Animal and plant sperm sperm sperm. In the process of sexual reproduction of animal male The male animal cells. germ cell Heterogamy, the male gamete, by The sperm is The haploid Germ cell. While life more sperm refers to mature male germ cells in the testis, formation. semen Is a kind of organic matter. Semen contains fructose and protein, and some enzymes material Inorganic salt and organic salt.

sperm Semen composition

Human male semen By sperm and seminal plasma Composed by sperm testis produce
 sperm sperm
That seminal plasma by Prostate , Seminal vesicle and Urethral ball gland Secreted. Semen is a kind of organic matter, seminal plasma contains fructose and protein, nutrients also contains sperm. Prostaglandin And some enzymes.
Normal semen was milky white or light yellow, as the number of sperm per milliliter of semen in 60 million to 200 million. Activity of sperm accounted for over 60% of the total. Sperm deformity The following shall be 10% of the total. At room temperature the sperm activity continued 3-4 hours. In 1990, WHO in human semen, the number of 66 million sperm per milliliter of normal order, The latest version of the fifth WHO in human semen, the sperm density in 1999 to develop the standard criteria, reduced from 20 million per milliliter to 15 million .

sperm Plant sperm

sperm Basic introduction

 Schematic diagram of the sperm structure of plant Schematic diagram of the sperm structure of plant
Sperm Sperm (Plant) Thallophyte , Bryophyte , Fern as well as Gymnosperms In Cycas
And Ginkgopsida Has. Flagellum While the sperm can swim; but in the gymnosperms conifers and Gnetales and all. Angiosperm Sperm are not flagellated.

sperm External form

 sperm sperm
Sperm morphology by plant species, biflagellate sperm, sperm and sperm flagella polymastigote etc.. The original terrestrial plants Moss and lichen And low Tracheophyte Lycophyta and Selaginella Generally double motile sperm flagella; Isoetes , Equisetales, ferns and gymnosperms. Cycas And for multi flagellated spermatozoids of Ginkgo biloba. Each sperm has more than 100 Flagellum However, a Zamia Cycads Antherozoid There are about 1 ~ 12 thousand flagellum. Cycads and ginkgo sperm shape Top Far, extreme spiral ribbon, a large number of flagellar clusters in spiral belt. The spiral belt rounds are different: the 6 round of zamia, Cycas The 5 round, 3 round of ginkgo. Gymnosperms Pinopsida and gnetales and Angiosperm The sperm flagellum. In vascular plants, the largest volume of sperm is cycads (Zamia) of a plant (Zamia Chigua), its diameter is about 400 microns.

sperm internal structure

The internal structure of the great differences between the various plant groups of sperm. Lower plants The spermatozoa, similar to animal sperm in structure and development. Such as Li algae with two sperm flagella flagella, long in front of the cell, and extending to the rear.
The spermatozoa can be divided into 3 areas:
The front end of the cell is about 1/4, including a mass Mitochondrion ;
 Animal sperm Animal sperm
There is a long period of nuclear cells in the middle, accounting for about 1/2;
The end also accounted for 1/4, a plasmid containing. In the study of sperm ultrastructure, polymastigote Zamia sperm is an example of a more detailed study of the. The whole cell volume of it is occupied by the nuclear and cytoplasm in the cell periphery for thin membrane bound. From the longitudinal view, the sperm with spiral ladder. The top of the front cap with sperm electron dense substances. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm. China scientists Zhucheng From wheat mature pollen grains, observed with tail structure Sperm cells . It is at the end of the blunt head, mainly for the long oval nucleus occupied; the other end is the extension of the terminal cytoplasmic tail, acuminate, accounting for about 2/3 of the length of the cell (Figure 3C). Sperm cells Quality in addition to containing mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi For, ribosome And small vacuoles and degenerated plastids, also has the microtubule and cell axis large fibrillar structure parallel. Mitochondria in cytoplasm concentrated in the tail.

sperm Animal sperm

Sperm, sperm, spermatozoa.

sperm typical

 Sperm found: Leeuwenhoek Sperm found: Leeuwenhoek
since leeuwenhoek Observed in 1677 and some people The higher animal The sperm has so far has been studied for one thousand kinds of animal sperm, most of them are the tadpole. Since 50s the understanding on the biological characteristics of sperm has made rapid progress. In mammals, sperm structure can be divided into head, neck and tail of 3 parts.
head Mainly from the nucleus and acrosome, spherical, cylindrical, spiral, pear shaped and dolabriform, these shapes are by nuclear and The top of the body The shape of the decision.
The mature sperm nuclei with high density Chromatin In. optical microscope and electron microscope Is difficult to distinguish the structure. The nuclear front acrosomal cap, is a structure composed of double layer film covers the front part of the nuclear 2/3, close to the plasma membrane A layer called the outer acrosomal membrane, a layer near the nucleus called acrosomal membrane. The top body hydrolase nature of the particles through the eggs and sperm, it is all about the egg membrane. In the cavity between the acrosome and nucleus called the subacrosomal space, including Actin . some Invertebrate The sperm fertilization Acrosome reaction Actin polymerization: acrosome formation processes or acrosomal filament; the sperm can be attached to the egg membrane, resulting in sperm egg fusion - fertilization.
Nuclear membrane Although the double membrane structure, but the distance between the two layers is very small, and only in the nucleus and the rear end of the neck is connected to a nuclear fold Film hole .
neck This is the shortest. Located at the head, cylindrical or funnel-shaped, also known as the connection section. Rear connection core before it, after
 Schematic diagram of a variety of animal sperm Schematic diagram of a variety of animal sperm
The tail. The substrate is in the front, composed of dense material, just in nuclear rear end is called the implantation fossa sag. After a head plate substrate slightly thick, transparent area between the two, in which the fine fibers through the substrate connected to the nuclear envelope back. In the head plate for the proximal centriole, although it declined slightly, but the axoneme instead of the distal centriole formed almost vertical. Around these nine structures by the longitudinal fibers. The segmented depth interval display column, Mitochondrion Located in the external section column. 9 of the nine crude fiber section column and the head end is closely connected.
The tail is divided into 3 parts: the middle piece, principal piece and end piece. The main structure is axoneme throughout central.
Middle part From the distal centriole to ring called the middle, its length difference in mammals is rather large, but the structure is similar. The main structure is axoneme and peripheral Mitochondrial sheath .
The axoneme: moving organs of sperm, formed by the distal centriole, has been to the end of sperm. The structure and animal sperm axoneme (or flagella. cilia ) is similar to that of basic components are 9+2 type, which is located in the central of the two is a single microtubule, is surrounded by 9 pairs of microtubules ( Two of the body ).
The fibrous sheath outside the axoneme consists of 9 thick fibers. With the 9 section column connected to the neck. This is unique to mammalian sperm, so people make mammalian sperm classified as type 9+9+2 (Figure 3), despite its size and shape are different in various animal. Some birds and invertebrate sperm has similar structure.
The mitochondrial sheath or mitochondrial helix: mitochondria are connected with each other, spiral wrapped in crude fiber, called mitochondrial sheath. It is a collection of mitochondria together to continuous structure with each other and merged in sperm formation. Circle the number of differences in various mammalian spiral, few dozen circle, many hundreds of ring.
The ring is located in the middle of the back end. The mitochondrial sheath is the last lap after turning inward and into the plasma membrane. Is unique to mammalian sperm, sperm motility may be related to preventing mitochondrial shift.
The main section of the long tail part by axial filament and the outer cylindrical fiber sheath. The fibrous sheath has two fiber projections into the longitudinal ridges, with longitudinal ridges just located in the dorsal ventral side of two, so that the sperm tail section was oval.
With the end of main section in the end, the fibrous sheath tapering away.

