Wheat

Wheat is referred to as wheat plants, is a monocot, is widely cultivated in the world. Gramineous plants The wheat. Caryopsis Is the staple food of the people, ground flour After making bread, Steamed buns , Biscuits , noodles and other food; fermentation Can be made into beer, alcohol And liquor (such as vodka), or Biofuels . Wheat is rich in starch, protein, fat, minerals, calcium, iron, Thiamine , riboflavin Nicotinic acid, Vitamin A And vitamin C.
Wheat
Wheat is one of the three major grain, almost all for food, only about 1/6 as feed Use。 Mesopotamia Is the world's first wheat cultivation area, Chinese is one of the world's earliest wheat growing countries. In 2010 the total output of wheat is the world's second ranked grain crops (6.51 tons), after maize (8.44 tons).

Wheat History of Botany

Wheat is The Neolithic Age The human domesticated products on their wild ancestors, cultivation history of more than 10 thousand years. The vast area of Central Asia, has unearthed many residual physical primitive society in prehistoric settlements, spikelet and grain including wild and cultivated wheat, wheat and barley, carbonized in hard clay. Then, spread to Europe and Africa from Asia, the Near East, and east to India, Afghanistan, China spread. 7000- early in 6000 BC, in Turkey, Iran, Palestine, Iraq, Syria and Israel have been Wheat; 6000 BC in Pakistan, BC 6000- 5000 years ago in Europe, Greece and Spain, BC 5000- 4000 years in Soviet Transcaucasia and Turkmenistan, in 4000 BC in Africa, Egypt, 3000 BC in India, BC in 2000 China, have been planted wheat. Chinese wheat is composed of the middle reaches of the Yellow River gradually expanded to around the south of the Yangtze River, and was introduced into Korea and japan. From fifteenth Century to seventeenth Century, the European settlers of wheat spread to North and South America; in eighteenth Century, wheat spread to Oceania.
Wheat originated in Western asia. The West and South West area is still widely distributed wild a grain of wheat, two wild wheat and common wheat Aegilops tauschii. From Asia to Iran in the Middle East, especially the southwest and Iran in Northwest Iraq and Turkey southeast, is cultivated as a grain of wheat and wheat were first domesticated by Timo Fives. The northwest, southwest and southeast of Syria in Lebanon is the center of distribution and cultivation of wild two wheat two wheat origin. Common wheat appeared later than a grain of wheat and two wheat, generally about 8000 years ago, originated in the southwest of the Caspian sea.
According to the research, the history of a certain period of time, when a two grain of wheat cultivation in Western Iran were brought to the ae.tauschii distribution area, a natural hybrid, the hybrid with natural chromosome doubling after common wheat. The evolution of the process, according to the traditional point of view is: T.boeoticum with AA genome and BB genome of Aegilops speltoides natural hybridization, produced two wild wheat (chromosome AABB); two wild wheat domestication cultivated two grains of wheat, and then with DD genome the Aegilops tauschii natural hybridization, is the result of the common wheat (chromosome AABBDD).
In China following the Yunnan wheat subspecies found on the Tibet plateau, and found a common wheat wheat off their own section of the original type (called Tibet semi wild wheat); there are large tracts of Aegilops tauschii in Yili Valley (commonly known as Chinese aegilopstauschii) native communities, and the middle reaches of the Yellow River wheat have mixed tauschii, has an important the significance of these facts on China origin, evolution and spread of wheat.
In 1955 in Anhui province was excavated Diaoyutai ruins of the Neolithic age, found carbonized wheat seeds; unearthed the oracle "to wheat" records, 1238- BC 1180 wheat is the main cultivated crops in northern Henan sea. "Book of Songs Zhou Song Fang Qing Miao Wen Si": "to me," Lai Mou "also puts Mou". The Three Kingdoms of Wei Zhang Yi (third Century) "442": "barley, Mou; tears, also puts the record. The ancient literature of the future, will be referred to as wheat wheat and other wheat in the wheat before dubbed the "big" and "Kuang" and other words, to distinguish them from wheat. According to the "Book of Songs" mentioned in the "wheat" represents the area, that in sixth Century