Franklin Delano Franklin Delano Roosevelt
(English: Franklin D.Roosevelt, January 30, 1882 - April 12, 1945), known to history "Little Roosevelt"
Is the thirty-second President of the United States, U.S.A
The history of the only serve more than two (four term, died in the fourth term). President
The United States, by far the longest serving President
. The Roosevelt family
There are about 300 years History
The twenty-sixth president of the United States. Theodore I
Is uncle Franklin I.
In 1930s the economy depression
During the period of Roosevelt implement New policy
In order to provide Unemployment compensation
With the recovery of the economy, and set up a number of institutions to reform Economics
And the bank system
From the economic crisis, the chasm of the United States, he initiated some plans continue to play an important role in the national trade in. In addition, in his term of office system establishment has been retained. Roosevelt has contributed to the political restructuring, he and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt
The United States is still a model of modern liberalism.
Roosevelt is the Second World War The Allies
One of the important leaders of the camp. 1941 The Pearl Harbor incident
After Ross or Lord declared war on Japan, and the introduction of Price control
And rationing. Roosevelt Lend Lease
The United States into the arsenal of democracy, the United States as the main allies Arms
The supplier and the Financing
The United States, the domestic industry expansion, implementation full employment
. At the end of World War II allies gradually reversed the situation, Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Play a key role in shaping the postwar world order, its influence in the The Yalta Conference
Especially the establishment of the United Nations and the. Later, with the assistance of the United States, allied defeat Germany
Roosevelt has repeatedly been rated as the best American president Journal of American " the atlantic
"As the effect of the 100 characters of America's fourth.
In 1900, Roosevelt entered the Harvard University
Study, politics, history and journalism. This year, he was 72 years old, his father died, leaving a $120 thousand deposit, his mother inherited $1 million 300 thousand from his grandfather, college Roosevelt is very keen on social activities, academic performance is not outstanding, several trips to Europe, love sports activities. At Harvard he became a magazine "crimson newspaper" outstanding assistant. He skillfully used the influence of old Roosevelt's uncle, he asked the governor of New York Tangshu to Harvard to lecture, then press to accept him as assistant, just then old Roosevelt Mckinley as a partner with the Democratic Party Brian
The presidential campaign. He offered to visit the headmaster, Elio
The president met with the characteristics of the first grade students. Roosevelt is offensive to the principal said: "if you vote on behalf of your faith, you should be happy to send you the impact on the balance." Elliot answered his questions. Not only in the "crimson newspaper" published the exclusive news of Franklin, the other major US newspapers have also made. When Roosevelt graduated, was promoted to editor of the newspaper. In order to maintain the reputation, he was in Harvard University
Read a one-year graduate.
In 1904, Roosevelt entered the Columbia University
School of law. In March 1905, with Eleanor ( Theodore I
The president's niece married). The president personally attended the wedding ceremony, the wedding is very grand, but Franklin found that most people are due to the president, which inspired him to enter politics determination. In 1907, Roosevelt graduated from the school of law, attorney at law firm. At that time, he was the famous American community leaders, China Zhigong party founder Xiaozhuang
Established in New York, "an Liang total church as a legal adviser for 10 years has been a long time.
Franklin I Get involved in politics
In 1910, Roosevelt The Democratic Party of the United States
The identity of the person began to get involved in politics. When he decided to tell the Republican president uncle, their anger and scold a way: "you dirty little bastard! You this Traitor
......" But Franklin I did not change the direction of. He rides a red car, was 10 times daily lucky speech, finally elected New York
In 1913, President Werwilson appointed him as assistant secretary of the Navy, he in 7 years, outstanding performance
Served as assistant secretary of the Navy when Roosevelt, 1913
A, advocate building a "strong and combat capability of the Navy, Roosevelt established the influence throughout his life in the navy. In 1919, Roosevelt Werwilson International Alliance campaign, resulting in 1920 vice presidential failure. Although the campaign failed, but his political star light was not cut . Since then, Roosevelt served as vice chairman of the Maryland savings and credit company, at the same time again practice law. In addition, Roosevelt also engaged in various business ventures.
In August 1921, Roosevelt took the whole family on vacation in Campobello Island, put out a fire, he jumped into the icy water, therefore suffered from poliomyelitis
In. High fever, pain, numbness and lifelong disability prospects, and did not make Roosevelt give up the ideal and belief, he has been unremittingly exercise, an attempt to restore the ability of walking and standing, he used to attack by the Georgia spa called "the place of laughter". In the recovery period, Roosevelt read a lot of books, there are many biographical and historical works, but almost no economic or philosophical works.
Franklin. Two president Roosevelt's diplomatic thought he most admired. His distant cousin Theodore I
Teach him how to defend national interests, to achieve the balance of power. woodrow wilson
Teach him: international order is based on work together to maintain peace on the.
In 1928, in the understanding and support of Mrs. Roosevelt, Roosevelt returned to politics in the governor's race and win in 1929, served as governor of New York (1930 re elected). It can be said that New York is the ability to place Roosevelt culture experiment in political activities and the management of state affairs.
Franklin I To overcome the crisis The main entry: Great Depression , Roosevelt's new deal
The 1932 presidential campaign is in serious financial crisis background. As a Democratic presidential candidate in the election in November 1932, proposed a "New Deal" and economic revitalization program. Political opponents used his disability to attack him, this is Roosevelt lifetime had to wrestle with it, but he always with excellent performance, excellent eloquence and vigor will be advantage. For the first time in the campaign he was through a spokesman told the people: "a governor is not necessarily an acrobat. We elected him not because he can do to roll forward or backward. He is doing mental work, is to the benefit of the people." Rely on such perseverance and optimism, Roosevelt has an absolute advantage in 1933 to defeat Hoover, to become president of the United states.