sperm Atypical

Male animal germ cell . There are great differences between the general shape of cells. All kinds of animal sperm can be divided into typical and atypical class two, typically for Tadpole Like the head, nearly cylindrical (all kinds of animal are not the same), the tail is slender, such as flagella. Atypical sperm morphological diversity but lacks flagella.
A no explanation of the phenomenon is the so-called variant of sperm. stay Mammals (including humans), birds, amphibians, fish, and insects Part of animal And in the same individual, not due to degradation or pathology, in addition to typical sperm outside, also produced a small, large, or even more than one flagellum variant. Marine and freshwater PROSOBRANCHIA (soft animal) variant of sperm shape is completely different from the normal.
The common characteristic is the lack of Flagellum However, its shape is very different. The sperm in the Invertebrate In a very wide distribution. Some, such as low crustacean sperm is spherical or banded, more like a typical than sperm cells. Some grow many thin and long processes, may contribute to the attachment in the incubation chamber to be water washed; higher crustacean sperm shape is more complex, in addition to slender processes, and chitin capsule. Atypical sperm namatoda animal relatively simple like amoeba parascaris equorum sperm has unique lens. The most simple atypical sperm shape, make people think they are easy to stay in Sperm formation In the early stage. Generally, this simple shape is secondary traits evolved.

sperm Five major factors

1, automobile exhaust
Now, live in the city, people can not open the hood. Especially for pregnant women, contained in automobile exhaust sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, not only may increase the incidence of cancer and other diseases, the most serious is the exhaust containing dioxin is environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals are extremely strong, can make the male testicular morphological changes and reduced sperm count, reduce fine ability.
2, alcohol and tobacco
Smoking is harmful to health, especially on semen even more destructive. Smokers compared with nonsmokers, the main index of semen quality were significantly decreased, sperm deformity rate increased, the number of leukocytes in semen increase. But alcohol is on the human liver and testis has a direct effect. The liver too much alcohol will appear testicular atrophy, lead to a decline in semen quality.
3, noise, radiation
The noise can cause endocrine disorders, resulting in semen and sperm abnormality. Noise pollution long time can cause male infertility; for women, it will lead to abortion and fetal malformation. While high doses of radiation can cause testicular tissue structure change, increase sperm deformity rate, reduce sperm number and sperm density index.
4, the frequency of sexual intercourse
Some parents in order to enhance the hit rate, to reduce the frequency of intercourse, to improve the quality of sperm. In fact, if the male ejaculation per month is only 1-2 times, although the number of sperm will be increased, but the sperm motility and survival rate was decreased, aging sperm ratio will increase significantly, but not conducive to pregnancy. Experts suggest that life 1~2 times per week is moderate, and women's ovulation may be appropriate to increase.

sperm Standard sperm

1, the semen volume: each row of 2~6ml precision, but the impact of ejaculation frequency and the number of. The semen volume less than 1ml/ times that decrease semen volume, semen volume more than 6ml/ times is called semen volume too much, these are the exception.
2, semen color: normal semen color is transparent white, if abstinence time long, pale yellow, yellow of reproductive tract inflammation in the blood or semen.
3: the sperm density and sperm density refers to the number of sperm per milliliter of semen contains the normal number of sperm per milliliter of semen in more than 20 million, such as less than 20 million /ml is oligospermatism, will affect fertility.
4, semen liquefaction time: Semen just discharged a gel in vitro, after 5 to 30 minutes can be turned into liquid state, a process known as liquefaction. Need to have a series of semen liquefaction enzymes involved in the sticky, and non liquefied semen. Common in prostate or seminal vesicle diseases, semen alkaline, pH value between 7.2~7.8, such as pH<7, pH>8 acid, alkali, can cause the sperm function is limited.
5, sperm survival rate for 1 hours: 1 hours after ejaculation the percentage of motile sperm should not be less than 60%.

sperm Sperm count

The semen diluent dilution (viscosity, dilute solution of heavy sodium carbonate decomposition of formaldehyde fixed sperm semen mucus damage), then drop counting cell count. Normal human sperm number (60 ~ 150) * 109/L, the lower limit of pregnancy is 20 * 109/L. It may be clinically by a row of sperm count report, normal is 4 ~ 600 million, less than 100 million is not normal.
The flagellated sperm swimming, swimming sperm release, at 22 to 25 DEG C can be about 1 hours. Once the sperm arrived Egg cell The banded structure, the flagellated themselves off, and then directly contact with the egg nucleus. As for the flagellated sperm is capable of independent movement, there are different views.

sperm Process

All kinds of plants The sperm is Or the male gametophyte produces sperm number are very different: an antheridium Isoetes orientalis can produce 4 sperm, 128 ~ 256, Adderstongues (eusporangiate ferns) thousands, In white (leptosporangiate ferns) a few hundred; Seed plant The male gametophyte generally has only two sperm.

sperm Evolution trend

The general trend is the flagellated spermatozoids, gradually reduced to non flagellate germ cells. Also by the activities of sperm flagella by pollen tube sperm transport. Such as low vascular plants Fertilization That must be carried out under certain conditions of water. This reflects to a certain extent Algae Aquatic habits. The cycads and ginkgo sperm, while maintaining low algae and vascular plants with the characteristics of the sperm flagellum, but the transition to the tube transportation. The gymnosperm conifers and angiosperms, sperm movement is out of the limit of water conditions, completely rely on pollen tube transport.