BC, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River has been widely cultivated wheat. Later, according to historical records, in the south of the Yangtze River region about first Century, southwest around ninth Century have grown wheat. To the Ming Dynasty "Heavenly Creations" (1637) records, the wheat has been all over the country, occupies an important position in food production. In 2016, the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology of the ongoing archaeological site of Haojing, in the mid western Zhou Dynasty for a landfill pit, archaeologists discovered a group of carbonized wheat grain, although 2800 years ago, but the wheat grain shape is still preserved. At least in the mid western Zhou Dynasty, the wheat has been in the countries around the Haojing scale planting, this discovery of wheat in North China have been widely grown is a challenge in the traditional view of the Han Dynasty ".
Extended reading
Compendium of Materia Medica - Wheat
"Correction" "collecting", and classified as a wheat seedling.
The "explanation".
Jane said: to also KT. Xu's "Shuowen" cloud: Heaven rimalt, second, like barbed form, day to.
If the foot line, so the word never from wheat. Sound Sui, foot line. "Poem" cloud: "to me to do is mou. The cloud like: in fact, as the root. "The Vatican" name maiyiwen Yuejia normal fault.
"Set" Songyue solutions: large, long winter wheat planted in autumn, spring and summer show, with air and four, so for the grain expensive. Warm spring to summer can be, will close. Although autumn, four, so toxic.
Jane said: Biden wheat and wheat diffuse, and summarized the canaanites. The north face thin husk, anti this province. Cloud: to work or silkworm excrement and the new beetle. Or cloud: before the beginning of autumn in Xanthium rasping with sun, also not boring. Autumn is a bug that was born. Gaimai of wet evil, so long the rain Liao, which is not.
Wheat
"Smell" sweet, slightly cold, non-toxic. In the sun, shaoyin.
Zhen Ping said: right, a small drug.
Gong said: Wheat soup, no skin crack. English is warm, not hot fire check me.
Tibet is said: wheat planting in summer four when cooked, by foot, both cold and heat warm cool. So cool, wheat starter temperature, bran cold and surface heat, should be so. Wei River west of the white wheat flour is cold, in the spring, que two gas.
Jane said: the new wheat heat, and Chen Maiping.
Sweet, salty, cold, non-toxic.
"In addition to attending" off hot, only polydipsia yanzao, diuresis, raise liver qi, blood spitting blood leakage check. The pregnant woman easy ("don")
. Feed, heart disease should eat (Si Miao). Fried soup to drink, with violence (cases). At the end of boil clothes, kill intestinal roundworm ("resistance").
Chen Jiantang drink, stop sweating. Burning, oil, paint the sores burn burn (Shi Zhen).
Qi to remove heat, stop sweating, osteopyrexia hot, hot work woman (Shi Zhen).
"Invented" Jean said: according to: "Q" cloud: wheat is fire, the valley of the heart. Zheng Xuanyun: Mr Jia Youfu, belongs to wood. Xu Shenyun: wheat is a gold, Gold King born king, died. Three different. And "don" cloud: wheat and raise the liver qi and Zheng Yue he. Sun Simiao: cloud grain feed, and the combination of "truth". The Yi Gong, Chufan, thirst, sweat, urine, and received hemostasis, are the heart disease, as in "plain questions" shall prevail. To cover, Zheng Yixing, and the "truth" to work, therefore, different argument.
Henry said: hunger for earthquake generation wheat Valley, sun to be dry, with less moisture, Chung peeled, cook meals, free from surface heat.
"Two party" of the old and new five.
With wheat meal, thirst upset and porridge. ("mind")
The old man five shower, hot body full abdomen: a liter of wheat, rice 22, three litres of water, boil a liter, the drink is more. ("Bong Pro Book")
With a liter of wheat under goiter: a liter of vinegar, stains, dry to the end. To wash seaweed, 32 at the end of the research, and even. To drink wine every day three big spoon. ("short").
Eyebrow Lian head sore with wheat: burning of, for the end. Apply oil. ("confucians'duties for parents").
Vitiligo with tinea: Wheat stone stand, burning iron out of oil, paint what effect. ("medical story").
Burn burn, not sore, fry black wheat, research into the greasy powder, oil coating. Don't make cold water will be rotten. ("pocket").