At the beginning of the 1933 President Roosevelt for the first time,
Roosevelt took the oath of office
When the Great Depression storm swept across the United States, everywhere Unemployment
, bankruptcy, bankruptcy, collapse, everywhere American pain, fear and despair. Roosevelt has demonstrated an overwhelming confidence, he made a passionate speech, sworn in to tell people: the only thing we fear is fear itself. In March 4, 1933 that chilly afternoon, the new president's decision and relaxed optimism, "lit the fire of the spirit of the new nation of one heart and one mind". Put forward to achieve national rejuvenation and good neighborly and friendly foreign policy. Roosevelt entered the White House, to carry out relief, reform and revival as the main content of the "Roosevelt's new deal of positive". The "New Deal" has abandoned the traditional laissez-faire doctrine, strengthen government intervention in the economy, the fiscal deficit, the development of public utilities to stimulate the economy. In order to implement the new deal, Roosevelt will be a group of liberal lawyers, experts and scholars think tank, consult the policy problem; through the "fireside chats", keep close ties with the masses, resolutely struggle against the new deal and the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court successfully reorganized.
From March 9, 1933 to June 16th, the U.S. Congress should convene a special meeting of President Roosevelt please. Roosevelt has put forward a variety of state supervision and guidance of congressional legislation. Congress is at an alarming rate has passed the "emergency banking law", "law", "the Federal Emergency Relief Agricultural Adjustment Act
"," National Industrial recovery method
"," Tennessee River Basin Management Law "etc..
1933 to 1934, the new emphasis on "Renaissance", the main measures are: to maintain the bank credit, the depreciation of the dollar, stimulate foreign trade, restrict the agricultural production to maintain the price of agricultural products, farmers avoid bankruptcy; the agreement price to reduce the competition between enterprises and enterprises to stop the collapse of 1935-1939 years of the new deal is mainly "relief" and "" reform, the main measures are: to more effectively use of administrative intervention, the implementation of slow Inflation
To carry out extensive public construction, and emergency relief, the implementation of social insurance, to expand employment opportunities and improve the social purchasing power; tax reform, tax levied according to the tax classification ability, corporate income tax and excess profits tax etc.. Roosevelt's new deal
To restore public confidence in the American political system, strengthen the federal government agencies. And thus the American industry, agriculture has fully restored. At the end of the first term in 1936, in the face of national income growth of 50%, Roosevelt described to describe: "at this moment, the factory machines ensemble music, a piece of the market Boom
Bank credit, firm, full passenger travel between benz." Therefore, Roosevelt was elected again in 1936 President
It is not surprising.
Franklin I Good neighborly policy
In 1933, the Roosevelt government recognized and established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, at the same time in order to improve relations with Latin America, put forward" Good neighborly policy
". As early as Franklin Delano Roosevelt
The beginning stage, said in his inaugural address: "in the field of world politics, I will make their follow a good neighborly policy." Subsequently, the United States made some adjustments to the Latin American policy. Mainly includes two aspects: in politics, that any American countries should not interfere in the internal affairs of another American state; in the economy, to pursue America reciprocal trade agreement between.
In December 1933. Uruguay
At the seventh Pan American Conference, US Secretary of state Hull Roosevelt signed America government first principle of non-interference, said to give up on America "right to interfere". To this end, the United States in 1934 abolished" The Platt amendment
", also is to give up the privilege of interior interference in cuba. stay Mexico
Give up the right to garrison. In Haiti and Nicaragua to withdraw the US occupation forces. In Panama to give up its right to interfere in the internal affairs of the. In economy, the United States and Latin American countries signed the "reciprocal trade agreement", "Latin American countries to increase economic aid". In August 1934 the United States and Cuba signed with the United States to pull the first trade between the United States a reciprocal agreement. By the end of 1939, the United States has the same 11 Latin American countries signed a reciprocal trade agreement.
It is worth noting that the Roosevelt administration" Good neighborly policy
"Doesn't really stop interfering in the internal affairs of the Latin American countries. In fact, in between the two world wars, the United States government has often used a variety of means, including armed intervention in Latin American countries affairs. Famous examples include the 1933 Cuban dictator Machado was overthrown after Saint Martin came to power with the government, Roosevelt had dispatched 30 warships, the United States in 1934 to interference; training Nicaragua
The IDF, the murder of a national hero in Nicaragua and the Sandinista general; support and support the Latin American reactionary dictatorship.
The Roosevelt administration's "neighbourhood policy" as the capital of the United States into the Latin American region has created favorable conditions, the U.S. monopoly consortium gained huge profits in Latin america. According to the statistics, 1930 to 1938 nine years, the United States monopoly organizations to obtain profits, interest and other income of $1 billion 310 million in Latin america. On the eve of World War II, the United States import and export share in Latin America has greatly surpassed Britain; investment in Latin America has been close to the UK; American monopoly organization control in Latin America, a large share of the iron ore, copper, silver, zinc and oil exploitation.