sperm Spermatogenesis

from Spermatogonial cells For the development of this process in the process of sperm. The higher animal In a similar, are in testis The Seminiferous tube ( Seminiferous tubule For).
 Spermatogonial cells Spermatogonial cells
Mammalian spermatogonial cells can be used as stem cells The proliferation of breeding, producing new stem cells and differentiated cells were produced; it not only saved the stem cells themselves generation, and the energy source to produce differentiated cells to produce primary spermatocytes by the latter. As for how many times they pass through mitosis to produce Primary spermatocyte All kinds of animal, not the same. In addition to the earliest spermatogonia in Spermatogenesis After each process of mitosis, the cytoplasm is not completely separated, a bridge connected between the cells, the shape of the syncytium. This may have strictly to maintain synchronization between cells, to produce a large number of sperm at the same time.
Spermatocyte After entering into the growth period, increase the volume
 Seminiferous tubule pattern Seminiferous tubule pattern
At this time, called Primary spermatocyte . The synthesis of DNA nuclear chromatin complex, a series of changes to the first meiotic (see Meiosis ). After each division of primary spermatocytes and produce two somatic cell The same number of DNA Secondary spermatocyte . The latter does not copy the DNA, after a relatively short time to stay, they enter the second meiosis, the formation of two sperm cells. So a primary spermatocyte after two meiosis forming four haploid sperm cells. In a variety of animal spermatogenesis in this stage only similar.
The sperm cells into sperm process called spermiogenesis, also called spermiogenesis. This process is very complex, mainly is the nucleus and organelles changed sharply. In the nucleus protein composition changes significantly, resulting in dense chromatin, nuclear volume. In some animal protamine replaced the nucleus of the histone. Golgi apparatus , Centriole And the changes of mitochondria is also great. Golgi body is composed of a series of vesicles, produced some proacrosomal granule vesicles. Expanding vesicles merge into larger vacuoles, front-end coverage in the nucleus, and further evolved into the acrosomal cap. Proacrosomal particles also sink into larger particles, show top mucopolysaccharide reaction. The center of particles in the Golgi apparatus and One divides into two. change at the same time move apart in proximal centriole is located in nuclear at the rear end of the distal centriole formation of axonemal flagella, disappear. Mitochondria redistribution around the axis to form a spiral wire. Around this movement and mitochondrial actin fibers. In these changes, most of the cytoplasm aggregated to the neck, only a thin handle and connected by sperm. When the sperm tail has grown from the back, when the shank is opened, and the cytoplasm (called sperm Residues From entering) Seminiferous tube The lumen.
The whole process of spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell There is a close relationship between. Composition of support cells and germ cells of the seminiferous epithelium from the bottom of long column, wide top and narrow. Spermatocytes in Sertoli cells and basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, desmosome like junctions are connected between the two (see intercellular junction ). Of meiosis of spermatocytes gradually to the lumen of mobile fine tube, which is mainly rely on the support cell movement itself (possibly with the rich microfilaments related). All types of germ cells on the supporting cells in the pit, or two adjacent supporting cells formed in the pit, and the cell membrane and support cell gap junction, connected to. All levels of spermatocytes in accordance with the mature degree, in abnormal sperm cells in the more near the top. Here, the supporting cells are linked by two kinds of structure and sperm cells: one is the connection structure of actin filament formation of ectoplasm; the other is a ball band complex, the latter is the top surface of the head surface and sperm cells of Sertoli cells together to form the. Because from the spermatogonia producespermatocytes replacement, resulting in such precise arrangement.

sperm Hormonal regulation

Spermatogenesis by the pituitary gland Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the secretion of Leydig cells. testosterone Regulation. Interstitial cells Called Leydig cells, located in the Seminiferous tube Between the interstitial tissues, their synthesis and secretion of testosterone into seminiferous tubules, promote spermatogenesis. The production of testosterone is controlled by the pituitary release of LH. The secretion of pituitary FSH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of Sertoli cells androgen Binding protein, it has strong affinity with testosterone concentration to maintain testosterone in the seminiferous tubules, maintain its effects on spermatogenesis. In addition, FSH can directly start the spermatagonial cell division Early and stimulate the development of germ cells.

sperm gene regulation

During sperm chromatin condensation, the DNA will not be able to form this condition before transcription, complete in sperm. All animal is not exactly the same in the sperm formation in transcription stop time. For example, in Drosophila, RNA synthesis stops during primary spermatocytes in mice, were still near in sperm cells during meiosis, will not stop in the nucleus began elongation completely.
 Normal human sperm Normal human sperm
The formation of sperm dependent protein synthesis, since RNA synthesis has stopped, spermiogenesis required for protein synthesis must rely on earlier period generated and stored to spermiogenesis when carried out stable RNA translation, this regulation occurs at the post transcriptional level, is due to Yan Chiji expression mechanism. As in the sperm cytoplasm into the nucleus and replace the histone protamine and its gene in primary spermatocytes had transcription. The synthesis of RNA in the nucleus transferred to the cytoplasm, and the protein formed by the combination of 16 ~ 18S nuclear protein particles, and in this form stored in the cytoplasm until the sperm cell period. For a long time in the interval between the transcription and translation of the example, the lack of understanding of the factors of gene expression in post transcriptional control. A similar phenomenon may also be encountered in the terminal differentiation of other cell types. The H19 and Igf2 genes for distinguishing between sperm and egg. Don't guarantee the sperm sperm egg and egg. It is with each other
 The deformity of sperm head The deformity of sperm head
Sperm is a mature male germ cells, in testis In formation. Human sperm shape tadpole 60, ca. micron , composed with parental genetic material and head with movement function, neck, tail, head and tail of four parts.
Sperm deformity Morphological variation including head, body, tail, head or body mixed malformation. Have a huge head and head deformities, head of nucleus and cytoplasm to reverse, mushroom head Double body deformity; large diameter, wedge, triangle; tail deformity, thick tail thick short forked tail and double tail; head body mixed malformations head body increases, nucleus malformation of variable length and head hybrid variable length etc..