Undertake: intestinal wheat five liters, nine liters of water, boiled four liters, cotton from the juice, to be very cold. The patient lying on the mat, the intestinal juice containing the. The ten day, but slightly eat. Be careful not to be alarmed, namely murder. ("Liu Juanzi ghost left side").
Wheat (i.e. water Amoy float, baked with).
wheat bran
"Attending" when the disease of herpes simplex, soup fire sores rotten, traumatic injury fold stasis, vinegar fried paste (the "China"). Bread and noodles, check dysentery, transfer to the thermal health of people. With vinegar steaming, bags, bag men lost waist foot cold ironing folded, scattered blood (organs) pain.
With vinegar, ironing foot rheumatism, cold athlete's foot, reciprocity to sweat, and good. At the end, stop sweating (Shi Zhen).
"Invented" Jean said: but also wheat bran. With wheat and gay, antiperspirant work to cover wheat, wheat without meat.
Human body pain and sore swollen Zhanzi rotten, or in summer Moonrise smallpox fester not sleeper and clamping seats, mattress suture by Sheng bran lying, cool and soft, but also the sincere.
"Seven party" of the new.
Cold sweats: "health treasures": floating wheat (and fire fry), to the end. Each serving two meters half of the money, drink, take three times a day.
Or tea. A: the pig mouth lip cooked slices, dipping is also good.
Postpartum sweating, wheat bran, oyster slices for the end. The pork juice take two money, take two times a day. (Hu's "woman").
With strong vinegar, stale in bran fried hot, bags of iron. ("living dictionary").
The spring and summer with a large scar out: autumn and winter with wheat bran, wheat bran, flour and butter spread. ("record").
Children: wheat bran fried black eyebrow sore, at the end of the research, the apply of wine.
Pee: Bran fried noodles hematuria, to eat pork dip. "Ji Xuan".
Noodles
"Smell" sweet, warm, minimally toxic. Can't stop bugging athermalisation ("don").
Daming said: in the heat of the small, dynamic atmosphere, hair Dan stone poison.
Si Miao said: eat, long stay, and polite. Fear of Chinese pepper, radish.
"Attending" tonic. Long food, real skin, thick stomach, strong strength (Tibet device). Qi, supplement, help five ("Japanese"). Water transfer service, people heatstroke, horse disease lung heat (cases). Deposited carbuncle injury, scattered blood and pain. Raw food, large profits.
Water transfer service, Binv check (Shi Zhen).
"Invented", said: there is more heat, Chen tetrahedrite color, and at the end, it is also in grinding. The food is good but clubbing, Tibet is said: surface heat, only second people for the past cold mill, also bran. The river in the west, white wheat flour and cold, in the spring, que two gas.
Ying said: Southeast of spring rain, low humidity, wheat has been affected by moisture, had not been sweating, they eat thirst, dynamic atmosphere, help wet heating. Northwest gaozao, spring wheat and less, not wet, into the cellar sweating, Biden intrinsic concentration and low humidity, so often eat without disease.
Jane said: North warm, food is not thirsty; south of hot food, thirst; the West face of cool gas, are also. Swallow Chinese pepper, fresh carrot, were able to solve the poison, see radish. Doctors often use the no fly Luo, and at the end of Seoul's. Chen wheat flour, boiled food, non-toxic. The bad hair can swell, incidence of sore, except for Zhengbing and medicine, its also easy to eliminate. According to Li Pengfei: "Yanshou book" cloud North: the surface frost, non-toxic; south snow less, so the surface of toxic. Gu Yuanqing "I talk about" cloud: exposed eaves Jiangnan wheat spend the night, so the incidence of wheat; Jiangbei delayed, so pleasant. Youyue: fish rice should be JAC, Beijing should also face Yang Luo, five party is also Youyi. Although the surface of hot and cold food day with paper bags hanging wind, dozens of years is not bad, it is hot to be non-toxic, especially good medicine.
"Six Party" of the old and new twenty-three.
Hot thirsty heart: a stuffy warm water, adjusting face one or two, drink. ("Shengji Zonglu").
In sudden death: the water and surface of a large copy service. ("daughter").
Night sweats: wheat flour for hollow projectile, and lying when cooking. As early as the first service myohyang San 1 take effect.
Internal damage: hematemesis Fei Luo flour and stir fry, with Beijing ink or money transfer service Oujie juice, two. ("medical integration").