The Roosevelt administration" Good neighborly policy
"The United States is favorable control on Latin American politics. Latin America
All countries, especially in some Latin American countries, with their in America, and the same with their war of independence independence the United States already have a sense of intimacy, "1823 Monroe Doctrine
"It has caused a positive response in Latin American countries. But the image of the United States was gradually destroyed in their expansion in Latin america. From 1880 to 1914, the United States advocated the Western Hemisphere region has common feelings and interests, try to form a coalition of countries in the Western Hemisphere range. In the United States Secretary of state James Brian initiative, the first session of the conference held in Washington on 1889, 1901 held the second Pan American Conference in Mexico, the fourth session held in Buenos Aires International Conference of American States, established Pan American Union
And become a permanent establishment, and by the United States Secretary of state
As the permanent chairman. But because the United States in this period to overbearing aggression in Latin America, Latin American countries to the United States with suspicion and motivation to worry, so in twentieth Century 30 years ago to the United States to establish the National Coalition less enthusiastic. The history and culture of Latin American and European mainland are inextricably linked, Latin American countries and even to Europe by the League of nations against the trend of the implementation of combined. Since 1933 seventh Roosevelt in Montevideo at the Pan American conference announced its "neighbourhood policy" after the Pan American resurgence in the americas. The United States on the eve of World War II and World War II repeatedly called the Pan American Conference, according to the United States will unify the American countries attitude to war. The end of the war, the United States in order to suppress the growing of the Latin American people's democratic revolution, with opposition from the Western Hemisphere outside of the "communist threat" as an excuse, from March 1948 to May held the ninth Pan American Conference in bogota. The meeting of the organization is relatively loose "American system", "organization" for the restructuring of America, the original "Pan American Union" to the new organization of the secretariat. Pan American Conference and the organization of American States to the United States to use political tools to control all of Latin america.
Franklin I The early days of World War II
In mid 1930s, Germany, Italy and Japan fascist form the two source of war in Europe and asia. However, the prevailing in the U.S. isolationism
. In 1935, the United States Congress to make American neutrality pitman resolution. The provisions of the resolution: war weapons and prohibited U.S. output and credit, valid for two years "cash and carry" clause is authorized the president to require the purchase of non military supplies in the United Nations at war with its ships and pay cash for shipment. In the face of fascist aggression and expansion, isolationism and the neutrality act of aggression is tantamount to acquiescence and connivance. In order to guide the public to the United States and its anti fascist war to strengthen the defense forces, Roosevelt and isolationism launched a resolute and rich artistic struggle.
In 1937, Franklin I sworn in for a second term
The inauguration of the new bridge in speech, pointed out: "when a contagious disease began to spread, in order to protect the health of the residents, to prevent the epidemic of patients with common social permission and isolation", "war will spread. The war can be swept away from the battlefield of the country and the people. We are determined to keep out of war, but we cannot guarantee that we are not affected by the influence of the horrors of war and avoid getting involved in the crisis of war;. "Segregation speech" flak. Even after Roosevelt is scared to say: "do you want to take the lead, but a look back, no one behind this situation, how terrible ah! "But," after all "segregation speech to the American public that the existence of the horrors of war.
In January 1938, Roosevelt urged the special message immediately increase the 20% naval construction fee. After a heated debate in Congress in May by Vincent's naval expansion method, to $1 billion in development of navy. The fact that most Americans think seriously, have seen the threat of war and thus agreed to strengthen defense. In December 1938, at the initiative of Roosevelt, the "Pan American Conference Lima Declaration
"That reflects the anti fascist countries decided to america. In March 1938, after the Germans entered Prague, deputy secretary of state on behalf of the president condemned the German "unscrupulous illegal behavior" and "run amuck".
In September 1939, after the German war broke out, Roosevelt had issued an official proclamation of neutrality and implementation of legislation. In September 21st Congress held a special meeting, Roosevelt attempted to use the embargo policy has brought disaster to the United states.
1814 Houses of Parliament burned part to persuade Congress to repeal the embargo, of course, also claimed that "to you review this point is just history". After a heated debate inside and outside parliament, Congress passed legislation amendment, cancel the embargo imposed cashcarry principle (cash and carry). Roosevelt immediately be signed.
In May 1940, the British and French troops by the German attack and defeat. Roosevelt asked Congress to grant additional defense, strengthen the combat readiness. In order to obtain the support of Republicans, Roosevelt Henry Stimson was appointed secretary of the army, Frank Knox as secretary of the navy. During the war, the United States served as secretary of the army Harry Woodlin (1937 to June 1940), Henry Stimson (June 1940 to September 1945). Served as secretary of the Navy for Claude Swanson
(to 1939), Charles Edison (1940), Frank Knox
(June 1940 to 1944), James Forestle
(1944 successor). Crisis in the UK, Roosevelt began to provide weapons to the United kingdom.
Franklin I The three term
At the beginning of the 1940 presidential election, all the energy Roosevelt concentrate on the military buildup, under the influence of Roosevelt, Congress approved the expansion of the army and Navy, Burke Wadsworth was obtained by the selective service. In September 2nd, Roosevelt signed an agreement with the British, the 50 destroyers transferred to the British, the British will be part of the naval base on loan to the u.s.. This Agreement means the official end of neutral, marked the beginning of a limited war. In July 1940, when Democrats held a presidential nominating convention in Chicago, delegates are still not clear whether Roosevelt will seek no precedent from Washington since the third term.
In this regard, Roosevelt played a little trick. He by Senator Erben Barclay
The Roosevelt White House official portrait
Issued a statement to the nomination meeting, announced that he was no longer as the next president of the desire and purpose, and urged delegates to vote for their favorite no matter what, but by Senator Lister Hill to put his name listed on the nomination list. However, Republican presidential candidate Wendell Wilkie wantonly attack: "the election of Roosevelt means that their son, brother and lover to the tomb. "The General Assembly began voting. When written with Roosevelt as the candidate list was submitted to the general assembly, the meeting delegates to hiss and a scene of chaos, boo sound expressed strong opposition. Roosevelt was forced to change the strategy to voters that he is advocating peace, even at the promise: "your child will not be sent to participate in any foreign wars...... Our purpose is to defense defense. Mrs. Roosevelt Eleanor immediately flew from New York to Chicago, delivered a speech at the meeting in and out, so as to quickly change the atmosphere of the meeting. She said: "1940 is not usually very time period, but the war is approaching, in addition to what we can do such a problem for the interests of the whole nation, we should not argue for any other problem." Mrs. Roosevelt's words touched their heart. The evening newspaper published prominently in Mrs. Roosevelt's remarks, the voters sentiment has a sudden backward Roosevelt. At that time due to World War frequently, in order to ensure the consistency of American foreign policy, especially Americans disapprove of isolationist leaders halfway easily, so 55% of voters chose Roosevelt. So Roosevelt finally broke the United States President George Washington established the "father" tradition, the third was elected president of the United states.
