vegetation is beneficial to improving the survival rate and promote the growth of young trees. The planting density of 4444 plants per hectare to pine (5 x 1.5 m spacing 1) is appropriate, can take 3333 plants per hectare (1.5 x 2 m spacing), and 2500 strains (2 x 2 m spacing).
Pine pure forest prone to pests and fires, productivity is low, so no matter by planting or sowing afforestation, should pay attention to build mixed forest. Mixed type can be determined through long term test. In the northeast of Chinese, common and Korean pine Natural mixed species are Tilia amurensis , betula costata Fish, spruce, Picea abies, etc..

Pine Pest control

Common diseases of Sooty Blotch, leaf spot, available 0.5% ~ 1% Bordeaux, in a month before the rainy season, spraying l times every 10 days, 3 times in a row, you can play a preventive effect. The main pest insects cryptothelea formosicola, red wax scale, red spider, available 1200 ~ 1500 dichlorvos times Pensha, also can use 40% dimethoate 1500 times pensha.
In the most common and serious occurrence of symptoms is cataplexy, rotting before unearthed seeds, and top rot, unearthed after Rhizoctonia, cataplexy and other types. The seedling of Pinus massoniana pine seedlings leaf blight and sometimes severe damage. Leaf diseases are common, loose needle needle rust disease and blight of Pinus massoniana. After the two occurred in the site of poor, barren soil, poor stand growth. A blister rust and white stem disease Pine blister rust That is an important forest diseases in the world, in Europe, North America had destroyed large 5-needled pine forest; Northeast China pine plantation was severely damaged. Masson pine, Mount Huangshan pine forest in the nest of wind and high humidity, oak, with pine rust; pine root white rot disease is also quite common.

Pine Pine caterpillar

Is the main pine defoliator, often cause great losses. The main harm of Pinus massoniana and matsutake moth needle of Pinus tabulaeformis in Guangxi, often with Pine caterpillar Confused, to serious disaster. Epinotia rubiginosana, big bag moth larvae also serious damage. SIASUN in different distribution areas in intermittent sawfly. Dioryctria rubella almost all over the country, is the main pest of main shoot borer, the collateral or because of replacement of main shoots and clusters of trunk bending. Pine shoot moth, also can make the main victims of shoot wilt. Cone cone borer infestation. Conifer beetle and beetle is insect borers were branch and stem, the pine trees into death, but generally not healthy wood. Huashan pine beetle healthy Huashan pine, to serious disaster. Pine bark beetles and twelve teeth eight teeth and larch bark beetle ips typographus linnaeus Can healthy wood. Matsucoccus is a kind of destructive pest infestation sucking branches. In order to implement the principle of silvicultural measures suitable tree, reasonable mixed and good forestry management should be prevented, when necessary, supplemented by chemical control.

Pine Pine wood nematode

Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum was first discovered in Nanjing in 1982, after another in Jiangsu, Anhui, Guangdong and Zhejiang, almost destroyed the disaster, widely distributed in the Hongkong pine forest. Close communication mainly rely on media such as longhorn beetle, Monochamus alternatus, carry propagation; long distance depends on artificial transportation with the epidemic (with beetles of pine wood nematode) seedlings, pine, pine box and pine products spread. By the pine wood nematode infected pine needles, yellow brown or reddish brown, wilt drooping, resin secretion stops in the trunk can be observed on the penetration hole or spawning traces of beetles, trees in the whole plant dry death, wood blue. A serious threat to the timber forest. Due to rapid expansion, now in Mount Huangshan, Zhangjiajie and other scenic spots in the natural coniferous forest poses a great threat. Through the medium of insect pathogenic nematodes Monochamus alternatus Enter the pine xylem nutrition from the wound, parasitic on resin, blooms throughout the whole plant, caused by catheter obstruction, plant transpiration water loss, reduced secretion of resin sharply reduced and stop. In summer and autumn leaf wilting chlorotic yellow to reddish brown, red pine in the dead plant, and when the needles do not fall off, there are a large number of trunk longicorn parasitic traces, the xylem is blue.

Pine disease

(1) pine resin normal appearance, secretion decreased, transpiration decreased in shoots are often visible monochamus gnawing bark traces;
The leaves begin to change color, resin secretion stops in addition to monochamus nutrition traces, can also be found spawning groove;
Most of the needles into brown, wilting, visible m.alternatus frass;
All the needles turned brown to reddish brown, trees in the whole plant withered and died. Control measures of artificial cutting trees to prevent epidemic mortality, or carry the wood Sawyer spread, bagged fumigate m.alternatus, the use of natural enemies of sclerodermaguani, beetle.

