After the death of the dinosaurs, the soft tissue in the body because of decay and disappear, bones (including teeth) and other hardware tissue deposition in the sediment, in isolation oxygen
The environment, after tens of millions or billions of years Sedimentation
Bone mineral, completely preserved. In addition, the dinosaur life remains, such as the footprints of time can be Shi Huacheng Fossil
dinosaur fossil Main categories
Dinosaur residues such as teeth and bones are the most familiar Fossil
And these are called body fossils; as for dinosaur remains (including footprint, nest, feces or foraging traces) may form fossils preserved, these are called trace fossils. These fossils are mainly based on the study of dinosaurs, which can infer the type, quantity, size and so on of the dinosaurs.
dinosaur fossil Morphological character
Dinosaur size, life form can be made by fossils Restore
And that, but the dinosaur's skin color, unable to find fossils of the basis, so only according to the understanding of the existing animal to speculate. According to paleontologists speculate that large dinosaurs may have stripes or spots as protection of color, the color will be more bright. During mating, part of the head and skin male dinosaurs may like modern birds showing bright colors, it is easier to obtain the favor of the opposite sex.
Can be seen in the Museum of dinosaur fossils is only a small part of the inventory. For example, in The state of Utah
Provo Brigham Young University-Provo's Earth Science Museum is nearly 100 tons of storage has not been peeling plaster shell fossils. Many museums in the basement of the shelf or drawer was filled with labeled dinosaur fossils, most of them will be wholly intact to put on for several years, waiting for scientists to study. Some paleontologists from one or two hundred years ago unearthed no research or identification errors in the bone, identified a new dinosaur species.
dinosaur fossil Background Petrochemical Process
When the dinosaurs died and covered quickly by sediments or underwater sediment, Petrochemical process starts. These sediments contain fine particles will form a layer of soft covering on the surface of the body. This "blanket" can protect the animal from the body Carrion animal
The invasion, also can isolate oxygen, inhibit microbial decomposition.
The dinosaur bones and teeth and other hard parts are made from minerals. Minerals tend to decomposition and re crystallization in the ground, become more rigid, a process called "petrochemical process". With the continuous thickening above the sediment, the remains of deeper, eventually became Fossil
. While the surrounding sediment into hard rock. This process is very slow.
In the petrochemical return The surface
In the process, there are many risk. In the process of tens of thousands of, the surrounding rock may be bent, it will be compressed fossil. In addition, the high temperature at the bottom of the crust may also allow fossil melting. The escape after the catastrophe, but also a rush in the fossil from the surrounding Rock stratum
Isolated before find it, otherwise it will disappear fossil fragmentation.
dinosaur fossil The main site
Only a few special geological environment can be well preserved,
Dinosaur fossil process
The most common is the detailed texture of the sedimentary rock
. The dinosaur fossils preserved because of the age, more is not easy. Now that the dinosaur fossil mainly in Germany, Mongolia Gobi Suolun Hou Fen desert Flaming Cliffs
Chinese, Yunnan Lufeng, Chinese Shandong Zhucheng
Etc.. Sauron Hou Fen
The German Sauron quarry in dinosaur Hou Fen lived in tropical shallow water, then there are islands. Sauron Hou Fen's meticulous limestone
In the preservation of compsognathus fossils, in addition to the slender fish remains, and early bird Archaeopteryx
The islands of animal remains. Flaming Cliffs
Mongolia Gobi desert flame cliff saved many Cretaceous
Advanced animal fossils, including protoceratops
Etc.. Since 1920s, found that the flame cliff contains fossils have been mining a lot of world famous dinosaur specimens here. Como bluff
In 1870s, scientists in the United States Wyoming
The Como cliff found a lot of dinosaur bone fossils, most of which are sauropod
The bones. The American Museum of natural history scientists began digging here from 1890s, hundreds of specimens have been found at present. Valley of the moon
A valley is located in the western Argentina desert canyon, people from here to know the dinosaur fossils found in the presence of. From the valley fossils including The Triassic Period
