A native or indigenous, refers to a local ethnic group settled earlier, the current debate on Indigenous Issues should be carried out in most of the nation's colonial business context understanding down. Foreign rulers to appease or control the indigenous people, to carry out its rule, will formulate various policies, and often for indigenous people's way of life and may even cause interference. Genocide.
The results of.
Even before the stage of colonial expansion in the colonial movement solution after the two war ended, but similar problems still exist between emerging countries and indigenous decolonization after the establishment of the. The latter is sometimes called internal colonization, and distinguish with traditional external colonial.
Aborigines brief introduction
Chinese in discussing this issue, there are indigenous ethnic use the word, and the main difference is that the former emphasizes the aboriginal all indigenous groups respectively as a "nation" (people) and should be in the international law including the pursuit of national autonomy (self-determination) collective rights by the latter; or as a general name, or only refers to the aboriginal individual as subject to individual Aboriginal individual internal or external colonization in alien under the rule of the nation.
Hongkong British period the new territories indigenous (i.e. Chinese) referred to as the original inhabitants, the name has not changed.
Aborigines Taiwanese Aborigines
Aborigines brief introduction Taiwanese Aborigines
Is in the academic classification" South Island
The nation "(Austronesian), refers to the Han people moved to Taiwan before arriving in Taiwan, the earliest settled communities. Basis linguistics
Inference and cultural anthropology, the Aboriginal people in Taiwan has been in Taiwan to hundreds of thousands of years. Early in Taiwan The Han people
In culture, classification, will belong to Taiwan Austronesian
Called the "fan". The Taiwan aboriginal ethnic languages belong to the Austronesian language (Austronesian), the anthropology is belonging to the Austronesian peoples.
Since 2000, because of rising democracy after each ethnic group consciousness of ethnic groups in Taiwan, based on the principle of mutual respect, in 1994 renamed the "natives", and generally get by. But some people think that the use of "the first inhabitants" one word is more appropriate. from Anthropology
And the ancient cultural point of view, Taiwan's indigenous people missing teeth, tattoo
Waist, textile machine, Through the first suit
Marriage, age, grade, Texkeisonymy gerontocrats, Bird
, The worship of soul
Indoor, buried, all belong to the cultural characteristics.
Austronesian is one of the most widely distributed region Nation
By, East Africa
Delta Coast The island of Madagascar
Until, South America
Hesperian Easter Island
Meanwhile, all the islands, in addition to Australia
And the minority Papua
Besides the language areas are Austronesian
In the field, extending the distance of things, more than earth circumference
Half of the total population of about 250 million.
In accordance with the classification of the common, the native of Taiwan can be divided into Pingpus
Two categories. Basically, the origin of this name and also relatively recent immigrants on the Han people of Taiwan. In Taiwan during the Qing Dynasty, the Han Chinese had according to the degree of indigenous people will be divided into" Some soil
"And" wild barbarian ", then according to whether the aboriginal domestication and be divided into" savages "and" savage". Among them, the naturalized Aboriginal most live in the west coast of the plain, but not many aborigines living in domestication The central mountain range
The area, in two provinces from the Fujian and Guangdong immigrants to Taiwan Han, known as "living in the plains of the aborigines, and said some Plains" living in the mountain Aboriginal "mountain time". After the Japanese colonial period, the Japanese colonial government still use "Pingpu fan" and "mountain fan" as the classification of politics, only "fan" was replaced by the word "family". In addition Japanese also known as Taiwan's indigenous people as a "high sand clan", the ancient name for Taiwan from Japan: high sand island.
If the Taiwan authorities according to the Executive Yuan indigenous recognized by the National Committee of standards, the Commission finds that the indigenous peoples of Taiwan had a total of 12 ethnic groups, in addition to the 9 traditional "Gaoshan Nationality", there are thao
And the original is considered Atayal Tribe
. Because there are still indigenous people are fighting for the "name", the future of the new formal nationality high possibility. Is recognized as the "family" of the crowd, likely in the future to strengthen the aboriginal autonomous process, strive to safeguard the rights and interests of institutionalized.
The so-called "Gaoshan classification" and "pingpus", to a certain extent may have a problem. On the one hand, whether the Gaoshan or pingpus, they belong to the academic classification of "Taiwan Austronesian", just because of the past history of Han history and classification of their name, and "convenient" is divided into two categories. On the other hand, the title of the so-called "Gaoshan", itself is not consistent with the facts described. Because not all of the Gaoshan people are living in the mountains, such as living in eastern Taiwan, Amis Huatung Valley and lived on the island of Orchid Island Tao (formerly Yami), not living in the mountains. Therefore, some scholars have called for this problem Di, that "the national policy should not continue since China and Japanese from the classification and nomenclature of the ruling idea; need to break the dichotomy of" mountain "and" no ", should be managed to return to the" naming rights of all ethnic groups". Therefore, in the title of "Gaoshan Nationality", should be careful about.
The scholars still follow this dichotomy in the past to classify the Aboriginal people in Taiwan. For example, a Japanese scholar Shigeru Tsuchida
Take language as the main criteria, Taiwan will be divided into aboriginal" Gaoshan
"Two categories. The former includes 9 ethnic groups now live in mountain area and Eastern Taiwan: Atayal Tribe
, Saishet aborigine tribe
, The Paiwan
And, Yami ethnic minority
. The latter includes the original 10 ethnic groups in northern and Western Taiwan plain, has almost disappeared: Ketagalan
(water sand), Sirach
(Li Rengui 1996, 68 "Taiwan Austronesian language distribution map).
and The People's Republic of China
In Ethnic identification
And ethnic identification, that does not pay attention to their "main group" internal differences, thus ignoring the Taiwan indigenous ethnic diversity, because of historical factors in the end of the Second World War after the lien in the territory of People's Republic of China Taiwan aborigines, identified as one of 55 minority nationalities in China. Also referred to as "gaoshan". But according to strict distinction between the territory of national ethnology, China should be as high as 100 or more.
