Lactose in nature only exists in mammalian milk, a molecule of lactose digestion had a molecular glucose and a galactose molecule. Galactose can promote the cerebrosides and generate mucopolysaccharide, so the mental development of children is very important.
Lactose is [lactose] Two sugar
A molecular formula is C12H22O11, is in mammals milk
Therefore, the name. Its molecular structure
Is composed of a molecule Glucose
And a molecule Galactose
The formation of condensation. Sweet.
From the industry whey
In the extraction, used in the manufacture of baby food, candy
Artificial milk, etc.. Medicine is used as a flavoring agent. This product is 4-O- beta -D- galactopyranose -D- glucose monohydrate.
Lactose is a disaccharide, English name Lactose; a -D- molecule beta galactose and glucose in a molecule of alpha -D- beta -1, 4- formation of glycosidic bond. The molecular formula C12H22O11, molecular weight 342.3 grams. There are two kinds of anomer: alpha beta lactose and lactose in aqueous solution can be transformed into each other. Lactose is easily combined with a molecular crystal water.
Sweetness is about 1/6 sucrose, solid components in milk is lactose 2-8%. The young can secrete mammalian intestinal lactase lactose into monosaccharides. The adult animal, including most human except Caucasian lactase activity was greatly reduced outside. Therefore, drinking milk can cause diarrhea, bloating and other symptoms, called lactose intolerance.
If the adult animal long-term drinking dairy (starting with a small number of slow drink is appropriate), but also can stimulate the intestinal lactase activity and to increase a certain number, although the activity and number as early childhood, but still can help break down lactose.
lactose Lactose traits
Lactose is white Crystal
No smell, taste slightly sweet. Sweetness is sucrose
15%, rather than alpha beta lactose lactose high sweetness. There are many on the market: the supply of lactose anhydrous lactose, lactose monohydrate and anhydrous beta small amounts of lactose.
Lactose soluble in water, in ethanol
The specific rotation to take this product, drying at 80 deg.c for 2 hours, accurately weighed, dissolved in water and diluted into quantitative per 1ml containing the product with 0.10g ammonia
TS 0.02ml solution, according to the determination of (Annex VI E), the specific rotation of +52.0 DEG to +52.6 deg.
lactose Identification of lactose
lactose Map analysis
lac Operon model
(1) take this product 0.2g, and sodium hydroxide
TS 5ml, yellow fever, emerging into a solution, brown red, plus Copper sulphate
A few drops of solution, precipitation Cuprous oxide
The red precipitate.
(2) map should be consistent with the control of the product of the infrared absorption.
lactose Experimental check
Take this product 1.0g water acidity, dissolved in 20ml, according to the determination of pH value should be 4 ~ 7.
Clarity of solution to take this product 3.0g, add boiling water 10ml dissolved, the solution should be clarified. Protein
Take this product 5.0g, put cold water heating 25ml dissolved, with mercury nitrate test solution 0.5ml, 5 minutes can not generate floc.
The absorbance of impurities to take this product, precision said, heating water solution dissolved and diluted into quantitative containing 100mg per 1ml, according to the UV Vis spectrophotometry (China Pharmacopoeia 2010 two Appendix IV A), to determine the absorbance at 400nm wavelength, not over 0.04. To draw the precise solution of 1ml, a 10ml volumetric flask, dilute with water to the mark, to determine the absorbance in the wavelength range of 210~220nm, shall not exceed 0.25; Determination of absorbance in the wavelength range of 270~300nm, not more than 0.07
Dry weight loss to take this product, the silica gel dryer, vacuum drying at 80 DEG C to a constant weight loss weight shall not exceed 1% (China Pharmacopoeia 2010 two appendix VIII L).
Take this product with water. methanol
(2:1) as solvent, according to the determination of moisture content (China Pharmacopoeia 2010 two appendix VIII M A) determination of moisture content should be 4.5%~5.5%.
Residue to take this product 1.0g, according to inspection (Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 two appendix VIII N), remaining residue may not be over 0.1%.
Take this product 3.0g heavy metals dissolved in 20ml water, heating, and Acetate buffer
(pH3.5) 2ml and the amount of water to 25ml, according to inspection (China Pharmacopoeia 2010 two appendix VIII H method), containing heavy metals shall not be more than five ppm.
Arsenic salt residue is a residue, 23ml of water dissolved with hydrochloric acid, 5ml, according to inspection (Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 two appendix VIII J method), should comply with the regulations (0.0002%)
lactose The main purpose
Mainly used as adsorption powdered food pigment dispersant, lower pigment concentration, easy to use and reduce the discoloration during storage. The use of easy compression molding and low water absorption characteristics, such as tablet excipients. Use of lactose caramelization at low temperature (163 DEG C sucrose. Glucose
154.5 C, 129.5 C) the characteristics of lactose only, for some special baking food, can obtain deep yellow to caramel color in the baking temperature lower.
lactose Special nutritional function
Lactose is one of the main nutrients in the growth and development of children, is very important to mental development of young people, especially the newborn baby is absolutely indispensable, in nature only Mammal
Milk contains lactose, lactose is various in plant food.