The late bill dragon taxa and other reptile taxa, including early theropod dinosaurs Eoraptor
Genus and Herrerasaurus
Genus. The remote site was discovered in 1950s, but until the late 1980s people know here is very rich in fossil reserves. Lufeng
Yunnan province, China Lufeng County
The dinosaur mountain area of 10 square kilometers area, is the famous hometown of dinosaur. In 1938, archaeologists first discovered complete dinosaur fossils unearthed here, after a succession of dozens of dinosaur fossils. After identification, there are 24 genera and 30 species of dinosaurs, is the world's most original, the most ancient, the most abundant and most complete vertebrate Fossil
. Zhucheng Jian keel Keel Gorge
Is the famous "Shandong giant dragon in the world" and "great Zhucheng dragon" of the land is located in Zhucheng City, Lu Biao Zhen kugou village north, 10 kilometers away from Zhucheng City area. The stream for the East-West big gully, about 350 meters long, 100 meters wide, about 20 meters deep. According to the experts, keel gorge and surrounding areas are about 70 million years ago in the late Mesozoic Cretaceous strata, containing fossils of the depths of 2 meters, is located in the southern slope of gully head on the terrace, a 28 degree angle to the north extension of gully down, Jian in the possession of fossils are very rich, is one of the world's rare dinosaur the fossil treasure house, the main categories of hadrosaur fossils also found Tyrannosaurus teeth dinosaur egg fossils, etc.. Since 1964, the keel Jian has to dig out at least 10 dinosaur fossils, about more than and 50 tons, 4 more have been shelved as hadrosaurs skeleton on display in Beijing, Tianjin, Ji'nan and Zhucheng, which is on display in the City Museum of dinosaurs "great Zhucheng dragon", 9.1 meters high, 16.6 meters long, is the world the same type the tall.
At present, the fossil zone was designated as the keel gorge nature reserve of Weifang City, reserve things 640 meters long, 240 meters wide north-south, a total area of 153600 square
In February 2014, archaeologists discovered the first dinosaur fossils in Malaysia pahang.
This is 2.3 cm long, 1 cm wide dinosaur fossil is Longke dinosaur teeth spine. This dinosaur is similar to modern gavial jaws and teeth, to fish for food.
University of Malaya professor Sone Jungmin said, from the University of Malaya and the Nihon University research team in Pahang inland a village, found the fossil.
The fossil teeth should appear in the late Mesozoic, that is to say as early as 75 million to 145 million years before the Cretaceous already exist.
Spinosaurus can divided into champsosaurus, baryonyx and other species, also do not know which belong to the category of fossil teeth.
dinosaur fossil Excavation method
Preserved in sedimentary rocks, in addition, the cooling lava surface may also have preserved fossil footprints. Forever frozen in the ground, for example in Siberia Permafrost
Also, can be well preserved fossils.
Sedimentary rock is composed of a deposition in the river, sea basin, or on land consolidation by sediment and the formation of rocks, according to its origin and composition can be divided into conglomerate
, sandstone and mudstone. Because the sand particles of sedimentary rocks is very delicate, can be well preserved fossils, so also contains a circular stone in sedimentary rocks, known as tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a chemical change generated, reason is because the presence of fossils.
Water, wind or human activities will lead to hidden fossils exposed rock. The erosion of the cliffs and river is a good place to find fossils. Because of human activities and the fossil exposed locations, usually including quarry, roadside and construction sites.
Looking for buried fossils of dinosaurs may contain what is often used in place geological map
. The geological map can show the outcrop of different types or different types of rock units. Aerial photographs and satellite photography can also be used together with geological map, in order to determine the exact position of the rock exposed.
dinosaur fossil The choice of location
Found in the burial place of dinosaur fossils, archaeologists to dig up fossils. From those small scattered fossil may only need a person to take a few minutes, but if it is to play a large fossil from hard rock, requires a large number of people take a few weeks or a few months, the erosion of the cliffs and river is a good place to search for the use of the fossil machine tools to complete. In this process, measure and record the operation details are equally important.