Pine The main value

Pine Watch

In addition to the economic use of pine, because the trees are magnificent, vigorous, tall tree, longevity, but also has important ornamental value. It is an important component of many scenic landscape Chinese. Such as Liaoning Qianshan Shandong, Taishan, Jiangxi Mount Lu to pine famous scenery. Especially in Anhui, Mount Huangshan, pine, cloud, stone known as "Sanjue", and led to loose. Around many pines have close ties with China has a long history of culture. Such as Beijing Beihai city has 800 year old pine tree legend has been dubbed "shade Hou Qing qianlong"; Mount Tai " Five doctor "Legend is Qin Shihuang mountain in this rain is sealed with the official post. The people of the Chinese pine firm, as a symbol of chastity and longevity. Pine, bamboo and plum known" Pine, bamboo and plum blossom "Yu, afraid of adversity to overcome the difficulties and tough spirit.

Pine Industry

According to the structural characteristics and material properties, will generally be divided into pine pine and pine hardwood. Pine (single bundle subgenus) relatively soft, uniform texture, low intensity, easy processing, earlywood and latewood gradient, less wing crack. The pine hardwood (i.e. double bundle subgenera) heavy hard, uneven texture, high strength, processing is difficult, earlywood and latewood blast, Turpentine High content. But belongs to the pine in Hainan pine and Southern China pine in strength and bulk density close to the hard wood. Many uses of pine wood for the construction, poles, sleepers, pillar, bridges, tools, appliances, furniture etc.. The cellulose content of pine is about 50 ~ 60%, lignin is 25 ~ 30%, is one of the most important raw material for pulp and paper industry. Pine is also used as firewood.
Cut can be extracted from rosin and turpentine pine trunk Terebentylic Oil. Pine seeds are rich in protein and fat, oil content in more than 30%, including the edible value of 20 kinds, such as found in the Chinese Korean pine , Yan Song Huashan pine, etc.. Korean pine seeds can be used as medicine, drug name" The sea pine ", is a kind of nourishing agent. Pine bark and seed rich in tannins, soaking extraction of tannin extract. The bark is crushed and mixed with other raw materials, the pressure can be made of hard fiberboard. In addition it can also be used to extract volatile oil from pine needles of pine needles. Conifer contains rich carotene, vitamins, fat, protein, calcium, phosphorus and other mineral elements, can be processed into feed additives for poultry and livestock. The use of pine, Morgan The incomplete combustion in the kiln, can be prepared and loose (see wood pyrolysis), used in the manufacture of ink, ink and black paint. Pine and pine or cultivation of valuable medicinal materials of Poria cocos.
To sum up, with the amazing effects of fresh pine needles known and covered the rich resources of the country, will be cited as a symbol of the industrial revolution leading health care products.
Masson The leaf Pine needles There is a very high medicinal value. The earliest Sun Simiao That is, scavenging free radicals, can prevent motion sickness, but simmering water, sparkling wine, longevity.

Pine Medical

1 inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation and hydroxyl free radical damage caused by DNA.
2 eliminate free radical".
The 3 is beneficial for the treatment of asthma.
5 the anti-inflammatory and immune regulation.
6 prevent tumor necrosis factor alpha induced atherosclerosis.
7 improve athletic performance and anti fatigue.
8 activation of the human growth hormone secretion, increase muscle tissue to reduce adipose tissue.
9 improve the female dysfunction, endometriosis and dysmenorrhea.
The 10 increase in the number of men with normal sperm.
11 reduce "bad cholesterol in human blood". Increased plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma lipoprotein ratio adjustment.
The 12 extension of vitamin C and vitamin C activation life. Vitamin E , and carotenoids such as Astaxanthin (English called Astaxanrthin, referred to as ASTA) with better results.
13 protect the retina from oxidative stress The damage caused by the reaction.
14 protecting endothelial cells, protect blood vessels, reduce the chances of people suffering from stroke and myocardial infarction.
15 of the immune system lupus therapy.
16 selectively kills human breast cancer cells.
17 lower blood pressure, reduce blood vessel contraction factor (endothelin and thromboxane A2).
18 on platelet aggregation and inhibition of capillary leakage.
19 protection of nerve cells.
The formation of 20 reduction of gingival bleeding and dental plaque.
21 treatment of psoriasis and skin inflammation.
22 of chronic venous insufficiency disease curative effect.
23 improve memory and learning ability.
24 improve blood microcirculation.
25 auxiliary treatment Diabetes Retinal diseases, contribute to the prevention and treatment of retinopathy.
26 delay the aging process, improve the immunity and blood cells The new supersedes the old. function.
27 inhibition of human platelet aggregation induced by smoking. This effect can last for 6 days.
28 blood vessels, improve microcirculation, improve organ function.
29 external application can protect the skin from ultraviolet rays, ultraviolet radiation induced erythema reduction. And the treatment of diabetic skin itching disease and various skin diseases.