In December 1940, in Latin America Caribbean
In the British Prime Minister Roosevelt received visits Churchill
Express mail, called against German military power, Britain needs a large number of weapons and equipment, but not for the British Treasury of American weaponry cash day is coming. Then, Roosevelt at a press conference by the United States not to mention loans to the British or British military supplies to the proposal, has talked about the usual example - "I" the garden hose lent home fire to help neighbors, neighbors and extinguish fire extinguishing after return pipe or water pipe for neighbors, are easy to talk; and in fireside talk
Declaring: "we must become the great arsenal of democracy," I asked our people believe that our common cause will have great success". The American public approve.
In January 6, 1941, Roosevelt asked Congress to authorize and "sufficient money to produce more arms and a variety of military supplies, for the transfer of state now with the actual fighting state of aggression". In March 11, 1941, Congress passed the Lend Lease Act (the president has the right to give the United States weapons equipment rental security related countries) signed by the president. (60% UK 32% supply, supply of the Soviet Union). Lend Lease by the United States in non war, the United States is an important milepost active intervention of the anti fascist war.
June 22, 1941, Eastern Front
After the outbreak, Roosevelt condemned the aggression of Germany, the Soviet Union announced that the United States will aid. In August, Roosevelt and Churchill held talks in Newfoundland and published " The the Atlantic charter
". The Charter declared that the United States and Britain do not pursue territorial expansion, rather than a nation will violate the relevant territorial changes, respect for the nation to choose the form of government rights.
Franklin I War Comes To America
In December 7, 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
, The Pacific War
The outbreak. The United States and Britain declared war against japan. The next day, while Germany and Italy declared war on the United states. The United States formally entered the second world war. Responsible for the Pearl Harbor the United States Pacific army commander Walter Short
The commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet, and Husband Kimmel
Admiral in December 17th was relieved of his duties. The following year in February and March, Schott and Kimmel respectively to the rank of rear admiral and retired major general.
In order to win the war, Roosevelt ordered the implementation of war mobilization and reorganization of the army headquarters.
Roosevelt: Pearl Harbor
Before the end of the war, the armed forces of the United States Post reached more than 1514 people, of whom 10 million 420 thousand army, 2 million 300 thousand army air force (more than 7 aircraft, more than 388 aircraft) Navy (4500 ships), Marine Corps of more than 59 people, more than 24 Coast guard. Study on scientific research and development director of the national defense science and technology was founded in June 1941, the main achievements are: the development of radar and electronic equipment, combat use of radio fuze rockets, bombs, missiles, atomic bomb etc.. Production Management Bureau in the spring and summer of 1941 the United States gradually transition to the wartime economy. Since then, the priority of wartime production, supplies committee committee, committee, wartime economic stability Mobilization Committee (institutions or cross functions, or inherited) responsible for the production and distribution of war material, ensure the needs of the United States and its allies of the war. The news and News Bureau Inspection Bureau is responsible for the news and the propaganda work of the United states. Since 1939, Roosevelt is the frail elderly general compulsory retirement, promoted rich combat command ability for personnel to enter the highest echelon of command. In 1942, Roosevelt ordered on the basis of original joint committee of the army and Navy, the formation of the Joint Chiefs of staff (consisting of the army chief of staff George Marshall Ernest Kim, chief of naval operations, Army Air Force Commander Henry Arnold and the president's chief of staff, William Li Hai), the implementation of the unified command of the armed forces.
Roosevelt woke us foreign interventionism in twentieth Century 40s, at the same time, he decided to establish a maintenance of the world peace organization, the United Nations after World War ii. In order to jointly study the military situation and the formulation of joint operation plan, Roosevelt and Churchill held a "Arcadia" meeting in Washington (December 1941), the main agreement: 1942 and 1943 U.S. production target; set up a "munitions Allocation Committee", to co-ordinate the allocation of munitions, the establishment of the joint chiefs of staff, allied joint operations coordination the establishment of the U.S. Pacific; Dutch Macao Allied Command; the formation of Chinese theater (also set up the China Burma and India military headquarters); "the first European strategic allies reiterated that the first set victory over Nazi Germany;" The United Nations Joint Declaration
New year's day in 1942, under Roosevelt's leadership, the United States ( Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Su (Litvinov) (in) better known as TV Soong
) representatives of 26 countries signed in Washington " The United Nations Joint Declaration
", the international anti fascist alliance was officially formed, it is worth mentioning that, in the time signature, Chinese with" four powers "of the identity of the signature, Chinese unprecedented enhancement of international status. In January 6th, Roosevelt said in his state of the Union address to Congress: "millions of people Chinese withstood the bombing and famine, the dominant armed and equipped in Japan's case is still a blow to the invaders." In February 7th, Roosevelt call Jiang Jieshi
"China army has won the US and all freedom loving nation the highest praise for your heroic resistance of brutal aggression. China people, armed and unarmed alike, in a very disadvantageous situation, tenacious accounted for a great advantage in the equipment on the enemy for almost five years and resolutely fight against the show, it is encouraging to other United Nations forces and all the people.".