Aborigines Population distribution Alpine group Atayal Tribe
(Atayal; Tayal) Saishet aborigine tribe
(Saisiyat; Saisiat) bunun
(Tsou; Cou) Rukai
(Rukai) The Paiwan
(Amis; Pangcah) Tao
(Tao; Yami, formerly known as Yami) Taroko
(Taroko) Pingpu ethnic groups kavalan
(water sand) (Thao) Ketagalan
Aborigines means of livelihood
Taiwan Aboriginal livelihoods with slash and burn cultivation, hunting, gathering, fishing and breeding, all due to the natural environment different emphasis, such as both the Yami agricultural and fishing in Orchid Island, mountainous areas such as Saisiat, Atayal, Bunun, Zou, Paiwan and Rukai attach importance to farming and hunting, the eastern part of the Amis and humble because the family is located in southern plain farming, fishing and hunting, gathering vice. All the tribes are livestock and poultry feed to pig, dog, chicken as old, later imported cattle and sheep and other livestock, dogs for hunting, pigs and chickens for sacrifice, but mainly to eat.
(a) the slash and burn cultivation
Taiwan's indigenous farming ethnic groups is slightly different, but the difference is small, mountainous ethnic groups to slash and burn cultivation planting millet, living in the plain area of Orchid Island Tao planting rice planting taro. In farming technology, in addition to irrigation pipe Tao, Han nationalities in the paddy fields for incoming before also engaged in slash and burn farming methods, in the choice of land, cut down trees and weeds, drying after burning and burn after tillage sowing, fertilization, crop intercropping, after four or five years of fertility as fallow, after several years of fertility recovery and burning reclamation, so take turns.
Use a knife, hand hoe farming digging stick, as the main tool, planting millet, sweet potato, taro, corn as the main crop. The farming work dominated by women, an important festival also with millet seeding growth and harvest a year in the process.
Hunting is the indigenous society after agricultural means of livelihood, is a man's job hunting, can be divided into individual groups of two kinds of hunting and hunting, hunting in individual slack uphill hunting, hunting groups are organized by family groups, or clans, concelebrated groups, held before and after the ritual or ceremonial the sharing and sacrifice during the game.
Hunting hunting and hunting methods in weapons, in hunting in prey entry with trapping machine, weapon hunting with bows, javelin, muskets and dog help hunt prey prey to wild pigs, deer, goats, hare, fox, qiang. Flying etc, is a major source of meat food. Hunting is a dangerous job, people regard it as sacred activities, so to comply with many taboos, and magic ritual, pray for peace and plenty of prey.
All the tribes to ordinary nature of the product collection to complement the main mode of production, collection in addition to eat is also used in the making of architecture, medicine, instruments, trading and use of witchcraft. The acquisition range is very wide, including plant, animal and mineral, gatherers can be served as the men and women, old and young, in addition to the specific acquisition time, all regardless of the season.
All ethnic groups live due to different geographical environment and different acquisition. Such as a variety of seaweed, ethnic groups living in the sea shore collection of shellfish, onshore small animal, wild herbs and sea salt, live in mountainous areas such as the Atayal collect animal and mineral mountain. In a word, the traditional aboriginal gathering is a supplement to the usual mode of production, so as to enrich and complement the daily needs.
Taiwan aboriginal traditional production mode, fishing in the Tao, AMI and Thao is more important. Tao was surrounded by the sea, to develop a set of fishing livelihood culture, all life, calendar, social organizations are closely related to fishing, there are many taboos and religious rituals.
Living in Taiwan Island
The indigenous people, each tribe has a certain area to share the tribe or family groups, outsiders are not allowed to cross. Fishing tools, fishing nets, fish and harpoon, and are also useful for blocking up fishing, river fishing, fishing in the collective, also with tubatoxin poison into the river to fish.
Aborigines Cultural characteristics
Based on the analysis of anthropologists, Aboriginal construction, reclamation, roof fire, tattooing, eating areca leather making, round and other cultural practices, are similar to traditional cultures. In the past most of the indigenous people are based on the traditional nomadic and hunting as the main mode of production since 80s and 90s, close to the ground (mountain) and Han aboriginal life style close, but still maintain tribal organization. The Bunun with patriarchal clan system; Amis is a matriarchal system, tribal leader has the authority and responsibility important; the Rukai and a system of nobility, Paiwan double system etc..
In addition the aboriginal music and technology also has a characteristic. The Rukai pottery and glass bead making, carving art, Bunun leather making rubbed technical skills, tsou. Multi metal spring Lubu, Atayal and Bunun Taroko the multi part chorus, Amis free counterpoint is the musical features of polysyllabic chorus.
Aboriginal common clothing is self woven "cloth", is made from ramie. Men wear colorful waist skirt, women's dress, love with chicken tail feathers hair. Indigenous people had a tattoo custom, still preserved, but the tattoo pattern more subtle.
Aboriginal attention utux
Faith, I believe that the ancestral spirit living in the mountains, and the protection of people rich harvest. All ethnic groups have their own unique festivals, such as the Bunun ear Festival (with arrows and a kemonomimi prayer harvest) millet offerings; saysiyat held every two years the pastaai Festival, Tao fish offerings, Paiwan five years. In addition, the cult of the Puyuma sea Festival, male and female monkey Festival weeding ceremony. South Tsou believe ancestors attached to the collection of pearls, and thus have Pui offerings; Tsou is offering the harvest festival, war.
Aborigines Related research
The study of the aborigines in Taiwan began in the Japanese colonial period, 1898 anthropologist
Hongkong indigenous residents