Pine Pine folk therapy

The 50 hypertensive pine needle wash clean, cut into about 1 cm in length, boiling water into the tank, tea drinking, daily 3 ~ 4 times. Or use 50 needles in a mortar, two cups of water, ground into juice, divided into 3 parts, early, middle and late fasting drink.
Myocardial infarction to take the tender 50 needles in a mortar, adding water into mud, with gauze to filter out the pine juice 3, early, middle and late were fasting drinking.
Heart insufficiency is the most effective and simple method is to chew tender pine needles.
Cerebral hemorrhage stroke from female pine needles, palm, soybean 20 grams, decoction taken after forehead sweating better. If swallowing is not flexible, the female pine leaves chopped, add wine boiling drinking, it is recommended to use 30 degrees above the liquor. The amount of time. If for the prevention of stroke, daily chewing pine needles. Arteriosclerosis every day take 50 pine needle, with clean water, add chewing or take Decoction to drink soup and pine. Before and after each meal to drink 1 to 2 cups of wine from pine needles.
The prevention of cerebral infarction will pine needles, palm, soybean with taking decoction, or chewing pine needles. Drink some juice needles every day, can purify the blood, prevention of cerebral infarction, drinking wine also has the same effect on pine needles.
Asthma, allergic asthma, take dried female pine needles, daily 20 grams shuijianbi. May also be pine shoots after baking to grind the end of oral pharynx. Bronchial asthma, can be boiled in fresh and dry pine needles when drinking tea.
Stroke mouth evil (oblique) pine leaves 500 grams Daocheng juice, 1000 ml of wine placed at two days, and then placed in the fire heating 8 ~ 12 hours early, take 5 ml, 10 ml per meal gradually.
Terebentylic anemopyretic toothache oil such as jujube large piece, chopped, add pepper 7 grains, soaked in hot wine, plus a hot baked alum with a little mouth gargle several times can get good. And with 100 grams of turpentine, Sophora japonical, Digupi each 50 grams, decoction gargle, hot cold cough spit.
Chongya pain will put the bubble of turpentine in the boiling water, rinse. Or chew a few pieces of pine needles in the mouth, the pain will be relieved soon. Toothache teeth in tooth plug some turpentine.
Sore gums with pine needles 50 grams, 5 grams of salt, wine 100 ml, 500 ml of water, decoction containing cough.
Periodontal disease in 500 ml of water by adding 30 grams of pine needle, half the decoction, temperature, with sterile cotton dip juice scrub huanbu.
Oral ulcer by cotton with pine needle juice pressure on the affected part.
Chew a few pieces of pine needles to breath in the mouth.
No sound of aphasia due to speak over no voice, can chew in the mouth of pine needles; also desirable born pine needles or dry pine needles decoction, on behalf of the tea. This method also can cure sore throat.
Nausea and vomiting food to fine wine drink turpentine.
The hangover in Korean pine needle taking decoction.
Insomnia daily to eat or drink pine Pine needle tea .
Tixu take the same amount of black sesame, black beans into powder, then the amount of pine needle 1/2 black beans ground into powder, mixing, take one tablespoon per day.
Carsick boat boat ride, in the mouth chewing pine needles can prevent.
Liver virtual head tears with refined rosin 500 grams, 20 kilograms of rice, 50 litres of water, making wine. A small amount of drinking. To cook the tea needles of chronic alcoholism, the number of daily drink.
Acute gastritis take dried pine needles 10 grams, 300 ml of water, boil half water, early, middle and late 3 times, an empty stomach.
Pine needle juice drinking diarrhea.
Diabetes thirsty, the Korean pine needle into a mortar grinding, drink the juice. Or with pine needles 4 copies, 6 copies of the tender leaves of Cypress Mixed taking decoction. Carnivorous clothing taboo.
Inflammatory pleural tuberculosis, the pine shoots up, drinking water. The daily dosage of 20 grams. Taking a day or a half tablespoon of turpentine powder, 3 times a day.
The lower abdomen, waist to pelvic inflammation needle water fumigating and washing and soaking, several times a day.
The old pine needles near the root of constipation 3, chew, 3 times a day.
Senile dementia from pine needles, pine bark (skin tender skin) with boiling water, tea.
Don't listen to the deafness 150 grams, 50 grams of Croton, mash as pills, with thin cotton wrapped, plug in the ear, the date for 2 times.
Allergic rhinitis with 20 grams of dried or fresh pine needles, taking decoction.
Fundus hemorrhage treatment: with allergic rhinitis.
Joint pain with tender pine needles, terebentylic end parts, Daozhi, take 250 grams add 500 ml of wine for 7 days, 3 times a day, each of the 1 cup (10 grams); or by oral Decoction of pine needle, and pine needle juice heat affected area.
Pine needle gout decoction, remove the leaves, the incidence of gout is soaked in Decoction of around 40.
Twin terebentylic spasm 100 grams of ground, urgently, add 10 grams of frankincense, slow Chaojiao, at the end of the research, and the heat transfer service papaya wine. 3 times a day, every time 10 grams.
Traumatic injury treatment with twin acute spasm.
Periarthritis of shoulder, cervical spondylosis of decoction of pine needles, instead of tea.
Skin ulcer from fresh or dried pine needles for decocting juice.
Wet sore scabies rosin powder, talcum powder and a little. With oil coating boil, sprinkle on the end of 2 to 3 times daily. Innminatal tumor rosin 400 grams, 10 grams, 25 grams of cannabis verdigris, mixed work after installments with the affected area, 1 to 2 days for 1 times.
The wind inside pine 1000 grams, 250 grams of Ephedra (to the day), ground, add wine 2000 ml, soak 7 days. 3 times a day. Each 10 to 20 grams.
Scrotum wet itching to wash skin fried pine. Or with rosin powder involved in the tube and add 3 pepper, sesame oil dipped 3, will remove the cylinder combustion drop of oil, oil paint on the affected area. With oil should wash the affected area.
The woman leucorrhea rosin 250 grams, 50 grams of pine needles, wine 1000 ml, dry mash, boiled, sub size meatballs made parasol. Each serving 10 to 15 pills, 3 times a day.