Big mouth: epistaxis is. With the flour into a little salt, cold water three money transfer service. ("Puji side").
In two, Gu hematemesis of wheat flour, water transfer service. Now a half day. ("book").
More than: vinegar and retching, as projectile two, thirty pieces, in boiling soup cooked, to obtain the plasma water, Wen Tunsan, two.
Hiccup, is no longer swallow. Yet, to swallow. (the "hand").
Cold white dysentery: Stir-Fried Noodles with Vegetables, each with big spoon into the porridge in food. Can cure diarrhea, 100, the teacher is not saved. ("Taiwan").
Diarrhea is not solid, a pound of flour, fried yellow. One or two spoonfuls of hollow water daily. ("to").
Three families with a cold surface of the malaria chronic malaria: May 5th noon, harvest of Artemisia annua, beating the natural juice, bean and pill.
When the skin bloated, as thin as Zhengbing, wrapped like water: chewing Fumian good. ("Mei Shifang").
Sore throat, the soldier is under the food: wheat flour and vinegar, with extralaryngeal swelling. ("Puji side").
Woman: water surface blowing milk to cook paste, cooked, which cast a limeless wine, stir hot drinks. According to the medicine is slowly, which is incurable.
("experience").
Don't: half a catty flour breast fried yellow, vinegar boiled paste, painted that elimination. ("San Hui Fang").
Tetanus disease: flour, burning salt and a pinch. The new water, Tu. ("Puji side").
With more than enough dough dry: five, seven days undertake blood, that is. ("Lin's experience").
Go on foot to bubble: water dough coating, that is the night. ("sea").
Broken blood loss: flour, Zhi Ziren and pound, with water, apply the powder.
Fire sore: Stir-Fried Noodles with Vegetables, into the kernel at the end of Gardenia and oil, apply the. ("daughter").
Sore evil: cold meat surface 22, five croton. Water and bread, with the burning end. ("immortals" surgery).
White flour, fermented black bean and bald sore: research and application of vinegar. ("Puji side").
Five: child aphtha cold food money, saltpeter seven money, water and half the money, Tu Zuxin, nanzuonvyou. ("Puji side").
The woman off production: a liter of flour, a liter of wine, boil to slag, three clothing. The water to the night and day before dawn, early the next day to wear cold stuffy pain, abdominal swelling, gradually into the full surface of iron and vinegar. ("Qian").
All: salt, and anal fistula, burning face. ("Qian").
Panaritium juice, hand foot and shoulder, such as: red bean with peeling, wine and dressing of. ("Qian").
All carbuncleswelling: surface and good sealing wax pig fat. ("Mei Shifang").
Rice flour one or two: injury due to indigestion, liquor two pills, fried to the end. Each serving two spoons, soup under. If the injured carnivorous, hawthorn soup. ("simple")
Flour
"Smell" sweet, cool, non-toxic.
"Attending" Buzhong Yi, Qimai, and five internal organs, meridian adjustment. And a fried, soup, broken diarrhea (Meng Shen). Vinegar boiled cream, eliminating all carbuncle soup fire injury (Shi Zhen).
"Invented" Jean said: flour is gluten, gluten powder slurry clear face wash. This paste multi-purpose clothing, ancient fresh. According to the statement: "million charitable church" cloud: Oolong: Cream cure all carbuncle back, innominate toxic swelling, initial heat is not broken, take effect as.
The following year with starch, the longer the more good, with pan fried. At the beginning of Tang Long such as fried, fried, dry, yellow black, cold set at the end of the research. Chen vinegar boil water paste, such as black paint, porcelain jar close. With the spread of paper, cut paste, such as cold, pain is. After a short while feel itchy, dry is not active. Long swollen poison from the consumer, is also all off, very wonderful. The Suzhou Du Shuian preaching, repeated use of survey. The medicine to power, economic living should be collected.
gluten
"Smell" sweet, cool, non-toxic.
Sweet, slightly cold, non-toxic.
"Attending" antipyretic and hot fatigue, people should be cooking (Shi Zhen). Wide Qi (Ning Yuan).
Check out the diabetes ("Sichuan").
"Invented" Jean said: gluten, bran and surface water to knead and wash up. The little-known today for a vegetarian to cook good, eclipse. Nowadays many stir fried, then hot.
Zong said: students chew flour into bars, sticky bird and insect.
Wheat (i.e. also. With wheat steamed into chips)