sperm Sperm movement

There are several types of sperm movement, but the most common are two types, one is directly in front of the sperm movement, is actually in front walk; second motion is swing, swing the sperm tail, does not move. The epididymis Sperm and ejaculation Sperm motion type is different. shoot semen
 sperm sperm
In different components of sperm, the types of sports are not the same. Because sperm Movement speed In a first part of ejaculations is relatively high, so start ejaculation commonly used liquid rich in a part of sperm Artificial insemination . When sperm meets epididymal fluid, seminal plasma , Cervical Mucus, uterus Liquid membrane, Fallopian tube The ionic liquid and the peritoneal fluid microenvironment changes and biological physical state changes, the sperm movement type also has changed. In the mucus and fallopian tube Ovarian follicle The liquid under the condition that the sperm movement speed. Prostate Secretion and Seminal vesicle The optimum proportion of liquid secretion between the sperm viability and motility also influence. Seminal vesicle secretion contains several damage components on sperm motility and viability; and prostatic secretion stimulates sperm motility. hold Kinin or Kallikrein Together with semen samples, which improve the ability of sperm movement. Regularly to kallikrein for less sperm of patients taking a few months, can increase the number of semen, and improve the vitality of sperm. Any one into the female reproductive tract of hundreds of millions of sperm with less than 100 sperm can run to the site of fertilization.
sperm Flagellum In a coordinated sequence of repeated sine wave propagation. So, to produce the energy to regulate flagellar motility. The flagellum has longitudinal arrangement of the anatomy, coarse fiber and contractile proteins associated with it Microfilament and microtubule . Therefore, in order to overcome such as Cervical mucus This viscous cavity fluid resistance, long the need for such a driving force. Sperm cells in order to effectively move forward, to achieve the coordination of wave motion, and as a result of the development in the process of keeping down.
On the movement of sperm tail Three-dimensional space The model, there are many mutual contradictions, this may be because the photos are basically two-dimensional structure. But the consensus is that, in a plane with a major undulatory movement from the base to the tip of the plane corresponding to the width of the sperm head; a rotating component attached to the movement wave caused by a spiral motion. But it is not clear whether the component is rotated clockwise or counterclockwise direction.
When from base to tip at head and head of human sperm agglutination to anti clockwise direction is also small arm axis and wire peripheral fibers instead. If the axial filament in some way conduction of a contraction pulse, then the impulse will be along the same direction through the wire axis.
The sperm has played an important role in muscle contraction in ATP And (. ATP enzyme ), they can establish the connection between the reaction and sperm motility. Just like in ATP muscle fibers Contraction provides a lot of energy, the decomposition of ATP provide a large amount of energy required for sperm shrinkage. Sperm consumption ATP, through glycolysis and fructose can be added respiration reaction.
The metabolic process of producing energy (ATP is its final form) to be able to turn degree can be transformed into mechanical energy. This energy supply, supplemented by some substrate medium, part generated by the in situ metabolic pathways, including adenosine triphosphatase. Flagellar movement started, seems to be in part by the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on endocrine control. However, in a series of reactions, mainly rely on calcium ion Protein complexes activated to initiate flagellar movement.
Biological electrical properties of sperm plasma membrane, together with the neurochemical regulation and special ion transfer Enzyme system ATP, Na+, K+ enzyme is activated depends on the magnesium ion, could speed the coordinating role and the sperm cells and the kinematic wave of the causal relationship. Effect of sperm velocity may also be affected by flagellar movement frequency change.
Spermatogenesis, mature and transportation in people embryo In about twenty-fourth days can be identified in the development Primordial germ cells . At this time they appear in the egg yellow nang. Cell mitosis, go in the valley of the reproductive primitive gonad in fourth ~ 5 around. Primordial germ cells in migration and cell division, after a rapid increase. On the forty-second day, as many as 1300 primordial germ cells, or into Ovogonium Or into spermatogonial cells present in undifferentiated gonads in. In the early blooming pill differentiation, primordial germ cells evenly distributed in the Seminiferous tube In. They are still in the infancy, but in early puberty, spermatogonial cells started to proliferate by mitosis into primary spermatocytes until puberty started meiosis.
Male Puberty In many ways similar to the female, but some are obviously different. The growth peak height measurement, men 2 years later. No similar to Menarche The exact point in time that reached the stage of maturity for sure, as women in development, developmental stages of a certain age has great variation between individuals in each. Testosterone caused physical growth and male accessory sex organs and mature Secondary sex characteristics For example, a deep voice, the distribution characteristics of hair.
The full development of slaughter testis The cross section shows in different developmental stages in germ cells in seminiferous tubules. These cells from Seminiferous epithelium The package, the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules by. The production and secretion of the male hormone testosterone Leydig interstitial cells located between the seminiferous tubules. Another specific cell Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules adjacent to germ cells. Some of these cells are not reproductive cells. They are located in the basal membrane of the seminiferous tubules and stretched into the middle branch of the lumen, germ cells in different stages. Over the years has been that Sertoli cells in the testis is just to provide structural support. It has been known that they have many important functions. Adults, on their sperm to release within seminiferous tubules plays an important role. They also provide a significant barrier to the lumen of seminiferous tubules and the remaining sperm producing areas separated, and they produce androgen binding protein. Spermatogonial cells and adjacent cells and in Sertoli basement membrane On. This functional barrier between interstitial space and liquid immersion reproductive epithelium.
Spermatogenesis is by with 46 chromosomes ( diploid 2N), the change of undifferentiated spermatogonia to contain only 23 chromosomes ( haploid N), a series of process of sperm. In the whole adult life, to provide constant testicular sperm transport and storage in the attached sexual reproductive organs. In a more than and 80 year old male and more than and 90 years old were seen normal spermatogenesis in evidence. Provide incredible reproductive capacity of this effective and continuous process.
In the seminiferous tubules, spermatogonia undergo mitosis, and ultimately the formation of spermatocytes. Adolescent primary spermatocytes were secondary spermatocyte meiosis to form smaller, containing the haploid number of chromosomes, secondary spermatocytes further split into structure of sperm cells. To further reduce the number of chromosomes are not associated with schizophrenia. From the sperm cells into sperm is a mature process, neither meiosis, nor mitosis. A final process called spermiogenesis. Although in the primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocyte stage has been completed nuclear division. But cytoplasmic division did not end. The composition of sperm cell cytoplasm is still connected by the valley; because sperm development is in contact with each other.
In a relatively small number of initial epididymal sperm, the concentration of the liquid is absorbed and increase the epididymal epithelium. Healthy young men of the Gao tail is curly tubular filled with sperm. Has little knowledge of the sperm storage and maintain allow remote region of the functional integrity of the halo physiological environment. In an animal such as a rabbit, epididymis sperm fertility can be maintained for 30 days.
Maturation of spermatozoa in the epididymis in a series of changes. And showed abnormal swimming in caput sperm no activity, direction in circular way. As they pass through the epididymis, their swimming ability into a single direction. Sperm membrane Surface characteristics Great changes have taken place, but did not see changes in the acrosomal structure after sperm maturation.
The penis By the three long column can be Erection Organization. The surrounding elastic sheath surrounded. Each column form contains blood vessels and sexual arousal can be full of blood flow in space rendezvous. Column two is called Penis That is mainly in the erection of the penis hardens and increase penis length and width of the penis in the penis root stem is divided into crus penis. The penis foot attachment formed on the human body, when they are dispersed into health like fibers, anatomically attached to the pelvic bone. The third column of the penis Urethra The lower part of the sponge in the penis. It ends in Glans . From the urethra Cavernous body of urethra Through. When erect, the penis is soft than urethral sponge. stay Orgasm When the glans itself increases to nearly two times its usual size. Give it a lot Sensory nerve endings And have the strongest feeling of sexual desire. In orgasm, the penis hardens, urethral opening expansion, testicle rise and increase skin and sheath halo pills. When Sexual excitement Between Taiwan, semen collection in the prostatic urethra, there is a kind of inevitable ejaculation feeling. At the root of Cooper's glands (urethral bulbourethral gland) release their content. Testicular volume and increased pronation, scrotum Thickening. In sexual climax, bladder muscle Physiological sphincter Contraction, seminal vesicle Contraction, Vas deferens Contraction, Erection Sphincter contraction, prostate contraction, these contraction force contraction force when the penis itself through semen Urethra .
Ejaculation relates to the epididymis and vas deferens, prostate and seminal vesicle wall smooth muscle Coordinated contraction. Especially in the muscle layer thickening of the epididymis and vas deferens of the distal catheter wall. The final result stimulated contraction of sexual climax is in Adrenergic nerve fibers Under the control of. On the contrary, the erection depends on parasympathetic stimulation. Only with halo tail area and distal vas deferens in hypogastric nerves Adrenergic fiber The obvious contraction occurs under the stimulation. This type of nerve distribution to prevent the ejaculation of large immature sperm through the vas deferens and into sperm injection. The role of accessory sex organs in ejaculation, sperm from the seminal vesicle, Prostate And Cooper's glands ( Urethral ball gland Accept liquid). The dorsal structures in seminal vesicle into bladder triangle. They are secreted by fructose rich products Ejaculatory duct Enter the urethra. On the base of the prostatic urethra, when ejaculation by many small catheter contents give urethral. Prostatic secretion of a clear liquid, acidic and rich acid phosphatase . In citrate and zinc and proteolytic enzymes. Urethral ball gland or gland secretions enter PAT'S Library The urethral bulb . They provide lubricating liquid to maintain the moisture inside the urethra. stay Sexual excitement Climax and completely Erection When their contents can be released before ejaculation, sometimes with a small amount of sperm. Responsible for the maintenance of testicular androgen known accessory sex organ function. The main function of the seminal vesicle and prostate secretion is the delivery of sperm in the ejaculate, but the sperm metabolism may also play some role.

sperm Summary

1, sperm produced in testicular sperm, it takes about 10 weeks to reach maturity.
2, mature sperm stored in the epididymis.
3, is the smallest in sperm cells, it needs to supplement the balanced ability.
4, a normal adult male every day can produce 70 million ~1.5 million sperm.
In 5, the erection of the penis tip about 3 million sperm.
6, epididymal sperm in the vas deferens by transmission, a fluid rich in fructose fructose equivalent to the vas deferens, fuel rocket, contribute to sperm transport.
7, most of the semen Alkaline substances And it helps sperm journey.