Pine Loose treatment

1, used in aromatherapy, refreshing.
2, tea regulating blood circulation system, has a preventive effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
3, external medicine (ancient).
4, pine needles: bitter and warm, dispelling wind.

Pine chemical composition

Landrace Larix olgensis Henry var.koreana Nakai is the larch Larix sinirica plants, deciduous trees, leaves on long shoots spirally scattered, fascicled on short shoots, linear oblanceolate, 1~2.5 cm long. Monoecious, flowers solitary short shoot tip, young cones reddish purple, cooked to light brown or brown. Bark brown, containing tannin. Pine bark extract is widely used as a food additive and health products sold or exported abroad, has been useful to the development of drugs listed pine bark extract. Pharmacological research showed that pine bark extract on antioxidant, scavenging free radicals, have extensive biological activities of anti-tumor, cardiovascular protection and improve microcirculation etc.. Located in Jilin Changbai Mountain China Larix olgensis Heilongjiang district and Mudanjiang basin. In the forest the bark was used as waste disposal. Prior to this, there is no chemical composition of the pine bark had done systematic research reports, therefore, consider whether from the basic research and application development from the point of view, are necessary to make a deep and systematic study of chemical constituents of Changbai larch bark, and then find the active ingredients.
通过运用各种色谱方法,进行分离纯化,从长白落叶松树皮的提取物中分离得到43个化合物,运用光谱分析技术(IR,MS、1H-NMR、13C-NMR、2DNMR、X-射线衍射)及化学方法鉴定了32个化合物,分别为:SL-1:异海松酸,SL-5:β-谷甾醇;SL-6:24R-5α-豆甾烷-3,6二酮;SL-7:larixol;SL-8:半日花烷-8⒄,13E-二烯-6α,15-二醇;SL-10:阿魏酸,SL-11:(+)-落叶松脂醇;SL-12:(-)-开环异落叶松脂醇;SL-13:(+)-异落叶松脂醇;SL-15:(+)-9\'-对羟基反式桂皮酸落叶松脂醇酯;SL-16:9\'-对羟基反式桂皮酸-7-羟基落叶松脂醇酯;SL-17:(3,4-二氢-7-羟基-3-羟甲基-6-甲氧基-萘烯)-2-基-(4\'-羟基-3\'-甲氧基-苯基)酮;SL-19: sesquipinsapol BSL-20:sesquimarocanol ASL-21:vladinol D; SL-22:9\'-对羟基反式桂皮酸异落叶松脂醇酯;SL-24:新橄榄脂素-(9-O-9\'\')-开环异落叶松脂醇;SL-25:(+)-9’-咖啡酸落叶松脂醇酯;SL-26:3-对羟基反式桂皮酰 Methyl -2, 3- two -5- hydrogen (3- hydroxy propyl) -7- methoxy -2- (4\'- hydroxy -3\'- methoxy phenyl) - benzofuran; SY-1: 3; 4- two hydroxy benzoic acid; SY-4: 2, 4 6-, three hydroxy phenyl acetic acid; SY-5: benzene three phenol; (+) - SY-6: catechin; SY-7: (-) - epicatechin; proanthocyanidin B3; SY-8: SY-9: B6: SY-11 procyanidins; Larix olgensis A:SY-14: Larix B:SY-15: C:SY-16:vitisinol SY-19: Larix olgensis; D; SY-24: Larix E. SL-8, 16, 17, 22, 24, 25, 26 and SY-11, 14, 15, 19 and 24 are new compounds, the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. Compounds were not identified in two senior saturated fatty alcohol, a high saturated fatty acid monoglyceride; two small molecules of highly unsaturated compounds, two small molecular phenolic compounds, two similar structures two times mixed lignans, two mixed polyphenolic compounds with similar structure the.