Find the best place in dinosaur mesozoic
The sedimentary strata exposed or near the earth's surface. The mountain road, quarry, coast, river cliffs, even may be the location of coal mining. However, occupies most of the dinosaur reserves most exposed areas and mostly located in the rugged desert or distant gally.
dinosaur fossil Mining method
In the mining of dinosaur fossils, the staff will take a different way according to different mining mining sites. For example, in some desert areas, the staff just above the sand removal, can sort out the bones. But buried in hard rock mining frame of the drilling machine must use explosives, open machine or strong.
dinosaur fossil The field of Surveying and mapping
Will people dig and remove anything in the dinosaur with network partitions, found in different areas of fossil should be clearly labeled, after photography and accurately mapping the site map, so that finally will get a complete scene drawing precision. This process is almost as important as fossils. The exact location of the scene record mining and the relative position of each other, help to reveal the cause of death was the dinosaur specimens preserved and why.
dinosaur fossil Handling of fossil
The first fossil stabilization treatment before moving in. Sometimes only need to use glue or resin coating exposed part, sometimes must be made out in burlap soaked plaster bandage to wrap the hot liquid. Small fossils can be wrapped in paper, or in sample bags to avoid damage. Large fossil or with gypsum, or in the most vulnerable parts with polyurethane foam to protect. Some large stones inside fossils must be split and transport.
dinosaur fossil Reconstruction
The first step for mining, the job is just understanding of dinosaur fossils, next is the fossil bones pieces together to construct a skeleton. The restoration work is added in the muscle skeleton, to reproduce his appearance. So sometimes paleontologists spend time in the lab than in the field of time spent.
dinosaur fossil Clean fossil
Need to be especially careful removal of dinosaur fossils in the lab..
The removal of rocks, fossils reveal delicate details and needs careful handling, also very time-consuming. May need to remove rocks or to decide to use tools. In the removal of fossil surrounding rock, in fossil glue and resin to be protected. Acid preparatory work
The diluted acetic acid or formic acid can be used for dissolution of fossil surrounding rock, and will not hurt the fossils. But the whole process must be carefully monitored, because sometimes the acid will be decomposed by internal fossil. And some acid was very dangerous, may burn the skin, so the user must wear safety helmet, gloves and protective clothing. Academic description and naming
Fossil completely ready, paleontologists can describe the structure of fossils, and compare it with related or similar dinosaurs. If there may be a new genus or species, is a new name for the dinosaur fossil. Do take characteristic comparison of new fossil and other fossil, you can put the Xinhua stone into phylogenetic relationship.
dinosaur fossil Graphic description
The graphical description of the actual key the dinosaur looks. A way of illustration, some buried fossils in rocks and some precise sketch, complete structure, clearly reconstruct skeleton diagram. For accuracy, scientists often use the camera lucida. Although the sketch works as accurate picture, but still very useful. Because the characteristics can be borrowed from the sketch may also appear in the show with single fossil.
dinosaur fossil Papers published
Complete fossils can result in a paper published. The content of this paper may be a new dinosaur description, or re evaluation of some already known dinosaur species. You can use charts and photos to illustrate. Because all the papers need to go through peer review before publication, so it is reliable.
dinosaur fossil Recombinant skeleton
After a clear structure of some dinosaur bones, will be as far as possible reorganization of the skeleton. The lost skeleton is made of fiberglass model to replace the. Are now able to see most of the large display skeleton are also using glass fiber model to replace the lighter, and the thin metal strips hidden, so as to support architecture. The restructuring of the framework is the basis for the remodeling of a dinosaur's appearance. The body structure of reptiles, birds and mammals can also be used to refer to the existing. They help that dinosaur internal organs size, shape, position and form the abdominal muscles. The structure of the skin by reference on the fossilized skin impressions.
dinosaur fossil Repair work
The primary task of the repair work is no damage from the surrounding rock in the carved chisel exposed to no fossil fossil sticking fracture, complete, in order to restore the true face of dinosaur bones, for experts to study. In the repair work of the staff, should have a certain dinosaur bone
Without knowledge, can at least recognize exposed bones are bones which part of the dinosaurs in the body, such as skull and spine, bones of the four limbs
The first step is to repair the box. According to the packing list box to open the box number of successive, shall be determined according to how much repair personnel. Out of the box after it has to be registered. From the sample frame according to the origin of fossils and specimens of numbers will be removed, the first fossil origin, the registration number in the repair work diary. Generally speaking, the fossils repair the following two methods:
(1) mechanical repair method. Although in recent years the repair tool has been considerable progress, but most still use the hammer and chisel. We must put those fossils in the sand in the use of these tools, and some with the size of the sand cushion in different parts, in order to maintain stability. Repair, a hammer chisel to the destination, must be very careful not to damage the fossil. If you encounter a rock hard, straight machine or high speed drilling machine or a molar tooth available electric carving machine or dental doctor. According to the need can also use pneumatic engraving machine or pen type pneumatic drill.