Wheat Morphological character

Culms erect, With 6-7, 60-100 cm tall, 5-7 mm in diameter. The sheath relaxation is longer than those of lower phimosis, shorter than internodes; ligule membranous, ca. 1 mm; leaf blade long lanceolate. Erect spikes, 5-10 cm long (awn, except) 1-1.5 cm wide; spikelets with 3-9 flowers, is not developed; glumes ovoid, 6-8 mm long, main veins in the upper part of a side with ridges, on the top extends to about 1 mm long teeth, tooth and spine lateral veins were not obvious; and glumes oblong lanceolate, 8-10 mm long, apex awned or Bromus; palea and lemma long.

Wheat Growth habit

Deep soil, good structure layer is deep, is conducive to water and fertilizer, promote root development. Soil structure refers to solid (organism and organism), composition of liquid and gas, and its soil moisture, air temperature and nutrients are closely related
 Zhu Lou Cun field Zhu Lou Cun field
Such as sand, heavy clay, poor structure, it is difficult to form a high yield.
Winter type variety suitable period of the daily average temperature is 16 to 18 DEG C, semi winter type was 14 ~ 16 DEG, spring is 12 to 14 DEG C. The air temperature was influenced by the geographical latitude and altitude, latitude and elevation is higher, the lower the air temperature, early sowing period.
Long day crop wheat (8 per day to 12 hours of light), if the lack of sunshine. Can not pass through the light stage, not heading seed. Light in the stage of wheat after vernalization stage.

Wheat Distribution range

North China area: Beijing , Tianjin , Hebei Henan, ( China best in Wheat Xiayi ), Shanxi;
 Wheat planting distribution Wheat planting distribution
East China area: Shandong Jiangsu, Anhui, North central;
Central region: Jiangxi, Hubei ;
Northwest Region: Shaanxi, Gansu Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang;
Northeast region: Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang;
The southwest area: Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou;
Northern region: Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang .

