Musk deer (scientific name: <i> Moschus moschiferus</i> ), is moschidae, Moschus animal. Musk small head, big eyes, long ears and short tail, erect, slender limbs, hind legs longer than forelegs, and no angle, the body is dark brown.
Musk deer often alone, or general activity is more frequent, very good jump, visual and auditory developed, has a relatively fixed foraging routes, feeding is very wide, from October to early January 6-7 month estrus, birth, fetal 1-2 per head, in coniferous forest, coniferous forest, mixed coniferous deciduous forest, shrub forest area and mountain habitat in the precipitous rock faces and sheer cliffs dwelling, distributed in Kazakhstan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Chinese, South Korea, Mongolia, Russian Federation.
Musk has been included in the " The World Conservation Union "(IUCN) 2015 Species in imminent danger Red List .
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Musk Morphological character

Musk small head, big eyes, long ears erect, upper suborbicular, bare snout. No male on male and female angle. Canine His lip, as developed. Fangs . Female canine small, not exposed outside. Slender limbs, the hind limbs are longer than the forelimbs, with forelimbs developed loose hip high than tall, stout at the rear of the body. The main shoe strip, the lateral heel significantly, can contact the ground. The tail is short, hidden in the bristles. Male abdomen with Musk gland , secretion musk . The size of gland with individual vesicular gland varies.
Musk Body dark brown, back, abdomen and hips are arranged in longitudinal 4-5 cinnamon spots, spots back is not obvious, waist and buttocks on both sides of spots is obvious, and dense without branch. Mouth, cheek Gray brown, forehead hair color is deep. Ear, ear apex gray brown, white ear, ear base sometimes mixed with yellow spots, Mandible White neck 2 from both sides until the armpit white stripes. Around the inside of the limbs and armpit and hips are brownish gray, deep lateral limbs, brown, light brown tail. Hair color with regions and seasons, age.
Musk skull Long, thin, nasal bone Slender, its width before and after approximately equal. The frontal bone The front part of the nasal bone is connected with a depression; The lacrimal bone Short, slightly triangular, and not connected with the nasal and frontal. Maxilla The separation, so there are a gap between four bones. The eyes no tears wo.
Musk maxillary Incisor Lack of upper canine and the first before Molar There is a vacancy; male eyetooth developed, long and curved, flat, sharp teeth, trailing edge sharp, female canine parvovirus. The first premolar is small, flat, second and three premolars with a crescent shaped inner and outer edge Odontoid process There are 2 molars; the crescent dens, two rows. Mandibular canine and incisor teeth, peers, is elliptic, tooth protrusion and maxillary mandibular molar column is similar, but after the molars the rear of a horseshoe shaped leaflets.

Musk Habitat

Musk at Coniferous forest Dwelling, coniferous deciduous forest, coniferous forest, shrub forest area and mountain habitat in the precipitous rock faces and sheer cliffs, sometimes with seasonal vertical migration.

Musk Living habits

Musk deer often alone, or with the beast of family activities of females, or general activity is more frequent. In the summer, Shi Li Zi valley near the steep cliff; winter habitat in the leeward Xiangyang place, hi. Musk is a mountain animal, can lightly in the cliff on steep in the jungle, often in fallen trees, and tree climbing with oblique habit, very good jump. Visual and auditory development, often stop in the Shi Li Zi, looking around, slightly unusual that escape quickly, often hidden in crevices in distress.
Musk has a relatively fixed route to the foraging habitat, the scope of activities is relatively fixed. Male and female are developed Uropygial gland In the travel route, often, the prominent glandular secretions in the active friction piles, rock or trunk fixed, with the calibration of field boundaries, usually only in the field of internal calibration activities, on the habitat of nostalgia.
Musk deer feeding is very wide, there are kinds of feeding Leguminous , The composite family , Ranunculaceae , Cruciferae , Juglandaceae There are also other higher plants, fungi, lichens, mosses, ferns and other lower plants. In short, the green plants for food in summer, and occasionally eat amphibians and other small animal, autumn eating berries, mushrooms, winter with edible leaves, fruits and branches for food.
Tiger and leopard, Lynx Bear, wolf, fox, A Wolverine as well as Golden Eagle , Vulture So are the enemies of musk raptor.

Musk Distribution range

Located in Kazakhstan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Chinese, South Korea, Mongolia, Russian Federation.
In Chinese distributed in Hebei, Beijing, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Xinjiang.

Musk The mode of reproduction

Every year in October to The following year In January of November and December is the peak estrus, during this period, the male for female struggles, each with a canine tussle. Pregnancy 5-6 months, 6-7 months of birth, fetal 1-2 per head, more than 2 head, Lactation About 2 months. The child can not stand, or lie in the shelter, female musk deer regularly to lactation and care, 1 months later you can eat a small amount of twigs and leaves. Musk grows fast, female 2 years of age reached Sexual maturity Male, generally until the age of 3. Feeding conditions, musk deer live up to 17 years.

Musk Subspecies differentiation

Serial number Chinese name Name Life and celebrity age
One Musk deer subspecies Moschus moschiferus moschiferus Linnaeus, 1758
Two The Far East Siberian musk deer subspecies Moschus moschiferus parvipes Hollister, 1911
Three Sakhalin musk deer subspecies Moschus moschiferus sachalinensis Flerov, 1929

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Musk Population status

The population distribution is not scattered. During the period of 1920-1930, due to the sharp decrease in number of hunting. Around 1970, the number of Mongolia musk deer is about 60000-80000; in 1986, the Mongolia Academy of Sciences Institute of biological evaluation of musk deer population is about 44000; from 1990 to 2000, in the Mongolia population density To 5-6 - /km. 1999 Sakhalin The wild animal and Fishery Bureau estimated 600-650 Siberian musk deer, are still down in the East; Siberia has about 27000-30000, the Russian Far East is as high as 150000. In 2011, 10 of the total federal district of Siberia estimates there are only about 110000. Musk deer population overall downward trend in the number of.
Musk in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is only distributed in China Helan mountain . The 1996 survey, only surviving more than 250; around 2008 survey results show that the numbers have rebounded significantly, the specific number needs to be verified.

Musk The level of protection

Included in the " The World Conservation Union "(IUCN) 2015 red list of endangered species ver 3.1 vulnerable (VU).