The Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean ( Pacific Ocean First, the earth ocean), cover With about 46% of the earth's surface and the total area is about 32.5%. span from Antarctic The mainland coast extend to The Bering Strait For the west, Asia, Oceania, east to America , Stride across 151 degrees north latitude, the width of 15500 km. A sea area of 18134.423.
The Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean Orion of the Name

The word first appeared in 1520s, it is by the great navigator Magellan And the first fleet called open. September 20, 1519, Navigator Magellan Lead 270 seaman composition of the expedition sailed from Spain, west the Atlantic, they wore Tempestuous waves , suffered, arrived at the southern tip of South America, has entered a strait. This was later named after Magellan Strait more sinister, everywhere Wind waves And dangerous reef shoal. After 38 days of hard fighting, the fleet finally arrived The Strait of Magellan In the past, but this time the fleet only three boats, players also loss Half.
After 3 months of hard sailing across the fleet from South America Guam Come, The Philippines Archipelago。 This voyage never encountered a storm, the sea is calm, the original fleet has entered Doldrum . The suffering of the previous billows from the crew said happily: "this is really a Pacific!" Since then, people put the ocean between the Americas, Asia, Oceania, known as the "pacific".

The Pacific Ocean History

In prehistoric times The Pacific Ocean There have been many important areas migrate And the most significant one is Austronesian (more specifically is Polynesian) from the Asian Beach moved to Tahiti, and then arrived in Hawaii and New Zealand, and later to Easter Island.
The Europeans in the early sixteenth Century to see the Pacific Ocean, is the earliest had crossed the isthmus of Panama (Vasco N Spanish navigator Barr Voya case n EZ de Balboa) (1513) and later in the voyage across the Pacific in the Magellan (1519 -1522).
The origin of the name of the Pacific from the Latin "Mare Pacificum", meaning "the sea of tranquility, is employed in Spain by a Portuguese navigator Magellan - named. Magellan in October 1520, led by the 5 ships from the Atlantic to find a Southwest exit (hereafter called Magellan Strait) sailing west, after 38 days Tempestuous waves After the arrival of a calm sea, he was known as the pacific.

The Pacific Ocean geographical environment

The Pacific Ocean The geographical scope

The Pacific Ocean, north to The Bering Strait 44 ', 65 degrees north latitude, South to Antarctica Latitude 85 degrees, 151 degrees latitude 33 ', cross. East to west longitude 78 degrees 08 minutes, West to east longitude 99 degrees 10 minutes, 177 cross longitude. North and south is about 15900 kilometers long, maximum width of about 19900 km. From South America Columbia The coast of the Malay Peninsula to Asia, the longest East-West 21300 kilometers. A volume of 714 million 410 thousand cubic kilometers of the sea, the sea does not include a volume of 696 million 189 thousand cubic kilometers. Including the average depth of 3939.5 meters of the sea, including the sea is not the average depth is 4187.8 meters, the maximum depth of the known 11033 meters, is located in the Mariana Trench in. The width of only 102 kilometers north of the Bering Strait is bounded by the southeast of South America Tierra del Fuego And Graham (Graham Land) to Antarctica between the Drake Strait and (Drake) Atlantic Communication; dividing line between the southwest and India Ocean from the Sumatra through Java to Timor Then, the Timor Sea to Londonderry Australia (Londonderry) angle, from the south of Australia by Bass Strait By, Tasmania To the Antarctic continent.