(2) chemical treatment method. In the excavation, in order to make worse the plaster hardened fossil, Often drop into nitrocellulose lacquer liquid, the surface of the surrounding soil solidification in the fossil fossil, if this is the case, to drop in repair Thinner
(i.e. Banana oil
), to make it dissolve. If the fossil has cracks, when the crack width not exceeding 1 mm, can directly drop into the adhesive; when the gap is large, should be in the crack and filling material, and cleaning off the gap, and then use the adhesive or adhesive. General use for curing adhesive Nitrocellulose varnish
Can be used as diluent, acetone. The common market (commonly known as the 505, namely the adhesive cyanoacrylate) and polyester Resin
It can be used as adhesive. In order to completely remove the fossil from the surrounding rock, at the beginning of the twentieth Century international has begun to use acid treatment. Is the most commonly used acetic acid (acetic acid). The main component of fossil rock is Calcium carbonate
However, dinosaur fossils are components of calcium phosphate, acetic acid can dissolve the rock, but can not dissolve the dinosaur fossils, so it will be separated from the surrounding rock in bones. The bones separated immediately removed, rinse with water and soak time at least with acetic acid soaking the same amount of time, so as to remove acidic substances. After cleaning, can be placed in the 600C fossil drying oven.
dinosaur fossil The operation of equipment
Through the study of fossils paleontologists found that Edmund would like people to get cancer thoron. The study of ancient disease and injury is referred to as Palaeopathology
This study, mainly through the preserved bones. For example, if fossil animal bones appear lesions or special growth, on behalf of the animal life may have been sick or injured. If a fossil species has many individuals frequently appear some characteristics, it can be inferred from a certain aspect of their life. Computer tomography
Computer tomography need not destroy specimens can see the internal structure of fossil skull. Usually need to view the details of cut fossil computer tomography, now you can easily do. The traditional X ray will bring objects into a single plane, and computer tomography can produce a three-dimensional computer model, manipulation in multidimensional space. The use of microscope
Paleontologists use microscope to observe the fossils, has the means to study various microbial fossils. scanning electron microscope
Is a powerful tool that can magnify objects of photography of millions of times, you can see the details of fossil bones are far more delicate. This kind of instrument for the first time to expose the structure of microbial fossilization, assist paleontologists to better understand dinosaurs living environment.
dinosaur fossil Research progress
dinosaur fossil That is the most critical step in the study of dinosaurs. Fossils are mostly preserved in sedimentary rocks, and fossils exposed also have certain laws. So looking for fossils, need to first of all kinds of sedimentary rocks and their Geologic Age
Understand. The adoption of new technology in the discovery of dinosaur fossils can also help a helping hand.
On the study of dinosaurs are basically fossils have been found based on.