The first half of 1942, the British army was defeated in North africa,
Jiang Jieshi, Roosevelt, Churchill
The Allies facing the military situation is extremely unfavorable. In order to get rid of the plight of the military and not as allies in 1942 second front in Europe compensation, Roosevelt against the wishes of Marshall and Churchill, decided to implement the Allied landing plan. North Africa operation resulted in the elimination of this area German and Italian troops.
At the beginning of 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill led the command and staff in Morocco held a military meeting in casablanca. The meeting decided: 1943 invasion of Sicily, the French offensive combat until 1944. Announced the unconditional surrender of the axis powers principle. At a joint press conference after the end of the conference, Roosevelt declared: "the fascist axis must be unconditional surrender", "this is not to say that all residents to destroy Germany, Italy and Japan, but was conquered and enslaved to destroy other people based philosophy in these countries". In August Churchill met in Quebec to discuss the allies to open a second front in France "overlord" plan. From 1943 onwards, the allies from strategic defense to strategic offensive. In order to coordinate the operations and investigate the Allies allied postwar policies, Roosevelt has held a series of important meetings with leader.
In March 1943, Roosevelt and Aydin talked about the post-war international organization to maintain world peace and security issues. In Roosevelt's efforts, the international organization of the United States to participate in the congress. In May, Roosevelt, Churchill and the command and general staff held "the trident conference in Washington decided: take Azores to provide new naval military basis; to strengthen the German air raid; instructions Eisenhower in the occupied Sicily after preparing to attack Italy native; next May 1st for the implementation of" overlord "plan to develop a detailed date; plan, launch new offensives in the Pacific region. After Mussolini's fascist government of Italy collapsed, Roosevelt and Churchill "was held in Quebec in August quadrant" meeting decided to negotiate with the new government truce. However, still in contention for Italy and allied with the German war.
From November 22, 1943 to November 26, 1943, with British Prime Minister Roosevelt Churchill
China, President of the kuomintang, National Government
Chairman of the board and the military committee Jiang Jieshi
In the Egyptian capital held The Cairo Conference
. The meeting discussed the Chinese and Burma military situation and decided to implement the "three Annajimu" plan, signed the "Cairo declaration". The declaration, three to deprive all the islands of Japan since the first World War in the Pacific region proposed, to return to China China Japan has stolen territory, the Korean free and independent. Demanded the unconditional surrender of japan. After the Cairo conference, November 28, 1943 to December 1, 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill went to Iran for the Soviet Union and the Supreme Commander Stalin held The Tehran Conference
. The meeting mainly discussed the second European battlefield, Italy military operations and Pacific offensive operations, after the German surrender of the Soviet Union of the war against Japan, Poland border, post-war Germany and the establishment of the international organization to maintain the disposal of world peace and security. The meeting reiterated that the allies would implement "overlord" plan in May 1944. Roosevelt to let Marshall stay in Washington, decided to appoint Eisenhower
For the implementation of the "despot" plan of the Supreme Allied commander.
June 5, 1944 (due to climate reasons and by May 1st, the Allied landing delay) in Normandy, the implementation of the "overlord", second European battlefield formation. In 1944, the Second World War to the most critical moment of the U.S. presidential election is also imminent. American public opinion generally believes that the chief executive should not change the key moment. The United States democratic government warned voters: "to the river don't change."
Franklin I Elected four times Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Selected Harry S. Truman
For their campaign partner. Truman began to feel, suddenly, that he had never been on this campaign, worried about the future of Roosevelt will. After Roosevelt persuasion, he finally promised. In order to win the election, Roosevelt rejected the Republican presidential candidate Thomas E Dewey's "man terribly fatigued" attack, a health certificate discloses his doctor admiral Ross McIntyre to produce the scene, and demonstrations of the campaign in bad weather.
In November 17, 1944, Roosevelt again with 53% of the vote in fourth was elected president of the United states. In 1944, he held a series of meetings, the implementation of open policy in finance, trade, food and agriculture and other fields. In a word, he lived in America, he was only able to make the wrong people stop American isolationism.
From February 4, 1945 to February 1945 1
The funeral of Roosevelt
The 1 day, Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin held in Crimea Peninsula The Yalta Conference
. The meeting mainly discussed the problem of post-war Germany, Poland, Eastern Europe, the disposal of the United Nations, the Soviet Union to fight. The meeting reiterated Nazi
Germany must be unconditional surrender. In this term, Roosevelt served only 73 days in office Georgia
He is dead. In this way, Franklin I a four term, 12 years and 39 days, the president, is the first term of more than two, breaking the precedent of President washington. Since 1951 through the twenty-second amendment to the Constitution limits, he is the only one term in the four session of the president. The authority of Roosevelt biographer James Byrnes
After a lot of research, and draws the following conclusions: seize the public opinion; good timing; political details; pay attention to internal factionalism; personal charisma and political skills. Roosevelt's 4 term president, the political system of the United States and the world anti fascist war is extremely important. Roosevelt to the unprecedented four term president of the United States, the second world war is the state that the American people give him enormous power. After the end of World War II, the strength of the United States reached a peak.
Franklin I Government initiatives
Franklin I Politics
In 1933, Roosevelt expressed his determination to revive the country's economy in his inaugural speech. The arms of various dissidents have become his ally, the smooth implementation of the "new deal". Roosevelt, the member of the government are balanced in terms of geography, politics, the Liberal Democratic Party member, also conservative Democrats; three Republicans, and a female secretary. His legislative plan for the majority of voters, trying to help the group the main economic interests of the United States, and for the Republican support.