Pine purpose

The pine body is a treasure, the trunk is very wide use of wood, is also a high-quality papermaking raw material, pine resin liquid can produce rosin and turpentine and pine needles, past in logging process is basically to rot or burned, not only a waste of forest resources, but also easily lead to forest fires, caused soil acidification, cause plant diseases and insect pests. Pine bark in pine oleoresin collected but will pay a heavy price and a little income, only a year in a pine pine bark after cutting ring collected turpentine can only sell 2 yuan, ten years total sales of 20 yuan, cut the bark of pine 8-10 years can not become useful, because no food way dead, so destructive harvesting, can result in a depletion of resources and waste. The collection belongs to non destructive pine needles collected (on a quarterly basis only by 1/3-1/4, or acquisition), without any effect on the growth of the pine tree, can turn waste into treasure. However, not only has medicinal value for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress and metabolic diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, dementia, and health care efficacy, rich in amino acids in pine needles, fat soluble and water-soluble vitamins and trace elements in 40 kinds of major elements and a variety of crude fiber and that can develop a variety of immune enhancement, lipid-lowering, sedative, anti-aging and other categories of health food, beverage and wine, but also the development of skin care products, shampoo, bath products, pillow and other daily necessities. Boiling process without pollution and residue of chemical additives is treasure, can be used as feed additives, organic fertilizer, or breeding mushroom, activate a series of industrial chain, the revitalization of medicine, health care, aquaculture, chemical and beverage industries, science and technology play a role in promoting industrial development.

Pine Variety classification

Pine cathaya argyrophylla

Compared with Abies beshanzuensis, cathaya argyrophylla The famous 20 years earlier. Although the scholars Chinese plant Yangxianjin As early as 1938, the Jinfo Mountain in Sichuan to the plant foliage specimens, but because there is no flower and cone, this specimen has not been identified. Until 1955, Professor Zhong Jixin led a scientific expedition in Guangxi County, Long Sheng Huaping forest to cone plant specimens, only by botanist Chen Huanyong and Kuang cathayaargyrophylla was named. Is a kind of Cathaya always thought extinct early in the fossil plants, its fossils and pollen cones, were found third to 60 degrees north of the Cretaceous strata in Siberia area and southwest France. To find the botanist shocked fir, western scholars of China more sit up and take notice. The world's only Chinese live silver fir, too small, only a few thousand lines, scattered in the Jinfo Mountain in Sichuan, Guangxi and Hunan, Huaping Dayaoshan community and eight mountains, Guizhou Fushan road really and the mountains of Tongzi, very rare.
cathaya argyrophylla Only grow cold, in winter and summer without the heat, the rich precipitation, the air is very humid in the mountains, very demanding on the environment. Therefore, although the attitude of tolerance and elegant, fine wood, but it is difficult to introduction and training, is still the world of Botany and gardening circles and can not be expected for the trees of treasures. People love to give it many beautiful silver fir, the name: "living fossil plants", "plant Panda", "Chinese forest treasure" and "Linhai pearl"...... A longing for it as soon as possible out of the mountains, colorful light. Dense brown or reddish brown pilose. Cone length 9 ~ 14 cm, mature scales do not open or open micro. The seed does not fall off, no wings (Figure 1). Is China Xiao Xingan Ling And the main forest species in Changbai Mountain area. In the Northwest Chinese community Aihui to Bei'an line, southwest community Dandong To Benxi line. By China to the northeast also spread to Heilongjiang and Wusuli River east of the Soviet Far Eastern coastal area, southward to Korea and Japan in central Honshu, Shikoku mountain.