Now, paleontologists have been able to use the advanced instruments without damaging the fossil can see inside, but we can also see the past can not examine the internal fine structure. This can let people know about the lives of dinosaurs, food, growth and behavior, and that the evolutionary spectrum of dinosaurs. Dinosaur fossil anatomy
The dinosaur fossil anatomy allows people to provide the fossil dinosaur itself may be life style or structural information, but also provide information about the evolution of dinosaurs belong to groups. Do paleontologists can also get some animal bones and similar types of bones, which described the species evolutionary lineage relationship. Although the fossil dinosaur muscles, organs and other soft tissues are unlikely to become fossils preserved, but also can be used to construct a modern animal anatomy and comparative and inferred from fossil dinosaur. The control system of the Dinosaurs Sympathetic nerve
System and Hormone
The function of the body system together with the coordination of the dinosaurs. Most of the sauropod dinosaurs of the brain are very small, some small theropod brain is larger and more complex. One of the large theropod dinosaurs Rex
With a special control of limb movement, visual and olfactory information processing and the design of the brain, but the brain is very small. The cardiopulmonary system of Dinosaurs
Theropod dinosaurs may have high heart, in order to maintain high temperature. Sauropod dinosaur huge body can store enough solar energy, so they have to keep warm in the night. The dinosaur's heart and lung system in executive function, may be cold-blooded systems similar to human or system of warm blooded reptiles. The soft tissue of the Dinosaurs
The dinosaurs of soft tissue including muscle and digestive system. The bone between the ligament connected in pairs and match the muscle is usually composed of tendons attached to the bones, the contraction and relaxation of the limbs move back and forth. The digestive system consists of dinosaurs circling the intestines. Carnivorous dinosaurs have very short and simple digestive tract, herbivorous dinosaurs need long and complex intestines, decomposition of plant fiber, so that the body of waste etc.. Sperm and eggs are through Cloaca
From in vitro. Dinosaur skeleton
The main function is to support the dinosaur skeleton to muscles, and protect the brain, heart and lung organs, blood and bone marrow for manufacturing. Different groups of dinosaurs have specialized bones, such as the giant hole temporal theropod dinosaur head, can reduce unnecessary weight. The skull and teeth
Through the observation of dinosaur fossils, eye and ear nose can understand dinosaur sensory organs. The teeth show dinosaur lifestyle, such as carnivorous dinosaur teeth usually have sharp edges or with conical teeth, herbivorous dinosaur teeth are flattened leaflike or chewing teeth. Can also provide for different dinosaurs in the dinosaur tooth shape information.
dinosaur fossil Archaeological excavation Argentina is the largest in the history of dinosaur fossils is equivalent to 14 elephants
In May 18, 2014, so far has unearthed the largest dinosaur fossils found in Argentina. Scientists believe that this dinosaur species as Brontosaurus, weighs 170 thousand pounds, there are 14 African elephants so heavy. Dino Autopsy
In 1999, a teenager in the United States North Dakota
The discovery of a well preserved dinosaur mummy, you can see it like a duck like beak, and the skin is almost intact. Now, scientists have found out from this rare dinosaur mummy above some organic matter, which means the human biology is expected to soon uncover the secrets of the dinosaurs.
The Dinosaurs Remains
And like a prehistoric crocodile
The same animal Borealosuchus remains intertwined, scientists believe that Borealosuchus may be dead in the body when eating dinosaurs. The leadership team of dinosaur samples University of Manchester
Phil Manning said: "the only Cretaceous
The crocodile may be the same time. The crocodile may climb into the dead dinosaurs in the stomach after suffocate." Scientists have collected should be able to confirm this theory is true evidence of terror. The dinosaur trunk and tail of a CT scan, the largest of its kind in the first scan will be analyzed in the next few weeks.
This dinosaur is 1999 by Taylor - 16 year old Bryson in North Dakota (Hell Creek) found in hell Creek, the dinosaurs are out after 5 years of excavation. It is a young adult dinosaur, is a relatively common dinosaur -- edmontosaurus
(Edmontosaurus), also known as the dakota. Dakota walked on two legs, body length 25-30 feet (7.5-9 meters), 6-8 feet to shoulder high, weighing 3-4 tons. Adult Dakota will grow to 40 feet and weigh 6 tons.
And most of the dinosaur specimens are not the same, Dakota has been mummified in fossilized before, means that the animal almost all skin and connective tissue as part of tendon and ligament, with its bones to be preserved. This allows scientists it can be carried out a detailed "autopsy", and reconstructs the details of its anatomical structure. These results will be 9 in the National Geographic
Channel (National Geographic Channel) aired a documentary "dinosaur autopsy" (Dino Autopsy) in the fully rendered.
Scientists reconstructed its gait and biomechanics, that it has a top speed of about 28 miles per hour (45 kilometers per hour), which makes the running speed than the one of the most terrible enemy of Rex (32 kilometers per hour) faster.