The Pacific Ocean climate

The Pacific because of vast area, uniform water, climate conducive to Planetary wind system The formation, especially in the South Pacific is more prominent. The North Pacific is different, both sides of the difference Poor In order to. Russia The east coast of the Canadian province of British Columbia and the winter mild winter the most distinctive contrast. The trade zone is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean between North and south latitude 30 degrees -40 degrees of the subtropical high center and between doldrum.
 The Pearl of the Pacific island of Hawaii The Pearl of the Pacific island of Hawaii
Mid latitude westerlies, and the polar easterlies convergence form subpolarlow pressurebelt. Two the temperature and humidity difference between the frontal polar easterlies is very fierce, especially in winter. The Western Pacific (latitude 5 degrees -25) between the east of Philippines, South China Sea and East China Sea Ocean, summer, super low pressure center at high temperature and high humidity conditions, the formation of a violent tropical storm typhoon, i.e.. At low pressure the Asian continent in summer, North Pacific air movement to the mainland, in winter the situation is exactly the opposite, the formation of the monsoon climate zone. The South Pacific sea temperature of North Pacific high, this is because the South Pacific waters more extensive, and is affected by the cold water mass and the Antarctic iceberg. The wind water salinity than in the equatorial region of low. Near the equator salinity less than 34; the North Sea salinity minimum, less than 32. The Pacific ocean currents in the trade winds from the east to the West under the influence of movement, the formation of the South and North Equatorial current.
Have the opposite between the South and North Equatorial Countercurrent equatorial currents on the axis, from the east coast of Philippines to the west coast of Ecuador. The North Equatorial current to the North East to Japan in the vicinity of Philippines, known as the Kuroshio; the North Equatorial Current of the river through the Tsushima Strait into the sea of Japan, said the tswc. The Kuroshio to the East in the near east longitude 160 degrees, called the North Pacific Ocean and the Gulf stream. The North Pacific Gyre eastward movement, turning south to the west coast of North America, said the California cold. So the formation of the North Pacific Ocean circulation. In addition, the Bering sea currents flowing southward, called the Kamchatka cold, also known as the Oyashio, flows to the east of Honshu Island in Japan, near 36 degrees north latitude and the Kuroshio. After the South Equatorial current at Solomon islands, South East become warm, turning east into the west wind drift, to South America West, latitude 45 degrees near divides into two branches, one to the east of Drake strait into the Atlantic; another turns north, i.e. Humboldt Current . The formation of the South Pacific Ocean circulation.

The Pacific Ocean topographic features

Andesite line (The andesite line) is the most important Pacific landforms in the central Pacific basin boundaries, the deeper igneous mafic rocks, and the edge of the half fire growth quartzite separated. California andesite line along the western end of the island, south of Aleutian Islands, east of Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan islands, Mariana Islands, Solomon islands, New Zealand direct to the Northeast; also extends to the west of the Andes, South America and Mexico, and then return to California. Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, New Guinea, New Zealand, Australia and Asia, eastern extension area outside of Ayama Iwa.
land
In the Pacific Ocean is the largest land in the island of New Guinea, is the second largest island in the world. Almost all small islands in the Pacific Ocean is located at 30 degrees north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude, from Southeast Asia extends to Easter Island; the rest of the Pacific Ocean almost all covered by water.
The Polynesian triangle connecting Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand and surrounded by many islands, which are the Cook islands, Mark Texas islands, Samoa islands, Society Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, the Tuamotu islands, Tuvalu and Wallis and Futuna islands.
The north and west of the international date line there are a lot of Micronesia Island, including Caroline Islands, Marshall Islands and the Mariana islands.
In the Pacific southwest corner is headed from New Guinea melanesia. Other important islands of Melanesia and the Bismarck islands, Fiji Islands, New Caledonia Island, Solomon islands and the New Hebrides.
The Pacific islands of various types, four types of islands are: continental island, alluvial island, coral reefs and volcano island. Continental island is located in the andesite line, including New Zealand, the island of New Guinea and Philippines islands, Taiwan Island, the island and the nearby mainland. Volcano island, such as Bougainville, Hawaii island and Solomon islands, there are many volcano activities.
Islands
The Pacific Ocean about ten thousand islands, a total area of about 4400000 square kilometers, accounting for about 45% of the total area of the island in the world. Continental island is mainly distributed in the west, such as the Japanese islands, Kalimantan Island, the island of New Guinea; there are many oceanic islands scattered like central ( Island , Coral island ).
The Pacific Islands, mainly distributed in the western and central areas are divided into Continental island and Ocean island Two categories. In general, the geological structure on the island and the mainland have a contact, such as The islands of Japan , Taiwan Island , The Philippine Islands , Indonesia Islands And the second largest island in the world The island of New Guinea Etc.. Sea Island is divided into volcano island and the Coral Island. The Central West Pacific waters, from the west to the East has three major islands: Melanesia, Micronesia and polynesia. among Melanesia For continental island islands, Polynesia Islands Hawaiian Islands Is the famous volcano islands, the Micronesia islands are almost all Coral Island.
Seabed terrain
Can be divided into the central area, shallow water area and deep water edge continental shelf Most of the three. Roughly 2000 meters below the sea basin accounts for about 87% of the total area, the edge part between 200-2000 meters accounted for about 7.4% of the continental shelf within 200 meters accounted for about 5.6%. The northern half of a huge basin, the western island of a number of isolated lateral deep trench, island arc. The north and west edge of the sea has a broad continental shelf, deep waters of the central depth more than 5000 meters. Hawaii and Line Islands will be divided into deep water area in the middle of the northeast Pacific Basin, southwest Pacific Basin, Northwest Pacific Basin and in the Pacific basin. There are a large number of submarine volcano cone. The edge of shallow water depth more than 5000 meters above the sea, small area.
Volcano earthquake
About 85% of the world's volcano and about 80% of the earthquakes in the pacific. The American Cordillera mountains the eastern Pacific and the western edge of the Pacific islands like a flower color is the world most violent volcano volcano zone, up to more than and 370 seats, the "Pacific Ring of fire", frequent earthquakes.