Franklin I Economics
See: Roosevelt's new deal
The financial system of fiscal consolidation: the bank is closed for rectification, restoration of bank credit, this is an emergency measures to stabilize the financial capital market rapidly. The real significance of the reform measures of inflation is monetary policy and fiscal policy, it is actually the practice of Keynes's monetary theory. This monetary policy must be announced dollar
Depreciation. The dollar can improve the commodity in the international market competitiveness, so as to stimulate exports, promote the development of the domestic economy. At the same time also promotes the development of American domestic public works. Large project expenditure, fiscal intervention from the government, part of the expenditure is the depreciation of the dollar caused inflation income. But because of the world economic dominance, the dollar is bound to exacerbate other economic difficulties, delaying their economic recovery.
The strengthening of the industrial planning. Center measures is by industrial recovery method, its purpose is to prevent blind competition caused by overproduction. But did not touch the ownership enterprises. The wage and working hours be played to expand consumption and improve the standard of living, the role of easing social conflicts.
The adjustment of agricultural policy. In fact, the government is to reduce agricultural production by means of incentive compensation, adjust the structure of agricultural production. This is conducive to stable Agriculture products
Prices, improve agricultural production environment, conducive to environmental protection. The state purchase of agricultural products and other measures play a role in regulating the economy of national supervision.
The implementation of the "food for work". The establishment of public works and other measures, in fact by expanding domestic demand to stimulate the development of production, to adjust the contradiction between production and consumption, at the same time by the state regulation of redistribution.
Franklin I International Relations
In August 1941, Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill
In the ship, and issued a joint communique, "announced The the Atlantic charter
", including the national self-determination, expand economic opportunities, eliminate fear and lack of freedom of the seas, disarmament etc..
In December 7, 1941, Japan's sudden attack Pearl Harbor
The Pacific War.
The Yalta Conference "three giants"
The outbreak of war. In December 11th, the United States declared war on Germany and italy. After the war, Roosevelt was actively engaged in military mobilization of all industrial production. At this time the United States military production is about the sum of Germany and Japan; in 1944 it reached The axis
The production of two times. Warfare
During the period, he will energy
Focus on strategic issues, planning for the future of the peace consultations with allies.
January 1943, announced the unconditional surrender to the axis of this principle. He thinks Warfare
And peace maintenance depends on the maintenance of friendly relations with the Soviet union.
In 1943, Roosevelt, Churchill
stay Teheran or Tehran
Meet。 Roosevelt and Stalin get along quite well.
In February 1945, again in the big three Crimea
Meeting, when the European war is nearing completion. The United States is expected to fight Japan 1 and a half years. Atomic bomb
Although in manufacturing, but the United States had not expected the power can reach the actual magnitude of later. Roosevelt and his military advisers eager to fight the Soviet Union in Asia a helping hand. Stalin promised to fight against japan. Roosevelt and Churchill also made concessions to the Soviet Union in the far east. Roosevelt hopes to establish an effective international organization, the United Nations, in order to safeguard the postwar peace.
Franklin I Thought contribution
Franklin I Freedom of thought
In January 6, 1941 the state of the Union address to Congress, President Franklin I asked Congress to lease, the necessary equipment for those countries that the president is crucial to the defense of American interests. Because of the war approaching, he announced four "basic human freedom" that is considered to be about the American people are ready to fight for the principle of the most brief sound
Roosevelt Memorial Statue
Ming. Roosevelt was known as the four freedoms are: freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear.
The first is the speech and express opinions anywhere in the world of freedom.
The second is everywhere in the world, everyone has to worship God in his own way of freedom.
The third is not freedom - the freedom around the world, is a kind of economic relationship, it will ensure that every country of the world all the inhabitants of a healthy peacetime life.
The fourth is freedom from fear, freedom, world terms, is a world-wide reduction of armaments in a thorough way to reduce it to the point to make sure that none of the countries in the world have the ability to carry out military invasion to any of its neighbours in any region of the world.
Franklin I Talent thought
Roosevelt graduated from the Harvard University, known as the cradle of diplomats and politicians, the main law, but he does not love the law. As a leader, Roosevelt has made remarkable achievements, the important reason is that he has a history of the United States on the one and only the "think tank" and can fully play its role. As early as governor, Roosevelt began to cook various experts, the formation of the consultant team. To the White House, the team has begun to take shape, after selection, expansion, improvement and the formation of his "think-tank". The staff including turg Weill, Adolf Berle and Raymond Molly economic experts, Marshall
This staff talent, such foreign activist Hopki. "Think tank" than the State Department team is flexible, do not pay attention to the qualifications, even beyond the parties. It is this group of advisers, become the main source of Roosevelt thought when making decisions.
President Roosevelt appointed, shutdown and bank failures, farmers bankruptcy. Roosevelt's first task is to deal with the economic crisis. He has no management experience of the enterprise, but he used the "think tank" economic experts wisdom. Because of this group of economists give advice and suggestions for anti crisis, the smooth implementation of the "new deal". In the "New Deal" in the first 100 days, Roosevelt signed 15 major laws, these laws are mainly derived from the draft, think tank. By 1935, the total wages of production, employment and manufacturing index has a significant rebound in achievement. Do not understand the economy's miraculously restored the American economic vitality. At the end of 1941, the Pacific War broke out. Roosevelt once again turned to his "think-tank". Most of his advisers, including Marshall, a master of strategy, after analyzing the axis bloc countries war potential, the strategic position that Germany is the main axis of the group, defeated Germany, Japan will be lost. Then put forward the "suggestions" to europe. Roosevelt accordingly made the strategic decision on the defensive in the Pacific, concentrate on the Atlantic. History has proved that the "Europe first" strategy is the best choice at that time.