Preservation of connective tissue also showed intact,
Edmonton dragon vertebra interval of at least 1 cm, not like most Dinosaur Museum exhibition that tightly packed together. This shows that, Hadrosaur
Longer than is commonly believed, and may mean as long Sauropod
Much like the dinosaurs than people suppose that even 2 meters long.
Dinosaur skin also showed signs of markings, which may imply a camouflage pattern. CT scan was performed using a Boeing scanner may reveal whether visceral preserved in the skin, while Boeing scanner is typically used to test aircraft and spacecraft parts. Dr Manning said: "we have found biological problems, and we believe that you will receive a good result. If it is proved that the organization, it is the first time There was no parallel in history.
In December 26, 2008, China Beijing Natural Museum has the world discovered fifth dinosaur mummies, but also in China found the first dinosaur mummy, 120 million years ago, at the same time western liaoning province
Find the smallest individual mummy fossils, this is a Psittacosaurus
For the first time, but saw the skin deep. 86 million years ago the Henan dinosaur fossil exhibition had returned overseas baby
In December 2013, the Henan provincial geological museum after nearly three years of unremitting efforts, the loss to the United States for 18 years, "Louis babe" in December last year to return to the motherland, and in his hometown of Henan for scientific research and permanent collection exhibition.
In September 28, 2014, Henan Province found 3 animal groups and a dinosaur Paleontology; restored by far the world's largest dinosaur skeleton - Ruyang giant dragon; overseas driftage years of dinosaur fossils "Louis babe" for the first time in Henan to meet with visitors.
The exploration and systematic investigation on dinosaurs from Henan Province, Henan province has 15 counties (city) found dinosaur fossils of dinosaur egg fossils, or dinosaur fossil footprints, distributed in 14 basins in mesozoic. As of now, Henan Province found fossils of dinosaur eggs have 8 families, 12 genera and 36 species, is found in China dinosaur egg species accounted for most of the provinces, dinosaur eggs fossils are 80% of the total, 70% of the world. Henan province has been found within the scope of the remnants of the dinosaur fossil outcrop point 243, discovered in 61, 15, 21 research confirmed dinosaur genera and 21 species of dinosaur footprints found in 4.
In September 28, 2014, the Henan provincial geological museum outside, by far the world's largest dinosaurs, giant Ruyang dragon skeleton are restored. After restoration, the dinosaurs were 38.1 meters long, 3.3 meters wide, 17 meters long neck, is known to the world recovery shelved the most robust and the most weight, the largest dinosaur. The live weight of up to 130 tons, equivalent to the weight of 20 elephants, cervical vertebral body features extreme lengthen, the giant Ruyang dragon is a long type cervical vertebra.
In the Geological Museum exhibition hall, living overseas for more than and 10 years of dinosaur fossils "Louis babe" for the first time to meet with the audience. Louis "babe" produced in the Xixia basin, about 86 million years ago. Louis "babe" and 4 pieces of Xixia giant long fossil eggs coexist together, bones preserved length is 118 cm. After the preliminary appraisal, it is just a small broken shell of oviraptors baby, has important research value and the value of science. The villagers picked up 6 pieces of wood dinosaur fossils dating back 140 million years
March 4, 2015, issued by the Geological Prospecting Bureau took the engineering team in Chongqing, the certificate of honor, Hechuan villagers Xie Xiuming understood, 6 pieces of "rocks" when picking up their firewood, was actually 140 million years ago the dinosaur fossils. In mid October last year, Xie Xiuming's wife found a strange shape of the "stone" in a tree root, after identification, the dinosaur bone fossils fossil genus. At present, the number of dinosaur fossils are protected, by the Chongqing Municipal Bureau of geological exploration and identification.
Yunnan 180 million years ago with two newly discovered dinosaur fossils
By the end of 2015, two with about 180 million years ago the dinosaur fossils found in Lufeng County in Yunnan province. After the preliminary identification of 7 experts in the field by China Science Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology study suggests that two dinosaur fossils were "giant Lufeng dragon" and "Hui Lufeng dragon". According to reports, the new excavation of the "giant Lufeng dragon" to save some 13 sacral dorsal vertebrae, 3, ilium, ischium and pubis, left and right hind limbs, tail all 22.