The Pacific Ocean Tidal currents

The Pacific ocean currents roughly with latitude 5-10 degrees for the sector, divided into two circulation: clockwise circulation in the northern operation, consisting of the North Equatorial current, Kuroshio, Kuroshio, California cold; run south circulation anti clockwise, composed of the South Equatorial current, eastern Australia, Peru, the cold wind drift current. Equatorial Countercurrent between two big circulation, running from west to East, the velocity of 2 kilometers per hour.
The tide is irregular semidiurnal tide and the tidal range is 2-5 meters.
The Pacific water temperature varies with latitude, near the poles close to freezing at the equator is about 25 to 30 degrees celsius. The quantity of salt water in high latitude rainfall water near the equator throughout the year is enough, because near polar cold and less evaporation, so that the salt content of the two lower. Overall, the Pacific warm than the Atlantic. In the northern hemisphere, the Pacific sea surface mainly in the clockwise direction of flow (North Pacific vortex), in the southern hemisphere in counter clockwise direction flow. North equatorial currents along the latitude 15 degrees by the trade winds drive westward, arriving near Philippines to the north, and the Japan current (also called the).
At about 45 degrees north latitude, the Kuroshio is divided into two branches. A return to the south of the North Equatorial current. Another form North Aleutian current North America, to promote the Bering Strait counter clockwise flow, South California currents become slow cold.
South Equatorial current flows westward along the equator, in New Guinea to the southeast, at about 50 degrees south completely transferred to the East direction. In this section the currents along the South West Pacific flow, is a section of the Antarctic Circumpolar circulation. Arrive at the coast of Chile, ocean currents are divided into two branches: one after another into the horn of the Atlantic, north into Peru ocean currents.

The Pacific Ocean The formation of the ocean

The Pacific Ocean Tell the moon

The formation of the Pacific Pacific is the world's largest contemporary Tectonic unit The Atlantic, India, and ocean and arctic ocean Compared with many unique, out of the ordinary evolution history, such as the circum Pacific earthquake Volcano belt Extensive development island arc Significant differences of trench lines, on both sides of the ocean geological history...... This makes many people believe that the Pacific may have it causes the out of the ordinary. For a long time, scientists have proposed many hypotheses about Pacific origin, most notably the mid nineteenth Century, George Darwin (1879) the "tell the moon".
Darwin That early in the semi molten state of the earth, its rotation speed is much faster than it is now, at the same time in the sun's gravity will occur under the action of tide. If the vibration period and the earth tide natural vibration The same period, will occur The resonance phenomenon So, the amplitude is more and more big, may eventually cause local rupture, make objects fly away from the earth, the moon has become, while leaving the pits and Become The Pacific ocean。 As the moon's density (3.341 g / cm3) and the shallow earth material density (including mantle The top Peridotite Including lithosphere The average density of 3.2-3.3 g / cm3) approximation, and it is indeed observed, the earth's rotation speed is faster as early as possible. phenomenon This makes George Darwin, "tell the moon" won the support of many people. However, some researchers pointed out that in order to make the objects on earth to fly out of the earth's rotation speed should be faster than 4.43 rad / hour, day and night time is not more than 1 hours and 25 minutes. Don't have the early Earth rotation speed so fast? It is hard to believe. Furthermore, if the moon is flying away from earth, the moon orbits the earth's equatorial plane, but the fact is not the case. Also, the moon rocks mostly have a much older age value (4 billion -45.5 billion years), and the oldest rocks have been found on the earth is only 3 billion 800 million years, which is obviously out of conflict and say. Finally, people abandoned this view. In twentieth Century 50-60 years, due to advances in geological research found, celestial bodies, the earth's nearest neighbor, the moon and mars, Venus , Mercury Are developed widely impact crater, some scale is huge. This can not but make people think of the earth, also may suffer the same impact.