In addition to gambling "think-tank" proposal, Roosevelt is also the implementation of the right to think tank. The second world war is a more human, intelligence, science and technology, more than than the total war industry and resources. Command is not Napoleon era as intuition but to rely on military science. Roosevelt is far from military experts, but he boldly military personnel. In the Pacific, he relied on Macarthur and Nimitz; in India and Burma theater, he let Stillwell take charge as chief of; in Europe, he asked Eisenhower to command the expeditionary force. Finally, in Washington, and a trusted Marshall, with the title of chief of staff of the army military control. As commander in chief, Roosevelt did not like Hitler to recite a weapon per month; unlike Stalin did keep command every battle on the telephone; more like Churchill close to the North African desert interference one artillery transfer. He seldom asks the tactical problem, so the chiefs of military experts will be able to view, independent judgment, discretion. In fact, this is the most consistent with the requirements of modern warfare command structure. The president can spare time studying strategy, and the chiefs will have the initiative of opportunity.
Franklin I Decolonization thinking
The Second World War broke out soon, the State Department is working on the arrangements for the post-war world, the colony is one of the important content. The United States plans to establish the international trusteeship system after the war in the colonies, which comes from Roosevelt's idea of decolonization. Roosevelt's idea of decolonization can be traced back to the earliest in 1941 signed the "the Atlantic charter". Claim in the "charter" between the two countries to support the self-determination and independence, "respect for the nation the freedom to choose their survival in the form of government rights. Sovereignty and autonomy of all ethnic groups in the two countries have been deprived of, all want to try to restore". In discussions with the British Prime Minister Churchill, Roosevelt adhere to the "charter" is not only suitable for Europe, also applies to all over the world, including colonies. "The Atlantic charter" is the arrangements for the post-war world the guiding document, it not only established the "equal opportunities" and "free trade" and "freedom of navigation" of the United States and become the advantageous principle, Roosevelt carried out the policy of decolonization banner
The international conference in the future as well as with subordinates in the conversation, Roosevelt repeatedly talked about ideas for the implementation of international trusteeship of the colonies. In June 1, 1942, he was in talks with visiting Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov proposed by the international organization of countries hosting colonial claims, and in Indochina, Unfederated Malay States and the Dutch East India as an example . In March 1943 he told British Foreign Secretary Aydin said that after the defeat of the Japanese in the Far East, not all colonies will return to the original state, some can not immediately separate colonies should be placed under United Nations International trusteeship. Held in October 1943 the U.S. foreign ministers' meeting, U.S. Secretary of state Kedl Herr submitted a document drafted by Roosevelt, proposed the establishment of the international trusteeship specialized institutions, the colony managed by a country into the international trusteeship. After the Tehran conference and the Yalta conference, hosting problems are classified as the topic of the meeting
Franklin I Character evaluation
Franklin I General
As a politician, Franklin I in the history of the United States is the most respected, most people hate
. His opponents think he is shallow, incompetent, cunning and dictatorial; and its advocates say he is the Savior of the U.S. economy, think he is all over the world Democracy
The guardian. Most people are admitted as Political leaders
And he won the support of the people, the leaders of the various views contained in his government. Many experts believe that despite occasional confusion, but the Roosevelt administration efficiency is very high.
Franklin I is undoubtedly a great time, but a persistent pursuit of the reality of interest of the president, his behavior reflects a more pragmatic tendency. It is a pragmatic attitude of this doctrine is not rigidly adhere to the theory that Roosevelt gained hitherto unknown achievements in internal affairs and diplomacy.
Franklin I Other evaluation
The famous American journalist Johnson wrote in a biography of Roosevelt: "he overthrew the precedent than anyone else, he smashed more ancient structure than anyone, he told us the whole outlook changes than anyone to fast and furious. However, he believes that is the most deeply, the United States of the building from the whole, is pretty good. "
" The history of the United States
"Lover de Betts commented on the author said:" Roosevelt may also cannot be considered an intellectual leader in many fields, his accomplishments were not deep, nor is it a great thinker of insight. Perhaps because of this, Roosevelt did not like Churchill, hands-on. The "think tank" to make up for the defects of his professional knowledge, to ensure his political success."
Roosevelt biographer Jean Edward Smith said in 2007: "he lift yourself out of the chair, the whole country since the liberation of yield." Churchill
" the second World War
"On the death of Roosevelt records: indeed, it can be said that Roosevelt is in the climax of the war time, and while most in need of his authority to guide the policy of the United States dead. My relationship with the outstanding person, in our work together long and full of tempestuous waves years, had played a very important role. Now that the relationship has ended, a deep and irreparable loss of sense to me down....... Please accept my deepest sympathy for the tragic loss of you. This is the UK and worldwide free career loss. My deep sympathy for your family.
Historians and political scientists agreed that Lincoln and Roosevelt Washington, is the three president of the United States in the history of the greatest.
Arthur Schlesinger in "foreign affairs" the author points out that Roosevelt is a loyal Werwilson Marxist, he believes that the collective security is the ultimate goal of national security, his wartime policy to ensure that the United States to become a member of the United Nations, as Werwilson believers, Roosevelt realized the ideal Werwilson collective security.
Franklin I Controversial figures
Franklin I's civil rights record has been the subject of much controversy. During the Second World War In 1942, Franklin I made the final decision, Italy ordered the detention of Japanese Americans, and German Americans (many people did not release until the war). Since 1960s he has been accused of not taking decisive action to prevent the massacre of 6 million Jews dead stop. Critics point out that in the 1939 massacre, 936 Jewish refugees in Saint Louis ferry, deprived of the right of asylum, not allowed to enter the United states.