Wheat Breeding method

Wheat The history of culture

About 10 thousand years ago, the invention of agriculture for the near east civilization foundation. However, how the archaeologists disagree on agriculture. Some people think that it appears in a single location near the Mediterranean, and from there outward diffusion; others believe that it has multiple independent origins. Thanks to the archaeological discoveries from Iran an early agricultural site, so that the latter view gained new evidence.
Whether agriculture appeared 1 times or 100 times, scientists believe that it first appeared in the fertile crescent (extending from the Mediterranean to the broad area of Iran). In the past few decades, most studies have focused on the western extension of the fertile crescent region -- including Israel, Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Turkey and other countries.
In those areas the excavations show that as early as 13 thousand years ago, the local hunter gatherer began collecting and planting wild wheat, barley and lentils in cereals and legumes seeds. After thousands of years of farming culture and the emergence of these wild plant gene mutated into new cultivated species, so it is more convenient to manage and harvest, but also makes farming more productive and effective.
From the Zagros Mountains to the fertile west bay month geographical distance, also suggests that independent origin of crop cultivation of civilization. In the Chogha Golan area found that planting wheat has 9800 years of history may also be farther away from the West.
Wheat origin in the west the fertile crescent. China was first discovered in the Hemudu Site basin near the site of wheat. The Peacock River Basin of Xinjiang, is often said Kroraina The carbonized wheat; four thousand years ago was found in Kroraina Creek cemetery. Four thousand years ago Tarim River The desert oasis and the Peacock River downstream in the vicinity, with abundant water resources and vegetation coverage up to 40%. When the water is wandering fish, flying animal in the forest, the green grassland grazing land is suitable for farming. Has a very good soil to survive in the small environment. But the only problem is the most critical problem is the vulnerability of the desert oasis ecosystem, a little change will cause unexpected disaster to life.
The original few grains, after the Han Dynasty gradually extended southward. Five for the "book of Jin Zhi" said: "the emperor Tai Hing two years (AD 319 years), Wu Jun (now Jiangsu), Wuxing (now Zhejiang Huzhou), Dongyang (now Zhejiang Dongyang) no maihe (here he refers to Rice said), hungry." Visible at the beginning of fourth Century, wheat has achieved a certain status in the Jiangsu Zhejiang area. After this, it started to get the promotion, mainly for the spread of the farmers themselves, sometimes also urged local officials or dynasty government promotion. The Southern Song Dynasty, the northern people migrate to the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Fujian, Guangdong province. Northerners accustomed to eating wheat, a sudden increase in demand for wheat, and wheat prices rose, stimulate the production of wheat. Therefore, the rapid expansion of wheat cultivation. The South "quarter margin in his book" chicken ribs "series (early twelfth Century) said:" at a glance, contiguous cornfield, has no less than Huaibei." That is to say, has no less than the north.
The growing season of wheat and rice, as long as you have a good design, you can in the autumn rice after wheat, wheat planting in summer, the same piece of land can be cooked two year. The promotion of wheat cultivation area does not prevent rice. Remember during the Northern Song Dynasty Zhu Changwen "Wu continued" (1084) said: "Wuzhong fertile land, rich products, wheat after rice, two crops a year, rice sooner or later." Later, Chen Fu in the Southern Song Dynasty (f North skin) "agricultural book" (1149) and Wang Zhen "agricultural book" (1313) said two is rice wheat cropping system. But according to Wang Zhen "agricultural book" records, the south for wheat, has a technical level, the yield per unit area is relatively high, is not worse than the north.
Wheat not only South extension, and also in the development of the north. Before the yuan has such Nongyan: "work such as fire". In the Tang Dynasty has been used in wheat production tools (SH, SM n fan, a long sickle), to the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty has a new improved, created by wheat, wheat and wheat were SM cage (a copy for the wheat, bamboo shaped like a dustpan and a little older, one side of it a blade when cutting SM, volatile grain, wheat naturally to become fast shoumai) in combination with a set of device. Using the method of it is this: the wheat cage is provided with four wheels under the wooden shelves, with a rope tied at the waist in tow. Reapers with SM cut wheat, wheat followed the fall to go pick the Chuo Chuo, the wheat back into the cage, the cage is full after it pulled on the threshing floor. According to Wang Zhen "agricultural book" records: "one day get ten acres, than the South with a sickle, ten times faster." If not a lot of wheat, is not to create such a fast shoumai device.
According to Ming song Yingxing "estimated tiangongwu" to calculate, then wheat accounted for about the total grain yield over 15%. This is a rough estimate, but that can be seen in the Ming Dynasty, wheat grain crops after rice in second place.
People often say "wheat" is wheat, Of course there are other grains, such as barley, oats . Ancient Europeans eat mainly wheat or barley to eat, until sixteenth Century after wheat instead of. Barley mainly beer in the world, the world level beverage. The world is to yield 80% barley beer, people poured into the stomach. 1 pounds of barley can probably do 4 to 5 pounds of beer. Unique bitter beer is caused by adding hops.
China since 1996 on Wheat Import Quota management. From the beginning of 2002 April, corn, wheat and rice export tax policy, improve the export competitiveness of China Grain varieties. Wheat Import and export increase, it has a relationship with the varieties of wheat with wheat Chen at low prices to the neighboring countries such as South Korea export feed (mainly spring wheat), imports of high-quality durum wheat from the United States and other countries. According to the agreement, Chinese added WTO In five years, China agricultural products tariff reduction to open 14.5%-15%, wheat and other agricultural products import tariff quotas, the implementation of the "proportion". By 2006, 2 million tons of wheat quota should be increased to 9 million 300 thousand tons, the first private sector should be 10%. Chinese retained government advocated tariff quotas in the world trade talks.
Wheat is one of the most important food Chinese, wheat industry development is directly related to national food security and social stability. Domestic resources and environment, food supply and demand pattern and the international trade situation has undergone profound changes.
Chinese population, national food security is always a top priority in governance. In 2013 the central economic work conference and the central rural work conference will be the problem of food security in the first place, clearly put forward the national food security strategy is: "we, based on domestic production capacity to ensure that moderate import, technology support, strategic objectives are: to ensure the self-sufficiency of grain rations absolutely safe.
In the new situation of "four modernizations" synchronization and opening up, the implementation of new food security strategy and objectives proposed by the central government for refinement and, systematically and deeply thinking of the author on the development of wheat industry in China, think the 6 outstanding problems facing the development of wheat industry needs to pay attention to and deal with.