sperm Life

The normal mature man ejaculates although from tens of millions or even as high as 200 million sperm, but most of these sperm in the acidic environment of the female reproductive tract in the loss of vitality and death. In general, the sperm in the Vagina In the life of not more than 8 hours, only a small part of the sperm escape and move on. When the sperm reaches the uterus cavity up to fall over each other, the number of 1~5% only when ejaculation, this is why? Because the ejaculation of semen in the sperm remains, can protect the large amounts of fructose in semen and glycolytic enzymes, when the sperm into the uterine cavity and left semen, their living condition is far less than in semen, so life is greatly shortened, the poor quality of sperm, can not arrive soon run slower the uterine cavity, loses its vitality. After the final hurdle, can arrive at the site of fertilization of sperm oviduct is There is not much left..
However, as long as the sperm into the fallopian tube, has the strong ability of fertilization. Of course, finally only 1~2 sperm had the opportunity to work with Egg With the rest of the sperm within 24~36 hours has died. But stored in cervical mucosa crypts of sperm, life up to 2~6 days. Nevertheless, the fertilization ability has basically lost, because most of the fertilization ability of sperm can only maintain 20 hour About。

sperm data

The semen volume per ejaculate: 1 ~ 2 teaspoon.
A man's life: 7200 times the average ejaculation.
The average man masturbation ejaculation frequency : 2000.
A man's life: average ejaculation weight (53 liters).
1000 1 cm forward swing sperm, swim 12 inches per hour.
The average speed of ejaculation: per hour (45 km) VS bus average speed per hour (40.2 km).
Per teaspoon of semen Calorie Content: 7 VS per calorie content: 150 cans of cola.
An erect penis average length: 8.9 cm (3.5 inch) VS after erection The penis Average length: 13 cm (5.1 inches)
The human history of the most short penis: 1.6 cm (5/8 inches) VS in human history the longest penis: 28 cm (11 inches). (take a bath when the penis shrink.)
Man Sexual desire Most of the time / season / autumn morning.
The best method of enhancing ability: Quit smoking Exercise and weight loss.
Increase the ability of the best food: Whole wheat , malt .
The United States had admitted that masturbation proportion of men: 60%
That masturbation at least once daily ratio: 15%
Admits Masturbation After the guilty men ratio: 78%
After ejaculation ejaculation again from 5 minutes to 2 weeks.
Man: 11 times the average daily.
Man day night average erectile times: 9 times.
Sperm egg swimming to the required time: 2.5 seconds VS general people run the marathon required time: about 4 hours.
Sperm life: 2.5 months (from generation to ejaculation)
Men in the United States each year Condoms Cost: $100.
General condom thickness: 0.07 mm.
Ultra thin condom VS film thickness: 0.05 mm thickness: 0.0127 mm. Condom than fresh-keeping film thickness: about 6 times.
The taste of semen of men associated with his diet Acidic foods (fish, meat) will produce cheese like or sour smell of fish, dairy products will produce odor. It was said that after eating asparagus semen taste the most smelly, acidic foods and alcohol (processing liquor except) will produce pleasant sweetness. For example: oranges, mango, kiwi, lemon, grapefruit, lime, drink beer and lime double effect Corona.
Stimulate blood flow to the penis smell: lavender, licorice, chocolate, donuts, pumpkin pie (Western Thanksgiving Eat).

sperm Place to grow

Is the birthplace of testicular sperm". The testes are mainly three kinds of cells: Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and germ cells. Support cells and germ cells of the seminiferous tubules formed Seminiferous epithelium However, interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules. From the bottom to the top of the supporting cells, sperm cell maturation degree more and more high. The distribution is at the bottom of the spermatogonia, followed up primary and secondary spermatocytes and sperm cells. A spermatogonia after repeated mitosis and meiosis two (meiosis), can form 256 only half of chromosomes in sperm cells, of which 50% with X chromosome, the other 50% with Y chromosome. Spermatogonia and spermatocytes shape is round, no tail, the sperm cells appeared tail. Sperm cells after a series of changes, finally mature, such as tadpole like sperm discharges into the seminiferous tubules. The sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the mature time is about 64~72 days. In addition, in the epididymis also stay 19~25 days to further mature, then it has the activity and sperm fertilization ability. Therefore, the sperm maturation process takes about 90 days. This is what the use of drug therapy Azoospermia and oligospermia And for at least 3 months. It must not be impatient, just take a look at a few days, and the number of sperm activity rate did not change, immediately become dejected and despondent for another drug, and in the end, all kinds of medicine tasted, but have no effect.

sperm Function structure

Sperm tadpole shape, with a total length of about 66 M The two part, head, tail. The head is
 The sperm structure The sperm structure
Is oval, side is pear shaped, with a very dense nuclear chromatin and a top body. The acrosome is a membrane cell, a cap cover in front of the nucleus. The top of the body contains a variety of enzymes such as hyaluronidase and acrosin activity and acid phosphatase, the equivalent of a huge lysosome . The tail of the center with a through shaft wire full tail (similar to flagellar), middle containing spirally arranged mitochondria. The main function of sperm forward motion and egg fertilization, whereby genetic material into Oocyte In. When sexual intercourse, semen into the vagina, sperm from the seminal plasma in, through the cervix, uterus, tubal isthmus, and finally arrived at the ampulla of fallopian tube and oocyte met. The female reproductive tract is full of thick liquid, isthmus of fallopian tube mucosa to form zigzag fold, this transport of sperm of great resistance, but also plays a role in screening out of sperm, only has a strong athletic ability and proper movement of sperm to reach the oocyte location. Period of ovulation The female reproductive tract environment also plays a role in the regulation of sperm function, sperm in the process of transportation but also get the fertilization capacity of tubal isthmus between the plica recess and prevent the temporary storage of sperm capacitation of sperm has produced premature acrosome reaction. The fertilization ability of sperm in the female reproductive tract can be maintained within 1 days.

sperm Sperm capacitation

Refers to a series of physiological changes to obtain sperm fertilization ability. In the sperm through the cervix began the process of capacitation. When the arrival of the isthmus, capacitation is nearing completion. Capacitation late spermatogenesis "activation", namely strong whip swing proofing movement, head and tail is significantly increased, the direction of movement becomes flexible, so that the sperm was able to cross the isthmus of fallopian tube. At the same time, reduce the stability of cell membrane system of sperm cell membrane surface, exposed some closely related with fertilization receptors, have with oocyte interaction and acrosome reaction conditions.
The acrosome reaction is completed after capacitation sperm structure and function changes, similar to somatic cell exocytosis. Sperm acrosome reaction, acrosome first expansion, sperm cell membrane and outer acrosomal membrane tightly, multipoint fusion, fusion breaks, acrosome communicated by rupture and sperm outside the body, the top hydrolase in the content of activated and diffusion through the break out of the sperm head surface, acrosomal membrane exposure. The acrosome reaction is a key change in sperm at fertilization, only to complete the acrosome reaction of sperm and oocyte fusion, achieve fertilization.