Pine abies beshanzuensis

20 years ago, few people in the world know a Baishanzu mountain in the southeast coast of China. In 1976, Qingyuan County of Zhejiang Forestry Institute senior engineer Wu Mingxiang "blockbuster", by his discovery of Abies beshanzuensis was published, the baishanzunaturereserve the "forgotten corner" in the world of Botany radiate splendor. 50 kinds of known fir, Abies beshanzuensis most precious. Because on earth only Chinese baishanzunaturereserve peak in Zhejiang Province southwest slope the tree growth, living only 3 strains, one strain was weak, malnutrition. For a species, not half step away from death. In 1987, the International Commission for the protection of the species of Abies beshanzuensis was listed as one of the world's most rare published 12 kinds of endangered plants. China relevant units also take active measures, hope that through the method of artificial propagation of the endangered plant in the corner.

Pine Korean pine

Pinaceae, pinus. Evergreen coniferous trees. Tree bark gray brown, leather trench is not deep, nearly smooth, squamous endothelial cracking, beige, crack is red brown, the tree trunk is usually forking. Sapwood heartwood distinct. Shallow sapwood yellow white camel ribbon, common peel; heartwood brown red meat is microstrip, pine said. Branches nearly flat, conical crown, winter buds reddish brown, ovoid terete. Conifer needles in bunches of 5, 6-12cm long, thick and hard, resin 3, Leaf sheath Cone cone caducous, ovate, length 9-14cm, diameter 6-8cm, seeds, obovate triangular cone: flowering in June, the year following the 9-10 month. The tree like light and strong, to light gradually increased with the growth of the tree. For mild cool climate, soil pH value in 5.5-6.5, the growth of the hillside area.
Korean pine ( P.koraiensis Branchlets, Pinaceae) is Gymnospermae In most families, 10 genera and 230 kinds, including Pinus there are more than 90 kinds, is the largest genera of Pinaceae is the gymnosperm in. Pine is one of the most important forest species in the northern hemisphere, in addition to 2 degrees south latitude distribution of the Sumatran pine, the rest are all natural growth in from the equator to 72 degrees north latitude of the mountains and plains. Especially in temperate regions, Pinus many, and often form a vast forest, the pine tree is known as "the mother of the northern hemisphere forest".

Pine Xinjiang pine

Xinjiang pine (P.sibirica), and the morphology of Pinus koraiensis is similar to that of the main characteristics of branchlets yellowish hairs; cone length 5 ~ 8 cm; apex rounded scales, incurvature. In the Chinese distribution in Xinjiang Altai Mountains Northwest of the Canas River and the Holm River Basin, the vertical distribution in the elevation of 1600 - 2350 meters, often mixed with Xinjiang larch. European U.S.S.R. northeast and Siberia also have distribution.