The Pacific Ocean The meteor crash said

In 1955, the French Dimo Cheal was first proposed, the Pacific may be from the front Alpine period The meteor crashing into it. And he thinks the meteor may is a satellite of the earth, almost two times the diameter of the moon. Unfortunately did not propose Enough evidence. As everyone knows, no active tectonic activity on the moon, meteorite impact is The moon's crust The main dynamic evolution. Maria Is the moon early small celestial bombardment formed nearly circular depressions, the bottom of the dark by later eruption mare basalt The filling. The largest mare - The ocean of storms Area of 5 million square kilometers. The Pacific Marine and contrast, you can see the following common features:
The distribution of 1 mare on the moon is uniform, concentrated in the northern hemisphere of the moon is also on earth; the Pacific partial upper side, which reflects the impact of the random early.
2 mare has a circular profile, and than the average low land 2-3 km; Pacific is roughly circular, than the average low, 3-4 km.
3 of the earth, the older, smaller density of sialic rock composition, and by the age of ocean is lighter, the higher density of basaltic rocks, the moon is like this, but also by the younger Maria basalt Form。
4 of the earth's crust thickness is between 30-50 kilometers, The oceanic crust A thin, generally 5-15 km; the moon also has a similar situation, Lunarite The shell thickness of 40-60 km, sea shell is generally less than 20 km.
5 gravity measurements show that Maria has obvious positive anomaly; the situation is more complex, but higher than the surrounding, the gravity value.
6 sea around the mountain chain around the Pacific, and also around the mountain chain.
7 at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean that edge and the central ridge, and in some of the larger mare is also visible dike uplift. In distribution Maria Central and edge.
8 in the eastern Pacific has to island arc The edge of the sea, the ocean crust transition zone from the continental crust, in some so-called mare edges are visible" Leiyuehai The transition zone ". Of course, and there are also some mare than the Pacific mare that no other Features . Such as tectonic magmatic activity, reflect Seafloor spreading The submarine magnetic strip, and in the Pacific around the mountain chain visible multi circle fold and granite magma activity, but not on the moon.
The difference and so on, but the experts believe that the Department of earth is much bigger than the moon because of the quality and volume. In summary, the Pacific is in the early Earth formation The huge impact basin. But in the long period of history, it has experienced many transformation.

The Pacific Ocean partition

Pacific basin can be divided into 3 areas.
1, East: America cordillera (Cordillera) from the northern Alaska mountains, South to Tierra del Fuego, in addition to the north, the South Coast islands and fjords, deep The Gulf of California Besides, the coast straight, narrow continental shelf, important trench North Acapulco trench, south of the Peru Chile trench.
2, the western part of Asia: complex structure, winding coast, East edge, a prominent Peninsula, a series of island shore, forming numerous on the edge of the sea. From north to South with the Bering sea, The sea of Okhotsk , The sea of Japan , Yellow Sea , The East China Sea and South China Sea . The outer island group has a series of trenches, north of the Kamchatka trench, Kuril trench , Japan Trench The south. tonga trench G, Ma Dirk (Kermadec) trench etc..
3, the central Pacific basin area is broad, is the most stable tectonic region, the water depth of about 4570 meters in general. West through 150 degrees to the east of the East Pacific Basin, from the Central American isthmus by Cocos (Cocos) ridge to Galapagos Islands line to the south is the Peru - Chile basin and Southeast Pacific basin. To the South East Pacific Rise for the Pacific Basin, antarctica. This basin and the west by 150 degrees between the area for the Pacific Antarctic ridge. West longitude 150 degrees -180 degrees, from east to west is the central Pacific basin, Mariana Basin and The Philippines Basin; in between New Zealand and Australia (Tasman) east of the Tasman basin, South Mercalli ridge (Macquarie), between the Pacific and India ocean water line.