Lactose is the main function of the body heat, the growth and development of children and adults, The new supersedes the old
Synthesis, organization, to maintain normal body temperature and physical exercise, work requires a lot of energy, especially in decomposition of digestion and absorption of glucose utilization than adult lactose is exuberant, pediatric body organs, nerves and limbs, muscle
The dynamic development and activity.
The development of brain cells in children and the whole nervous system
The sound will require a lot of lactose, less than one year old children per kilogram of body weight per day to 13 grams of sugar, another important function is to promote the children of lactose in the intestine Lactobacillus
Reproductive growth, in the gut of lactose in Lactobacillus lactic acid Streptococcus
A variety of enzymes, and some Microorganism
The formation of lactic acid under the action of lactic acid has protective effect on pediatric gastrointestinal adjustment, it can inhibit intestinal abnormal fermentation poisoning caused by toxins, can inhibit harmful intestinal Bacteria
Another effect of lactose is in the process of calcium metabolism can promote the absorption of calcium in children. The sweetness of milk from lactose and lactose, but other Sugar
Compared to low sweetness so it will not cause the partial eclipse in children.
Lactose children while still maintaining the balance of the body of water, with the brain and vital organs of the galactose, and the starch
The storage is necessary. Galactose is especially important for children's brain development, it can promote the formation of cerebrosides and mucopolysaccharides. If the lack of lactose can cause children's weight loss, fatigue, weight loss, slow growth, and even children to consume the body Fat
This may happen Protein deficiency
Lactose is a kind of sugar, the chemical composition of carbohydrates can be divided into Monosaccharide
And disaccharides and polysaccharides. Lactose is a disaccharide lactose disaccharide enzyme in the human body are decomposed into one molecule of glucose and galactose has been a member of the human body absorption and utilization of blood glucose is the only suitable sugar, blood glucose delivered into each of the human body Cells
The conversion of glucose to cells. Carbon dioxide
And the water, and heat.
The lactose content of milk, milk, goat milk is different, milk contains 7% lactose, milk contains 4.2% lactose, 4.6% goat's milk contains lactose, the lactose content of cattle, in the low goats'milk than human milk. No lactose Sugar cane
Sugar cane sugar and its sweetness is 1/6.
Lactose is the best children's consumption of sugar, and children digestive tract
There are plenty of decomposition of lactose lactase
, the decomposition can be a good use of lactose digestion and absorption. Not only in human milk lactose content and stable than cattle, and not goats'milk high, due to changes in the mother's food and change, not because of blood sugar
Changes resulting from fluctuations.
Lactose is the most abundant carbohydrate in milk, 99.8% sugar contained in milk is lactose, plus a small amount of glucose, fructose
. Lactose soluble in water, milk lactose in almost all solution state, easy digestion and absorption.
The lactose in milk in children small intestine
In the decomposition of easily digestible glucose and galactose, semi lactose digestion and absorption is slow, but galactose in children is to promote intestinal bacterial synthesis Vitamin
Promoter K and compound vitamin B. Lactose and increase Mineral
Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium absorption increased. Blood calcium
The concentration of the more rapid bone calcium deposition, to create the best conditions for milk calcium absorption and utilization, reduce the Vitamin D
The required amount, so milk is a good substitute for human milk.
lactose Production method
1 requirements of raw materials as raw materials to a by-product of cheese whey, dry matter 6.5%, lactose 4.8%, fat 0.4%, ash 0.05%, pH 1 ~ T. Also use acid whey or casein Curd
2: defatted WHEY WHEY is heated to 35 degrees Celsius, the cream separator, the cheese whey containing fat is 0.4%.
Separation of 3 whey protein whey cheese: titratable acidity is 14 to 20 DEG T, direct heating to 90 to 92 DEG C, then adding fermentation acid whey (150 ~ 200 T), the whey increased 30 ~ 35 DEG T acidity, re heating to 90 DEG C, whey protein can be solidified and still, the whey and Protein separation
Also, can press the separation.
4 whey concentrate: a single effect or multi effect concentration tank of whey was Concentrate
To remove most of the water. In order to prevent lactose coking, concentrated temperature does not exceed 70 degrees, at the end, the proportion of concentrated sugar should not lower than 40 DEG Be ', concentration is 90 ~ 92%, the dry matter was 60 ~ 70%, 54 ~ 55% lactose content.