Wheat Planting technology

Tillage and soil preparation
farming The soft soil layer, soil horizon, suitable for dry, promote Wheat seedling The Miao Zhuang, ensure underground and aboveground coordinated growth, so it is an important link to create high yield soil conditions. The specific method for the paddy field and dry land and different for different.
1 rice and wheat Multiple cropping The crop due to soil Paddy Long-term immersion, soil compaction, permeability is poor, so go through the rotation, alternate, promote The improvement of the soil . The characteristics of soil, before harvest earlier, should seize the arable period as soon as possible to the early autumn ploughing, hot sunny weather, full of soil before sowing and Kang sunning the upturned soil to the deep shallow fine rake, soft and thin, under the virtual reality; as before or late Hybrid Rice Production, because the broadcast distance is very short, should be in the rice scattered seed when drainage ditch to thin short Kang Tian; sunning the upturned soil, without adversely affecting the wheat sowing, can also be shallowrotation preparation, to create a good seedbed and base for wheat growth.
2 wheat tillage should be based on the combination of increased year by year to enhance topsoil, Organic fertilizer To improve the retention of water and fertilizer, based on land preparation, according to the different forms of multiple cropping. That is before harvest earlier, such as spring corn , sorghum And tobacco, the harvest should first tiller, and deep tillage stubble Kang soil, the decay and acceptance of rain, rain shallow harrow, reduce evaporation; another kind is like Sweet potato , cotton So, the harvest time, if using conventional method would bungle sowing date, this is Southwest region One of the important reasons for low yield of wheat. Therefore, the implementation of a later row soil moisture before wheat farming and fine leveling; on the other hand advocate digging potatoes, flat, fertilizing and seeding and continuous operation, to ensure the timely sowing of wheat.
Minimum tillage, no tillage and semi dry cultivation
1 minimum tillage and no tillage of the minimum tillage, no-tillage That is with the traditional tillage, reduced tillage times, reduction in the soil strength, and for the field of wet soil
 Wheat Wheat
Farming difficult, sticky, and easy to damage soil structure The wheat fields, to avoid unnecessary or even harmful to wheat farming, so this is a technique of soil development and improvement. According to the growing wheat after rice No tillage research, its production mechanism can be summarized as follows.
(1) good soil structure and moisture holding not disturb no tillage Layer Keep the original pore, paddy soil, avoid wet puddling phenomenon caused by tillage. No tillage compared with conventional tillage, soil bulk density was 1.15 ~ 1.20 and 1.34 ~ 1.40, water, gas and coordination.
(2) to improve Sowing quality In the premise of ensuring the timely sowing, due to land leveling, to dig nest or furrow planting on demand, implement the standard, to avoid the rough rotten caused by deep plowing seeds, seeds, seeds exposed to Bush, Qi Miao, Miao Miao Zhuang, even.
(3) developed root system, strong lodging resistance of soil structure is good, conducive to root development and water. According to the survey, no tillage secondary root number per plant was 16% more than tillage; measured by 32P tracer filling stage, eighth days after labeling, pulse number higher than 63.01%.
(4) early seedling, yield free farming soil ecological environment better. When the seedling fast, early tillering, obvious growth advantage. In each growth period, leaf area index of no tillage were higher, photosynthetic ability, per unit area increased by 5 ~ 20%.
 Wheat corn planter Wheat corn planter
On the orientation of the (4 years) since, on succeeding rice without the occurrence of adverse effects, but how the relationship after long term no tillage and soil fertility, pests and diseases, should continue to carry out exploration. In addition, many weeds in no tillage field, later also easy Tuofei, so measures should be appropriate.
2 semi dry cultivation of wheat in semi dry cultivation is an important part of natural no tillage paddy field. It is in the semi dry rice harvest, using the original ridge modification after sowing wheat. Under wet and muddy fields car width of 170 ~ 200cm, is generally 27 ~ 40cm, width 33 ~ 40cm, 27 ~ 33cm deep groove. With rice stubble mulching and furrow mud and fertilizer after drying for 1 ~ 2 days after sowing, and dry stool or fine soil cover for slag. During the wheat growth period, to maintain a certain level (from the early in the car surface 12 ~ 15cm, late 18cm), so that the ridges are not dry, not only conducive to the growth of wheat, but also can ensure the timely planting of rice, is Winter paddy field An effective way to improve the utilization of.
The production level of wheat drought, generally up to 70 ~ 80% under dry conditions, the individual soil type is higher than dry level, so in the southwest provinces have been planted in large area. The reason of high yield, in addition to part with the same minimum tillage and no tillage, the prominent role lies in the change of the soil water and heat conditions. On the one hand to expand the depth of furrow of wheat roots of about 10 cm, and the ridges are transparent in good condition, and capillary rise of water, air coordination; on the other hand the furrow soil surface area increases, the day is relatively flat as temperature 1.2 to 2 DEG C, the maximum can reach 4 degrees, at night than the average decrease of 0.3 to 0.7 DEG C the soil, the light receiving area increased from about 200 to 400 square meters per mu. In good water, heat and gas conditions, promote microbial activity and organic matter The decomposition, improve soil fertility.
The semi dry cultivation fertilizer supply ability, early should be appropriate to control nitrogen, so as to avoid the increase of invalid tiller, but the latter easily Tuofei, it should be in the organic fertilizer on the basis of the supplement of nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer . In addition, semi dry cultivation as the ridge ridge, sowing fertilization work more, need to improve the degree of mechanization and other supporting technology, and improve the level of wheat production in low yield field.