The Pacific Ocean natural resources

The Pacific Ocean Economic characteristics

The Pacific rim has a rich diversity in natural and economic aspects, the world ranked first and second countries or regions of the United States, Japan's economic development; South Korea, Taiwan, Hongkong and Singapore since 1980s become the creation development miracle "four little dragons", has great vitality; Japan, South Korea and The west coast of the United States As an important technology Source ; russian far east Canada and Australia is rich in natural resources; the Communist Party of China, India, Mexico and Brazil are quickly embarked on the road of industrialized development; China and India has rich human resources; the United States, Chile and New Zealand have high level of agricultural productivity, Australia and New Zealand have developed animal husbandry. Economists predict that the world economic center shifted from Europe, the future of traditional eastern North American Pacific rim.

The Pacific Ocean ocean resources

Growth of animals and plants of the Pacific Ocean, either phytoplankton Or the plants and fish and other animal than other rich ocean.
The Pacific Ocean Fishery shallow sea fishery the world's oceans area accounts for about 1/2 of the total area of shallow sea fishery, marine catch accounted for more than half the world catch, Peru, Japan, China Zhoushan Islands The United States and Canada the northwest coast are the world famous fishing ground. Rich in cod, salmon, herring, mackerel, trout, sardines, bonito, Tuna And halibut fish. in addition sea animal ( Seals , Walrus Enaliarctos, sea otters, whales, etc.) hunting and crab industry also occupies an important position. Offshore mineral resources continental shelf Oil, natural gas, coal is very rich, deep sea basin is rich in fierce tuberculosis (metal reserves of manganese ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, four kinds of minerals than the land several times to thousands of times), in addition to sea sand Tin , rutile Zirconium, titanium, iron, and platinum placer reserves are also very rich.
The Pacific Ocean is vast, rich natural resources, has been developed and used primarily Aquatic resources And mineral resources. In the Pacific Ocean and animal species, nearly 100 thousand species, mainly living in the ocean surface, especially the edge zone, animals and plants exist in 2000 meters below the water accounted for only 4% of the total to 5%, animal and plant life in 5000 meters below the water is only 800, only 500 in 6000 meters below the water the depths of 7000 meters, there are 200 to 10 thousand meters deep, only 20 kinds of. At the same time in the marine biological species with latitude increasing, but each kind of animal and plant density is high latitude area is larger than that of the low latitude area, many advantages in high latitude area. In the ocean surface with multiply Planktonic algae And planktonic animal. Offshore marine plants, in temperate Antlers Algae and algae (mainly sicor Kunming, a brown seaweed) in the tropics, Green algae And a variety of fine algae. Coastal zone The distribution of Mangrove . Many algae provides plenty of fodder for offshore animal, breeding a soft animal, soft insects, Crustaceans And Echinodermata and animal. Coral Etc., and produced a large number of fish and crab. In the islands and the coastal zone is seabirds. There are many animals in the ocean, such as whale , Seals , Dolphin Enaliarctos, Sea Dogs , Sea otter Etc..
Fishery production in the Pacific since the middle of 1960s has been in the world's oceans. The output of 1980 was 35 million 450 thousand tons, accounting for the world's total yield (64 million 576 thousand tons) more than half. The main fishing ground has two: one is The Pacific Northwest Fishing ground; another is the Southeast Pacific fishery. Northwest Pacific Fisheries including The Bering Sea A part、 The sea of Okhotsk , The sea of Japan The East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and Taiwan Strait . Fishing ground continental shelf An area of 2 million 190 thousand square kilometers, sea water is shallow, the sun can penetrate the bottom, many rivers bring a large number of inorganic salts, and the cold warm cold and warm bring plankton That provides suitable conditions for nourishing plankton and fish growth, become one of the main fishing grounds in the world. In 1980 the production capacity of 18 million 780 thousand tons, ranking first in the world the main fishing areas, including Japan Hokkaido fishing ground The main production of herring and salmon. The Bering Sea and the Okhotsk Sea to catch sea animal Among them, whaling For many. Kamchatka Peninsula The coast is the world's largest crab field. China coastal Zhoushan Islands Along with the capture of large yellow croaker, Small yellow croaker , Hairtail , Pomfret , Eel , A squid The main. Southeast Pacific Fisheries including Peru, chile, Ecuador Fishing here continental shelf The narrow, only 160 thousand square kilometers, but due to a strong Humboldt Current And through the coastal The rising flow Environmental conditions such as inorganic salts are abundant and suitable for breeding plankton, fish is very rich, become an important fishing ground. The Peru area for the production of anchovy, Peru Xian time gap? C. J 2? A: 500 against Bulbul? Yield to 10 million tons.