5 lactose crystallization: concentrated sugar lactose after cooling crystallization, the pan type of nature Crystallization method
And the crystallization with interlayer water cooling machine forced crystallization. Pan type natural crystallization method, the initial stage of crystallization to stir after the temperature dropped to 30 degrees, can stop Stir
Time less than 30 hours, can be divided into fast and slow crystallization crystallization of two kinds of compulsory crystallization in sandwich lambda can pass into the cold water cooling and crystallization machine complete with agitator. Crystallization of sugar has been good, has a good crystalline structure, obviously,. crystal
Should be 1 ~ 2 mm, viscous.
6 removal of lactose mother liquor and washing: after crystallization of lactose, use Centrifugal dewatering machine
The separation of lactose crystals and molasses, washing water adding amount of crystal sugar lactose 30%, to remove residual mother liquor and most of the salts. After washing and dehydration after wet sugar called lactose, the moisture content is below 15%. In order to avoid the washing water of high temperature to dissolve lactose, wash water temperature should be lower than 10 DEG C.
7: in the semi lactose dry boiling bed dryer or air dryer, the dryer with a stirring device, drying temperature less than 80 DEG C, lactose dispersed yellow milk after drying, the moisture content is less than 1 ~ 1.5%. Can also be used to dry acidulous lactose.
8: the recovery of mother liquor liquor containing lactose milk is about 1/3 of the total sugar, contains proteins and salts. The mother liquor by direct steam heating to boiling, stewing, protein, salt and other impurities precipitate
The upper suction, pure mother liquor was concentrated under 70 degrees, remove most of the water, the concentration reached 42 ~ 43 DEG Be ', then crystallization, washing and drying, made from crude lactose. The yield of crude lactose Milk
A total of 3 ~ 4%. Crude lactose was light yellow crystalline powder, with swelling of protein (especially more lactalbumin content), ash and other impurities. use Active carbon adsorption
Dissolve 9 crude lactose: soluble sugar in the pot, adding 2% activated carbon in mechanical stirring, the lactose dissolved and fully mixed with activated carbon, with direct steam heating to boiling point, concentration of 30 to 31 DEG Be'. With a little lime milk sugar regulating the pH value to 4.6, due to the role of activated carbon, adsorption of the sugar in the pigment.
10 filter: the mixture of bars through the plate filter press, filter out the activated carbon and adsorbed impurities and protein, are pure sugar, color is light yellow or white, and then into the crystal cylinder.
11 crystallization: sugar crystallization in self clearance stirring, crystallization time less than 24 hours.
The removal and washing liquor: 12 after crystallization of lactose has obvious crystal size of 1 ~ 2 mm. After the sugar crystals in the centrifugal dewatering machine removal of mother liquor, with distilled water or activated carbon adsorption treatment after the water washing, to remove residual mother liquor, soluble proteins and salts. Wash water temperature at 10 DEG C.
13, drying, crushing and screening: moisture content below 15% of the semi wet sugar available frame plate drying box for drying, drying temperature is over 80 DEG C, stirring and drying, avoid the local high temperature of coking. Then use universal grinder for grinding, 80 mesh screen, packaging.
Recovery of lactose 14 liquor, washing water and activated carbon: containing more refined lactose mother liquor and washing liquid in lactose, can be concentrated to 35 ~ 38Be 'after crystallization. The waste carbon plate bar filter press out, sugar content is also high, available water. Dissolution
And press. Add liquor and wash filtrate with water concentration and crystallization. Refined recovery rate of lactose in milk lactose sugar content of the half, that is about 2.35%. Raw materials accounted for 68 ~ 70% jujube refined lactose.
lactose Effect of lactose
1 essential fermented milk, provide carbon source. lactose
In the role of lactic acid bacteria, decomposed into galactose and glucose.
2 for human nutrition and energy. Galactose has an important effect on mammalian neural development. Lactose is conducive to calcium absorption. lactase
The lack of cause Lactose intolerance
There are 3 main effects on dairy organization. Milk production, milk lactose crystallization effect on taste. Powdered Milk
There are 4 main effects on the color and flavor of dairy products. Browning reaction. After the fermentation flavor.
lactose Promote calcium absorption
Lactose is not easy to be decomposed in the intestine, can remain in the intestine long time. The effect of lactose lactase after formation organic acid
That will make the intestinal tract PH value
In the fall, the effect of acid can promote calcium ion
Absorption. In addition, after the formation of the decomposition of lactose Glucose
Also have a role in calcium absorption.
lactose Intestines function
In the small intestine is not lactase lactose to the large intestine, life in the large intestine bacteria can use lactose, which is accounted for by Lactobacillus, most of the bacteria will be lactose into Byfield lactic acid
, acetic acid
So, the intestinal pH decreased, these organic acids can stimulate the intestinal peristalsis, so has the intestines function, can prevent the baby constipation