Pine type

There are many pine species, ornamental trees Podocarpus , White bark pine There are trees and so on; industrial pine, white pine, yellow pine and so on; there are common cedar, black pine, Pinus massoniana.
The world nearly 115 species of pines, although a wide variety of leaf, mostly slender needle like, known as
 Pine Pine
By a majority of coniferous pine needles, leaves or leaves a few pieces of Chengshu students together: a single needle beam Pine Only the United States, Nevada and Mexico have distribution, a few species genera. While the double pine needles in bunches of two not only the variety and wide distribution, such as distribution in Europe Pinus nigra ( P. nigra Scots pine (,) P. sylvestris European mountain pine (,) P. mugo Bankson (,) P. banksiana (Ye Song), twist P. contorta ), and distributed in the north and northwest China several provinces of the Chinese pine, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus thunbergii and Akamatsu, Mount Huangshan Province, masson pine, Pinus densata, Qinba Mountains and p.henryi. Taiwan pine And Jack Ye Song, most of the main tree species of afforestation in the Chinese. 3/ three needles in bunches of trifoliate pine in the United States three short pine needles and China Qinling Mountains Sichuan Yunnan, closed forest area, the area of Pinus bungeana Yunnan pine Simao, China Southern China, pine and Pinus elliottii, Loblolly pine Etc.. 4/ four needle pine species, only the United States California distribution. In addition, Pinus OOCARPA, Ravi Xun Song is the four needle or white beam. 5/ bunches of pine species, widely distributed, with North American pine (Joe P. strobus ), Switzerland The pine ( P. cembra ), northeast of pine, northwest and southwest provinces of Huashan pine, and Joe pine, Guangdong pine, Anhui pine, Pinus dabeshanensis, pine, Taiwan pine etc..
Pine needles are different, it is helpful to the pine tree classification and identification, understanding the ecological characteristics of pine trees. Usually pine is suitable for moist environment, soil requirements more stringent, and the two or three pin beam is more resistant to drought, pine, also can grow in thin soil. Such as pine needles in bunches of two, has strong adaptability to continental climate and atmospheric drought and of course, this also with needles of stomatal band sag. The leaf wax was part of the evaporation can be reduced.
After Huashan pine After Jack Ye Song After . After Caribbean pine
After Pinus dabeshanensis Cheng et Law After pinus densata After Pine After Pinus echinata
After Slash pine After Pinus fenzeliana After Pinus gerardiana After Joe pine
After pinus henryi After Korean pine After Pinus kwangtungensis After Pinus latteri
After Masson After Pinus morrisonicola After Pinus nigra After Longleaf pine
After Japanese white pine After Coast song After Ponderosa pine After Yan Song
After Just loose After Xinjiang pine After Pinus roxburghii After Pinus strobus
After Scots pine After Chinese pine After Loblolly pine After Mount Huangshan Pine
After Pinus takahasii Nakai After P. After Tropical pine After Pinyon
After Pinus wangii After Yunnan pine After  

Pine Plant culture

Pine The famous ancient painting of pine

In Chinese landscape paintings, pine performance accounted for an important position, has become an independent subject.
The ancient painting in loose turquoise dotted the landscape, has formed a kind of ethos in the Tang Dynasty landscape painting, and the emergence of many famous landscape painters of the turquoise turquoise, they as a part of the landscape, deliberately processing, so that the screen shows "extremely wonderful charm". In the Tang Dynasty Zhangzao Write very loose, can use style, often with a double, Qi, a branch, a litter, high potential Ling Cha haze, wind and rain, tooth shape, scale cracked with arbitrary aspect, it is run out between the branches, with the spring of Ze, litter is miserable with autumn." Zhang Zao "nature outside, in the heart" is the ancient artists in mind become China painting in the eternal. The five generation of the beam The same In seclusion Taihang Mountain "Hon", a "farming and food", a thorough observation of nature, the "Xiang scales by empty", "desire of Hon pines, make him feel surprised," write with pens complex, where tens of thousands of the combined party."
The Northern Song Dynasty Cheng Li , Guo In the Song Dynasty. Li Tang , Horse far The Yuan Dynasty. Wang Meng , different time, different artists, because of different aesthetic taste, loose natural painting showing a different form. Before the Tang Dynasty painter meticulously depicts the ideal realm of the pursuit of truth, to reproduce the real images. and The five generation Later, the artists not only can imitate nature, more in the heart, the life feeling and natural changes loose combination, to give people loose character and character, make the work of artistic conception, meaning richer and more profound, more personalized. The ancient painters after long-term artistic creation, summed up a very complete and systematic painting theory, has formed a distinctive artistic program, its complete system and extremely flexible, reflect the nature of the painter keen understanding and profound experience of art. Drawing and painting in the song The rocks The characters and flowers, like a rich style, we can say that it is a processing method for the type of easy to grasp, in order to find the typical form of linguistic reality scene painter from numerous trivial messy in. Song painting art
Pine has a masculine beauty, it is just the branches with characteristics of soft, loose leaf to clear off the feeling. It is our nation's auspicious tree, evergreen is a symbol of old. Some like pine, dragon, said Qiu song, its branches and changeable, straight at the open, bending it, Dragon Castle with some exploration; Song straight, extraordinary changes, like Dragon into the sea state; over days, some giant and resolute, have to pull off the potential of cloud drilling.
Pine is one of the largest trees in landscape application, whether in the wilderness or mountain pine trees are found. The pine tree can also be used as the main image performance. The growth in the fertile plains of the pine trees tall and lush, tall and often high into the clouds; the growth gap in the rocks, often twists and turns, such as dragon disc. Their common features are: growth to a certain age, and no longer to the higher, and more branches cross, forming an umbrella, "as long as the branch, leaf period". Draw a loose, first to "feelings", the late Tang and Five Dynasties landscape painting master Jing Hao, he saw the graceful pines, "because of the different times and the police, the reward. Tomorrow with pen carbon, where tens of thousands of the combined party". This "true", not like photography, but to seize the pine soul, so to depict the pine "skin old dark green moss, Xiang scales by" empty "Pan Qiu force wants to attach the Hon", or "hold the festival since Qu", or "back to the roots of unearthed", because of his affection Jing Hao the pine, can do careful observation and research, realize painting wonderful principle loose.