sperm Abnormal performance

1, three: azoospermia semen reflection were not found in sperm in azoospermia, azoospermia is divided into "acquired azoospermia" and "obstructive azoospermia" in two, the former refers to testicular cell atrophy, precision backward, unable to generate sperm; the latter refers to spermary can produce sperm, but not sperm released obstruction of vas deferens.
2, necrospermia: increase the survival rate of sperm, semen found in reflection of dead sperm beyond 40% for necrospermia, also known as necrospermia. But because of the wrong way or not according to the normal reflection to collect semen, and artificially formed dead sperm increased, called dead sperm, must be identified.
3, sperm deformity: abnormal sperm in the ejaculate exceeded 20%, including abnormal sperm head, body, tail shape abnormalities, or head body mixed malformation.
4, spermagglutination disease: due to the presence of antisperm antibody, sperm agglutination by itself, after the sperm agglutination test and experiment after sexual intercourse were seen as sperm agglutination of sperm agglutination, and seminal vesicle unliquefaction to differentiate.
5, sperm motility disorders (asthenozoospermia): normal sperm will be lively and forward in a straight line, abnormal sperm showed no activity, perhaps can only move or rotate the difference in situ sperm activity.

sperm Seven taboo

1 afraid of smoke + wine: smoking and alcohol are the enemy of sperm, the nicotine in cigarettes can not only reduce the
 Sperm egg drill into the moment Sperm egg drill into the moment
Male body sex hormone The secretion and sperm and direct killing ability. A large number of long-term drinking, alcohol will make 70% sperm hypoplasia or loss of vitality.
2 afraid hungry: some men do not love to eat foods of animal food, after a considerable period of time, will make the body zinc content decreased. Men's sex drive and zinc deficiency. sexual function Decline, the decline in the number of sperm.
The 3 is "afraid of heat: scrotal temperature regulator of testis". When the temperature is too low, the scrotum will shrink, close to the body; when the temperature is too high, the scrotum will relax, away from the body. The testicular temperature is 34 DEG C, only under the condition of normal testis to produce normal sperm. When the testicular temperature above 40 degrees Celsius, semen quality is affected. If men have a hot bubble bath, sauna, sedentary habits, would lead to reduced sperm output.
4 afraid of frequency: Sexual intercourse The frequency will reduce amount of sperm per ejaculate semen, if sperm per milliliter of less than 20 million, the chances of pregnancy will be very small.
5 afraid of worry: because of the family marital discord, both sides accuse each other, all in a melancholy or annoyance, can directly affect the body's nervous system and endocrine function, the spermatogenic function disorder, cause Sterile .
6 afraid of Medicine: some drugs + X-ray damage to sperm, such as nitrofurans and hormone can induce sperm growth disorder, sperm chromosome damage or fracture, receiving large doses of radiation can cause sperm chromosome aberration .
7 afraid of caffeine: Many white-collar love by drinking coffee to refresh, attention is needed, too much caffeine for spermatogenic cells is a kind of harmful substances, drink more than 4 cups of coffee per day will affect fertility, for "made" men should avoid drinking a lot. Also, don't drink a lot of caffeinated cola drinks and tea etc..

sperm Related report

Research Report of Japanese scientists said that during spermiogenesis, some cells can "rejuvenescent", to reverse the stem cells. Japan Institute of Natural Science Basic Biology Research Institute issued a press release said, the professor Yoshida Pine and Kyoto University researcher Nakagawa Junde cooperation found that sperm formation in cells in a certain period of time can be "rejuvenescent", back into stem cells.
In 70s of last century, scientists have proposed As model for sperm formation "". According to this model, the process of sperm formation is this: stem cell division produces two cytoplasmic. Sub cell . With the number of cells continue to split, child gradually increased to 4, 8, 16...... Before that, this splitting process is not reversible, i.e. postmitotic cells cannot go back to a stem cell state. Yoshida Matsuo's results corrected the mistake.
In the study, the scientists used green fluorescent protein The formation process of tracking sperm. The results found that most of sperm cells at the same time, there is a small part of the cell to the initial stem cell state. Japanese scientists published in the U.S. "science" magazine.

sperm The significance of protection

domestic Sperm bank Fine source shortage news frequently appear in newspapers, one of the reasons is that Sperm donation The unqualified sperm quality.
In order to prevent possible problems and embarrassment, the men better start pay attention to change the way of life, the protection of sperm. But in fact, many men are not aware of this point. The problem has been very severe, but people have no attention. Many men love smoking, drinking, sauna, mobile phone is hung on the waist, but mobile phone electromagnetic wave Days and months multiplying on sperm damage, light is worse than X.
Experts suggest that men should start with the little things in life, to protect their sperm. For example, the bike will wear padded shorts, and choose the good damping function of bicycle; put the mobile phone in the pocket; the daily operation of the computer, maintain a distance of not less than 70 cm and computer screen, maintain a distance of not less than 120 cm with computer and rear sides; don't put the notebook computer on your lap; not wear tight pants.

sperm Sperm quality

According to TCM theory of kidney, kidney essence of food intake in tonic foods, such as: Yam , Eel Gingko, sea cucumber , Frozen bean curd , Tofu skin Peanut, walnut, sesame, etc., to enhance the body's immune system to improve the spermatogenic ability. A western medicine and Western medicine that adequate nutrition agree without prior without previous consultation, protein and vitamin can promote the production of sperm, vitamin A and vitamin B family, Vitamin E Can increase the reproductive function, in addition to the lack of some trace elements such as zinc, manganese, selenium and other elements will also affect male fertility.
 sesame sesame
In addition, help to improve the quality of sperm to eat more green vegetables, because green vegetables contain vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium and other elements conducive to sperm growth. Rich in nuts, fish Omega 3 fatty acids. Also, should eat more, these are conducive to sperm cell growth.
Particular attention should be paid to zinc supplement, animal food containing zinc than plant foods for many. More food containing zinc are: lean meat, liver, eggs, milk, cocoa, lotus seed, peanut, sesame, walnut, seaweed, kelp, shrimp, fish, red bean, litchi, chestnut, melon seeds, almonds, Celery Persimmon, etc.. Should eat more coarse flour, tofu and other soy products, beef, mutton, fish, lean meat, peanuts, sesame, dairy products.
In addition, there are a lot of harm sperm need to pay special attention to food, such as raw cottonseed oil, Lei Gongteng (Chinese herbal medicine), Radix Scrophulariae, asparagus, containing water, phellodendron, Radix Scrophulariae, compound decoction, will affect spermatogenesis and reduced sperm motility. Healthy and nutritious soy foods people the impression that the excessive consumption of rich in phytoestrogens, can cause the body. Endocrine disorders That may reduce the number and viability of sperm. While grilling and frying starchyfoodscontaining carcinogen acrylamide, can lead to less men, Weak sperm .
Zinc has an important effect on the human body and sexual organs, zinc deficiency can cause growth retardation, low reproductive function, thereby reducing the quality of sperm induced infertility. In order to effectively improve the quality of sperm in daily life can often eat walnuts, peanuts, pine nuts and nuts containing zinc rich foods. In addition, the study found that pumpkin seeds, white onions, ginger and other healthy foods will also help to improve the quality of sperm and increase the numbers of sperm.
Weak men through appropriate physical exercise, one effective way is to improve the quality of sperm. Compared to men with aerobic exercise: running, swimming, badminton and boxing etc.. At the same time, eat some fresh fruits and vegetables and to add some vitamins can improve sperm quality. These sports, not only is very helpful to improve sperm vitality, can also help ease the pressure of work, the release of negative emotions.
How to cultivate the quality of sperm
First: we must stay away from alcohol and tobacco;
Second: must let maintain optimum temperature of scrotum;
Third: the body not too fat;
Fourth: to control the number of sexual abstinence;
Fifth: the need to adjust the diet structure;
Sixth: must be clean;
Seventh: to prevent magnetic radiation;
Eighth: to ensure good health
Ninth: Master of your body clock
quality index
Analysis of sperm quality index
Sperm count Is an important indicator of fertility, but in the analysis, must be combined with the specific circumstances of individual.
1) semen volume: normal sperm each row of 2 ~ 5ml, if less than 1ml, which is not normal. Each row of fine <0.5ml Hypospermia No, such as semen for azoospermia. Azoospermia and competent to reduce disease is the main causes of male infertility. In prostate or seminal vesicle disease, congenital ureteral occlusion or stricture, or retrograde ejaculation.
2) normal color: gray and white, long ejaculation pale yellow, white or greenish in the genital gland or vice live infection; Semen (red Hemospermia In) Spermatocystitis Cancer, tuberculosis, etc..
3) consistency: normal fresh semen was discharged rapidly into liquid, viscous jelly semi fluid, 5 ~ 30 minutes and then into a liquid
If 30 minutes is not liquefaction, is abnormal, found in some enzymes secreted by the prostate gland deficiency or insufficiency, may be found in reproductive system Tuberculosis can also affect fertility.
4) pH (pH): normal weakly alkaline, pH may affect sperm activity and metabolism in 7.7 ~ 8.5 between semen acid or alkali, is the cause of sperm death ( Necrospermia The main reason).
5) smell: normal semen with special flavor, by Prostatic fluid Have a smell of this comes from a prostate fluid composition.
6) the number of sperm: normal fertile men, semen sperm per milliliter containing 0.6 ~ 150 million, sometimes up to 200 million. A row of fine from the total sperm count more than about 300 million, but the variation in the content of sperm is very large, even if the same person It differs from man to man., in different time, and also. Therefore, the calculation of each discharge sperm count, the diagnostic value of sperm than separate checks the number of greater significance.
The sperm density is too high (more than 250 million per milliliter) called sperm excess, high density, often affect sperm activity, even if the pregnancy is also prone to abortion, the main reason is that sperm quality is not high.
For the evaluation of male fertility, fertility index (I) can also be used to study. Mainly in the percentage of motile sperm (M), the number of sperm per milliliter (N) and sperm velocity (V), the percentage of abnormal sperm (A) and 10 for the combination of constants calculation, the formula is: I=M.N.V./A.106, if more than 1, said there is fertility, if 0, said sterile completely, if in 0 ~ 1, said there are likely to have.