The Pacific Ocean fishing ground

Plants and animals of the Pacific Ocean, either phytoplankton or marine plants and fish and other animal than other rich ocean.
The shallow water fishing area of the world's oceans accounted for about 1/2 of the total area of shallow sea fisheries, marine catch accounted for more than half the world catch, Peru, Japan, Zhoushan, the United States and Canada Chinese islands northwest coast are the world famous fishing ground. Rich in cod, salmon, herring, mackerel, trout, sardines, tuna, skipjack tuna, halibut and other fish. In addition, marine mammals (seals, walrus, sea bear, sea otters, whales) hunting and crab industry also occupies an important position.

The Pacific Ocean mineral

The resources of the continental shelf offshore oil and natural gas, coal Very rich, deep sea basin is rich Manganese nodule Seam (containing manganese , nickel , cobalt Copper, metal reserves of four minerals than land several times to thousands of times), in addition to sea sand tin Ore, rutile, zirconium , titanium , iron and platinum Has rich reserves of gold placers.

The Pacific Ocean Transportation

The Pacific Ocean Ocean Shipping

The Pacific Ocean Shipping plays an important role in international traffic. There are many connections in Asia, Oceania, North America and South America are important sea and air routes through the eastern Pacific; panama canal And in the Southwest The Malacca Strait Respectively, and the world is a shortcut to the main channel leading to the Atlantic and India ocean. Shipping routes Mainly in East Asia and North America West Coast The route, East Asia Caribbean North America, east coast, East Asia and the west coast of South America route, east coast route, East Asia - Australia, New Zealand, Australia, New Zealand - North East and West Coast route etc.. There are many ports along the Pacific coast. Through 180 degrees of longitude of the pacific" International Date Line "From west to East, the ship over this line, the date minus one day; on the contrary, they date plus one day. Submarine cable The first undersea cable was laid by the British in 1902.
The Pacific Ocean is rich in resources. The Western Pacific The sea of Japan , The sea of Okhotsk Is an important fishery production herring , Cod , Tunas Crab, etc.. The North American west coast of the Columbia River to produce salmon Famous. There are a large number of seabed manganese nodules, seawater can be extracted sea salt , bromine Magnesium, etc.. The continental shelf is one of the most abundant oil resources in the world, such as the South Sea area, California the Yellow Sea, Indonesia, the East China Sea and Southeast Australia sea etc.. The Western Pacific is very early with a high level of culture area. But the Europeans did not begin until sixteenth Century in order to explore the ocean. They seek the so-called "south land" -- to enter Australia, Pacific islands. In 1513, the Spanish occupiers Balvo A (Vasco Nunez de Balboa) in the isthmus of Panama Darien (Darien) peak to see the vast Pacific ocean. After the Portuguese navigator Magellan voyage across the pacific. In seventeenth Century, Holland (Abel Tasman) navigator Tasman found in Tasmania, New Zealand and fiji. In eighteenth Century, British navigator Kirk, French navigator Bbu Gan Weil (Louis-Antoine de Bougainville), sailing in the Pacific Ocean survey. In nineteenth Century, the British naturalist Darwin (Charles Darwin) from 1831 to 1836 by the Beagle voyage (Beagle), he studied in the Pacific region, made a great contribution in science.
The Pacific Ocean south of the Antarctic region, north to arctic To the west, Asia and Australia, the eastern boundary of North and South america. About 1/3 of the earth's surface, is the largest ocean in the world.
 Pacific Island Pacific Island
The area is not included, near the sea, about 165 million 250 thousand square kilometers. The second is 2 times the size of the Atlantic ocean, the water capacity of more than 2 times. Including Antarctica over an area of the earth's land area total. The average depth (the sea not included) 4187.8 meters. There are many Western Pacific sea, from north to south in the Bering Sea and the Okhotsk sea, The sea of Japan , Yellow Sea , The East China Sea and South China Sea . East River in Heilongjiang, Yellow River , The Yangtze River The Pearl River, and Mekong All through the sea into the Pacific ocean. West Ocean 150 degrees east of the west is gentle.
The ridge 600 meters above the Western Pacific islands formed under water in some places. From the Pacific Northwest of the Aleutian ridge extending southward to the Kuril Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Mariana, yap and Palau; Palau, Solomon extends eastward to the Bismarck islands and Santa Cruz; and finally by the Samoa islands to the south, J Ma Dirk, Chatham and Mcquarrie tonga. As a result of the northern land and sea is higher than the south, and the influence of Antarctic land ice, the water temperature is higher than that of the South Pacific North pacific. Equatorial wind belt and variable wind water salinity below the wind zone. Impact on the Pacific is the largest vertical currents generated around the Antarctic cold water. The polar density around the big water sinking, then spread northward constitute most of the underlying pacific. Deep cold water in the Western Pacific with distinct currents from Antarctica northward flow to japan. The main tributaries of deep-sea to flow to the East and the flow of cold water with the polar hemisphere in two. Deep ocean circulation by the neighboring ocean sea surface subsidence zone convergence effect. In the tropical Pacific convergence zone between the north and south respectively in latitude 35 degrees to 40 degrees, farther away from the equator sea sinking depth increases, the most important in the convergence area between latitude 55 degrees to 60 degrees.
The measure of area
169 million 800 thousand square kilometers
Average depth
4028 meters
Maximum depth
11034 meters
Maximum width
18000 kilometers
Maximum length
13900 kilometers
Coastline
135663 kilometers
The annual evaporation
114 cm
In exchange
13 cm
Annual land water
6 cm