Pine Ancient poetry

[Tang] Bai Juyi
Platinum for pine tree, which I do not plant to plant Jun.
Thanks to the westerly wind, energy-saving.
Planting pine two
[Tang] Bai Juyi
Komatsu not Ying Chi, love self moving hand.
Cang ran Jian background, wet smoke thick cloud.
I plant years later, the king grew up later.
How to over forty, a few inches of this branch?
To see whether the Yin, dilute life seventy.
Love you when you hold late, with straight text.
To get to appear before so he Jun.
I know you have been dead, the undead will lingyun.
Jian Di pine
[Tang] Bai Juyi
A loose hundred feet around the big ten,
In the brook bottom cold and humble.
Jian Shen mountain people,
Never meet engineering degree.
The emperor Mingtang owed balk,
The other two do not know.
Yu Italy who cangcang creation,
But with the material and.
Zhang Jin Yuan Xian poor Shilu,
Your humble Diao Chan cattle clothing.
Diao Chan and Niu yi,
Although there are very high.
High not xian,
Are not stupid.
Don't you see the heavy undersea coral.
The sky seems kind of white elm.
[Tang] into hikoo
The name and price smell, flexor Guzhen more out of the group.
Will that Ling tou leisure well, hang a few sticks of cloud and sunset.

Pine Wonders when dry

The drought will issue a distress signal"
Researchers at the University of Grenoble in France will dry pine chips into the hydrogel to simulate A live tree test, and have isolated the ultrasonic sound, the sound of a hundred times faster than human audible. The researchers will be put into a gel made in arid environment, and listen to the noise generated by the formation of bubbles, this process is similar to the scene when the trees of drought .
Chief Philippe Marmottant said the experimenter, although laboratory tests only obtain an approximate result, but it helps us to separate from the sound of trees. This is the first time the hydrogel used for this purpose. He said: "we can trace the clear sound, and we found that most of the sound and the bubble, which cannot be excluded, such as cracks or insects and other reasons.
Drought when the trees absorb moisture will try from dry land bubble formation. When the leaves are collected as carbon dioxide, it will open the pores, which makes them vulnerable to the harm of water loss. The tree with its root to absorb water from the ground, and through the catheter to deliver. The trees are usually thousands of catheter, rely on the wall hole film are connected with each other. In xylem tension will increase, and then form the hole.
Citibank and pine wood usually always in repair the damage, if the transmission of these bubbles to block water, so they are for other kinds of trees is fatal. It is expected to be published in the summer of 2013.

Pine Mummy pine

Norway discovered pine mummy does not rot after 500 years
According to "Science Daily" website reported that scientists in Norway found a "Mummy" of pine trees, many trees here have been dead for nearly 500 years, but the magic is in the open, moist environment does not decay.
Located in the Sogndal area (Sogndal) Norway Southwest coast, Norway here is the most humid and most gentle place. In general, the wet weather is very suitable for the decomposition of organic matter, but here found a large dead pine trees, but no decay.
Terje Thun, an associate professor at the Norwegian University Science & Technology Museum of natural history (Terje Thun) said: "we took samples from the dead trees, trees on the determination results in the display age than previously expected to grow a lot of these pines in the late thirteenth Century, about 500 years ago in death."
Thun said: "we still found fresh wood of dead trees, which makes us feel very surprised. For some reason, they can actually keep not rot for hundreds of years in the humid climate. This phenomenon is very special, and even sensational."
Thun explained that the process of death of pine trees is relatively slow, the whole process will produce rosin, this substance can stop the rot. "Anyway, hundreds of years of trees decomposing naturally be prevented, it is really amazing." It is reported that the resin is one of the ancient Egyptian mummies have made use of the material, people will understand its antiseptic ability of thousands of years ago.
Caption: researchers are testing on a dead pine trees do Appraisal The tree of life, from 1334 to 1513.