sperm Quality inspection

1 color:
Normal semen gray or white.
Light yellow in the ejaculation time interval of the elderly.
Red brown in seminal vesicle inflammation, prostatitis, seminal vesicle tumor, occasionally found in urethral calculi.
Smell: special smell like carob tree or chestnut flower.
2 liquefaction:
Just the semen is thick jelly, about 3~30 minutes after liquefaction, into thin liquid.
Semen coagulation in patients with congenital absence of the vas deferens, seminal vesicle agenesis.
Semen liquefaction occurs in more than 30 minutes of seminal vesicle and prostate gland disease.
Semen viscosity increase in the secretion of prostate liquefaction enzyme system.
3 semen volume:
The normal 2~6ml, the average weight of 3ml, less than 1ml or more than 8ml were abnormal.
To reduce the amount of liquid in the prostate and seminal vesicle lesions or retrograde ejaculation.
PH: normal PH 7.0-7.8.
Reduced sperm activity and metabolism level of semen partial acid
Increase the motility of sperm semen alkaline, but strong alkalinity is also decreased.
Standard semen analysis
WHO (WHO) published in 2010 "WHO human semen examination and Processing Laboratory Manual" Fifth Edition (WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and processing of human semenFIFTH EDITION) is currently the most authoritative standard.

sperm With the blood causes

Semen with blood called blood. The reason is the need to pay attention to blood:
(1): reproductive tract inflammation such as prostatitis, seminal vesicle phlogistic, urethritis, epididymitis, prostate urethral stones, spermatic cord bladder stones.
(2) genital tract obstruction and cyst.
(3) tumors and vascular abnormalities.
(4) systemic factors: hypertension, hemophilia.
(5) genital tract injury.
The reason with the blood to determine sperm
Semen behind out of the red, the front is white, is likely to be prostatitis or urethritis, ejaculatory duct inflammation. If a male friend came out of the semen is all red, is likely to be spermatocystitis. In addition, if the male hemospermia color is bright red, it is the proximal bleeding, if it is mostly dark red blood relationship and inflammation.

sperm Nutritional supplement

If the sperm is less, asthenospermia, need drug treatment. Trace elements in male reproductive function, trace elements and sperm production and maturation related, mainly zinc, selenium, copper, cadmium, zinc and selenium in the most important. When zinc, selenium deficiency, hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis affected the pituitary gonadotrophin secretion decreased, hypogonadism, reduced sperm production, semen liquefaction of a zinc containing material activity affected, cause liquefaction of semen liquefaction based on delay. So, the sperm is less, Zinc Selenium is the key. In the diet experts recommended to eat some nourishing kidney essence, nourishing qi the germ of the goods, in order to improve the quality and vitality of sperm.
1, calcium on sperm motility, capacitation, maintain the hyaluronidase activity and in the process of fertilization plays an important role
If the body of calcium, can make spermatozoon bradykinesia, reduce the acrosin activity of sperm. So the men also should pay attention to the food intake of some rich in calcium tokens, such as milk, sweet almond, seaweed, coriander, letinous edodes, crisp fish, mustard, pork ribs soup, bean products, raisins, dried small shrimps, kelp, laver, lily.
2, arginine is an important component of sperm head production, and to improve the ability of sperm activity
Arginine containing much acid a sea cucumber, sunflower seeds, tofu skin, frozen tofu, eel, hazelnut, yam, cuttlefish and sesame, peanut, loach and Ginkgo biloba.
Since ancient times, such as sea cucumber is regarded as treasures of Bushengyijing, impotence treatment paralysis.
3, in addition, the number of fructose containing activity and sperm in the seminal vesicle
If the content of fructose in semen is low, cause easily necrospermia.
Fructose in honey and all kinds of fruit, such as pear, apple, Grape , pineapple Orange, especially in abundance, must pay attention to the photo channel.
The ancient Chinese medicine recommended Yijing Yang, essence of filling materials, such as shrimp, Air bladder And bird meat, beef, dog meat, Chinese wolfberry and walnut and chives optional food.
4, a food containing magnesium
Magnesium helps regulate the activities of the human heart, lower blood pressure, prevent heart disease and improve men's fertility.
It's breakfast should eat 2 bowl of oatmeal with milk and 1 bananas. There is more food containing magnesium, potato, soybean, walnut porridge, pasta, vegetables and seafood.
Many of the 5 trace elements including Zn, sperm, zinc plays an important role in maintaining the normal reproductive function of the male
Because zinc is sperm metabolism must material, and can enhance the vitality of the sperm, eat more rich in zinc objects, such as oysters, wheat bran, animal liver, clams, shrimp, shellfish, Walnuts , milk, beans, lotus and so on is necessary.
Oyster meat According to the zinc content in the crown, focusing on nucleic acid and protein metabolism contribute to the uptake of sperm, and can improve the ability of. However, the daily dosage of zinc must not exceed 15 micrograms, from an overdose of zinc and other minerals will affect the body's role. 120 grams of meat containing 7.5 micrograms of zinc.
6, eat more melanin content of foods, such as black beans, black rice, black sesame, walnut, black fungus, etc. . Animal meat, egg, bone marrow, black sesame, cherry, mulberry, yam have different degrees of kidney function.