But he for the majority of the disadvantaged groups is a hero, especially African Americans, Catholics, and jews. In the new deal relief program for African and Native Americans have a good treatment, although they are not in the WPA ( WPA
And (CCC) The Civilian Conservation Corps
As a major leadership role). Roosevelt needs the South The Democratic Party of the United States
Support for his new plan, so he decided not to promote the anti lynching legislation, because it may endanger his top priority project provided by. Roosevelt is very successful in attracting most of the African Americans, Jews, Catholics and joined his new deal coalition. From 1941, President Roosevelt issued a series of executive orders, to protect the race, religion, ethnic equality and sharing of new wartime work. He pushed the government to accept African Americans as a better position in the army.
Franklin I Anecdotal stories
Franklin I Strange blessing
Roosevelt was 5 years old when his father went to see President Grover Cleveland
Little, Roosevelt left a deep impression to the president. Before leaving, the president gave him a strange blessing: "never let you pray for God as the president of the United states." But he became history's longest, is also one of the most respected president.
Franklin I The dog care
During a visit in 1944, there are rumors that Roosevelt accidentally lost in his dog Fala in Alaska Aleutian Islands
In order to find Fala, he ordered the dispatch of a destroyer to rescue Fala. At this time, as the presidential elections, the Republicans had to take this opportunity to attack them, Roosevelt bold comeback: "for the Republican attack, I don't care, do not care about my wife, my son didn't care, but my dog Fala, it cares!" Roosevelt surprised, quickly become passive to the initiative to win the voters. Now, in Washington A statue of Roosevelt, also stands a statue of Fala, and Fala's little head has been in a continuous line of tourists feel as smooth as a mirror.
Franklin I Re feeling
In March 25, 1944 fourth, Roosevelt re elected president of the United States (died 72 days later). "A Herald Tribune" reporter interviewed him, he was elected president of the matter asked him what feelings. Roosevelt only smiled but did not reply and eat a sandwich, please press. Reporters think it is winning, soon to eat. And ask him to eat second slices of Roosevelt, reporters and ate it overwhelmed by an unexpected favour. At this time, and ask him to eat third slices of Roosevelt, although the stomach is not needed, but he still crustily skin of head to eat. When Roosevelt smiled and said: "now do not answer your question, because you have a personal experience."
Franklin I We collect stamps
Roosevelt is also a stamp to everyone, but little is known, he is a prolific stamp designer, life designed a total of 183 stamps, 8 of them also won an award. Roosevelt designed the first stamp is the "Antarctic expedition" stamps. Roosevelt's good friend Bird took place in preparation for Antarctic exploration fund shortage, Roosevelt decided to issue a design, Antarctic expedition commemorative stamps to aid Bird.
He asked the United States Postal commemorative stamps will be affixed with the letters to the United States in the small American Antarctic base, stamp and return, as a veteran philatelic collectors will know, the president is a precious Antarctic Base and cachet generously, so this "commemorative stamp to send a small real America" charge 53 cents, 3 cents is the Antarctic expedition stamp value, another 50 cents is "stamp fee", all for the Byrd Antarctic expedition sponsor.
No stamp Byrd couldn't think of such fundraising tactics, he expressed gratitude to Roosevelt extremely. Of course, in return, Roosevelt asked Bird to take the opportunity to bring back an envelope.
Franklin I Family situation
Franklin I Surname
Distant Tang Shu Franklin I Theodore I
Is the twenty-sixth president of the United states,
Roosevelt and the young mother
So in the Chinese environment often referred to Franklin I as "little Roosevelt" said Theodore president, and Roosevelt as "old Roosevelt" the president. Americans usually to its name English abbreviation FDR calls.
Roosevelt is the Holland English surname "vanRosevelt" or "vanRosenvelt", meaning "rose tian".
As one of New York's wealthiest and oldest family, the Roosevelt family in other areas outside the political is accomplished. Roosevelt's cousin Ellen I is the 1890 U.S. National Tennis Championships women's singles and doubles champion, and inducted into the International Tennis Hall of fame.
Roosevelt's mother with her most love uncle Franklin Delano's name is named Roosevelt. The Delano family's ancestors came to America in 1621, named Philip Delannoye (PhilipedelaNoye), is the first landing in the new world rain NUPA lattice Protestant. The family name followed by English, became Delano (Delano).
Franklin I member
Father: old James I
The Ross family fortune
Mother: Sarah Delano I
(half brothers: James I I, 1854-1927)
Wife： Anna Eleanor Roosevelt
(1884-1962), married in March 17, 1905
Children: four sons and a daughter
Anna Eleanor I (1906-1975)
James I (1907-1991) Elliot I
(1910-1990) Little Franklin Delano I
(1914-1998) John Aspinwall I
Franklin I Later to commemorate
Franklin I place name
French BRON district has a street called Franklin I street.
Taiwan Taipei city and the new interval is a six line (Part Eight line) Avenue, also known as Roosevelt Road, in honor of President Roosevelt, Taipei Xindian line at the bottom.
From 1945 to 1949, Heping District, Tianjin City Heping Road, was named Roosevelt road.
In May 1, 1947, Roosevelt National Library officially opened in Chongqing. Roosevelt national library was renamed "National Southwest people's Library" in 1949, in 1955 changed its name to "Chongqing city library, 1987 renamed Chongqing library". In 2007 the Chongqing library moved after the site as a "Roosevelt library site" opening to the outside world, mainly of the Second World War and anti Japanese war important historical documents.
Franklin I Memorial Museum
Roosevelt memorial hall is located in the Washington DC
And, in the tidal Lake (
TidalBasin) next to the Jefferson memorial hall is adjacent to, and his head appears in 10 cents coins (Americans called the Roosevelt 10 cents). Many parks and schools, as well as an aircraft carrier and a subway station in Paris and in the United States and around the world hundreds of streets and squares are named for him.