The measure of area
169 million 800 thousand square kilometers
Average depth
4028 meters
Maximum depth
11034 meters
Maximum width
18000 kilometers
Maximum length
13900 kilometers
Coastline
135663 kilometers
The annual evaporation
114 cm
In exchange
13 cm
Annual land water
6 cm

The Pacific Ocean shipping

The Pacific Ocean has important significance in international traffic. There are many connections in Asia, Oceania, North America and South America are important sea and air routes through the eastern Pacific; panama canal And in the southwest of the Malacca Strait, which is a shortcut and the world's major channel leading to the Atlantic and India ocean.
The main shipping routes in East Asia and North America West Coast route, East Asia - the Caribbean, North America east coast, East Asia and the west coast of South America route, east coast route, East Asia - Australia, New Zealand, Australia, New Zealand - North East and West Coast route etc.. There are many ports along the Pacific coast.
Through 180 degrees of longitude of the Pacific "international date line" ships from the west to the eastward across the line, the date minus one day; on the contrary, they date plus one day. In the Pacific Ocean began to use artificial Communication satellite Contact.

The Pacific Ocean Communication facilities

The first submarine cable is laid by the British in 1902, 1905, the United States in the Pacific also laying submarine cable. Canada to Australia, the United States to Philippines, Japan and Indonesia, Hongkong to Philippines and Vietnam, a submarine cable between the countries along the coast of South america. In the Pacific Ocean began to contact by satellite.

The Pacific Ocean The main port

The Pacific Ocean Asia

Russia vladivostok (Vladivostok, Japan) Kobe , Sapporo , Yokohama. , Yokosuka , Osaka , Chiba South Korea. Busan , Inchon , Ulsan , Pohang North Korea. Chongjin , Nanpu Thailand. Bangkok , Laemchabang , Songkhla Philippines. Manila , Batangas , Cebu Hongkong, Dalian, Chinese, Qingdao, Shanghai, Ningbo, Zhoushan, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Zhanjiang, Haikou, Tangshan, Tianjin, Yantai, Qinhuangdao, Yingkou, Lianyungang, Kaohsiung, Keelung, Rizhao, Hualian, Tainan, Singapore .

The Pacific Ocean North America

U.S.A Anchorage , Honolulu (Honolulu), Long Beach , Los Angeles , portland , Auckland , San Diego , St. Francesco (San Francisco), Seattle Canada. Kitty Matt , Prince Rupert , Vancouver , Victoria .

The Pacific Ocean South America

Mexico , Acapulco , Ensenada , La Paz , Manzanillo , Puerto Vallarta , Tijuana Chile. Antofagasta , Arica , Iquique , Puerto Montt Sanantonio, Talcahuano , Valparaiso Columbia. Buenaventura Peru. Callao Ecuador. Guayaquil Panama. Panama City .

The Pacific Ocean Oceania

Australia Sydney , Melbourne , Brisbane New Zealand. Auckland .

The Pacific Ocean Warfare

Warfare
The name of the battle
The Second World War
The Philippines Naval battle

The name of the battle
The Second World War
The Pacific War
The Pearl Harbor incident
Battle of the Coral Sea
The battle of Midway Islands
The Philippines Naval battle
Battle of Leyte Gulf