sperm Troubleshooting

Normal male sperm should be white or pale yellow, but due to physiological and pathological factors, will lead to the male sperm is affected, so as to appear yellow phenomenon. Generally speaking, the male sperm yellow is temporary, it can disappear in a short period of time, but if it is causing the pathological factors of sperm yellowing symptoms, men need to be checked and go to a regular hospital treatment, to prevent further aggravated.
In the event of male sperm yellow phenomenon, sperm quality and quantity will be significantly affected, while fertility will be accompanied by a decline in sperm quality decreased, which caused serious consequences of male infertility.

sperm Male infertility

1, semen and semen to reduce disease syndrome.
2, blood: Semen mixed with blood, severe visible blood semen, called "hemospermia".
3, semen unliquefaction: normal semen was uniform flow of liquid, if in vitro semen at room temperature (22 to 25 degrees Celsius) 60 minutes is not liquefied or still contain liquefied clots, called "semen unliquefaction", will affect sperm agglutination or braking, slow down or inhibit sperm normal movement.
4, oligospermia and sperm disease: generally a normal semen contains sperm count was 20 million ~2 million / ml, sperm number less than 20 million / ml were spermacrasia, more than 300 million sperm / ml for increased sperm disease.
5, three: azoospermia semen examination found no sperm in azoospermia, azoospermia is divided into "congenital azoospermia" and "obstructive azoospermia" in two, the former refers to spermatogenic cell atrophy, degeneration, can not generate sperm; the latter refers to spermary can produce sperm, but not sperm released obstruction of vas deferens.
6, when the male semen yellow: occurrence of prostatitis, seminal vesicle phlogistic, semen can be yellow, if semen once appear yellow, possibly genital diseases cause, the cause of yellow semen can be divided into physiological and pathological reasons two. In general, physiological semen is transient due to yellowing, abstinence time longer, because of the change of physicochemical properties, the color will be yellow, is a normal physiological phenomenon. But most of the Yellow semen is due to pathological reasons. If semen yellow, do not rule out inflammation. In clinical, prostatitis and seminal two kinds of inflammation often coexist. Inflammation itself not only can make the enzyme synthesis and secretion, and the pathological process of inflammation with destruction and inactivates the role of secretion of the enzyme, resulting in semen liquefaction, caused by yellow sticky semen.
7, sperm malformation: Semen sperm deformity of more than 20%, including abnormal abnormal sperm head, body and tail shape, or head body mixed malformation.
8, spermagglutination disease: due to the presence of antisperm antibody, sperm agglutination itself caused by sperm agglutination test, and postcoital test were seen as sperm agglutination of sperm agglutination, and seminal vesicle unliquefaction to differentiate.
9, necrospermia: sperm survival rate decreased, semen examination found dead sperm more than 40% dead sperm disease, also known as necrospermia.
The abnormal semen will make male fertility have been greatly affected, according to the relevant data show that male infertility patients because of abnormal sperm, semen of male infertility accounted for about forty percent of the patients with infertility.

sperm Hidden killer

The main causes of male infertility is due to the quality problem of semen. After the scientists found that in addition to a variety of social and environmental factors can hardly be avoided, but the impact of eating habits can not be ignored, the study found that cola has spermicidal effect. The United States Department of gynaecology professor Anderson and his colleagues for the proof of cola has spermicidal effect, become the offbeat chemistry prize winner. Anderson heard the legend of cola contraception for many years, decided and some colleagues tested, results showed that coke can indeed kill sperm.
Fried chicken
The expert points out, grilling and frying starchyfoodscontaining carcinogen acrylamide, can lead to male small weak sperm. In addition, the heavy metal cadmium residues of pesticides are toxic to sperm.
Intimate reminder: in the aspect of disease, varicocele can affect testicular formation, so this kind of patients should be early diagnosis and treatment.
Coffee is a refreshing effect, because it contains Caffeine Stimulation of the sympathetic nerve. Sympathetic grasp all the activities of the day, it was exciting, people will be inspired and alive. While the parasympatheticnerve for one night such as physiological erectile related activities, its relationship with sympathetic to the table and in. When the sympathetic nerve activity frequently, parasympathetic nerve will be relatively weak repressed, clinical manifestations of sexual decline.
Intimate reminder: the common feelings of undulating, sympathetic excitability, sex before it is best not to drink coffee and other caffeinated beverages, so as not to suppress parasympathetic nerve, reduce libido.
Bean curd
According to U.S. media reports, Harvard University School of public health, a new study clearly again, if the daily consumption of soybean products, will let the male sperm decreased the number of .
The research conducted by Dr. George Chavaro of the Harvard University School of public health. From 2000 to 2006, the researchers tracked 99 men. The results are surprising: eat soy products every day of the men, the only 41 million per milliliter of semen sperm, eat soy products was significantly lower than that of men. It is understood that the number of sperm per milliliter of semen in less than 20 million belong to low sperm concentration, easy to infertility. In addition, this link in obese men is more obvious.
Study on the Association issued a press release said the day before, cosmetics can kill sperm, sperm counts in men worldwide reduction may be associated with a chemical called phthalic acid ester two, and the adjacent benzene two formic acid ester is to do cosmetic materials.
In cosmetics, nail polish of the adjacent benzene two formic acid ester was the highest. Fetal, infant and adolescent children are most sensitive to it, the male is also very sensitive to the invisible, in cosmetics can kill sperm.

sperm To improve the survival rate of

1, quit smoking: many male friends all know that smoking is harmful to health, and often smoking can cause the family with secondhand smoke, also easy to cause the family affected, in addition will also damage your sperm, according to the researchers, often smoking male friends are susceptible to sperm abnormalities, such as oligospermia and azoospermia necrospermia, etc., which will affect the male fertility, even if his wife was pregnant will lead to fetal dysplasia, so if male friends want to have children, then the first thing you have to quit smoking.
2, schedule: the development of the society, people's growing pressures, especially male friends, is the need to work hard, which leads to the male female law is far less than the rest, plus a long time exhausted, it is easy to cause endocrine disorders, which affects not only the male sexual function will affect the male sperm quality.
3, proper exercise: men are often lack of exercise, coupled with sedentary, often let male friends are weak, and a weak body will also let the male friend of male sperm quality decreased, so can the appropriate exercise, which not only can enhance physical fitness, but also can improve the resistance to disease, invisible it also increased the degree of active sperm.
4, not long-term abstinence: many people think that if prolonged abstinence, the next time when sexual life time can improve fertility, in fact, this concept is wrong, do not ejaculate for a long time will often lead to a male friend's sperm density is high, so that the vitality of the sperm, dead sperm, so male friend needs proper arrange the time of sexual life.
5, relax: poor mental state will affect the growth of male sperm, so male friend can be appropriate to relax, such as swimming, walking and so on, and also can enjoy sex life.

sperm Matters needing attention

 What a man to eat up the sperm What a man to eat up the sperm
For a long time to beware of sperm injury
Many people know that sedentary is not conducive to male reproductive health, may damage sperm. In fact, for a long time is also not conducive to the health of men. Especially in service industries such as the work of the teachers, men need to pay more attention. Stand for a long time, easy to make testicular venous return is not good, stay in the blood vessels, can cause spermatic vein occlusion in the scrotum.