Wheat High yield technology

One, pay attention to the selection of high fertilizer plots. High yield and high quality wheat variety of soil nutrient requirements must be comprehensive, sufficient to meet the needs of high yield, high productivity, so should choose good conditions to irrigated plots, organic fertilizer, using the technology of formula fertilization.
Two, pay attention to the appropriate period of late sowing, according to variety characteristics, determine the appropriate The basic seedling . To prevent the sowing amount is too large, resulting in post passive management.
Three, pay attention to prevent lodging, heavy and jointing fertilizer. High quality wheat variety extension, some lodging, especially for large groups of wheat, in turning green to jointing before a control treatment, can be sprayed Paclobutrazol Or maiyefeng. To return and jointing fertilizer, formed under the control of excessive gleaning, promote large panicle.
Four, pay attention to good grouting water pouring, Wheat yellow Spraying. Leaf fertilizer To prevent premature. Pour good grouting water, to increase grain weight, prevention Dry hot wind There is an important role. The weather is dry, the use of wheat yellow, it is good for crop interplanting, prevent premature aging. In mid May, with pest control, spraying 2 ~ 3 times of foliar fertilizer, such as 0.2% to 0.3% Potassium dihydrogen phosphate And can reduce the harm of dry hot wind, obvious yield increasing effect.
Five, pay attention to pest control. Generally high quality wheat more vulnerable to pests and diseases, such as wheat sharp eyespot , powdery mildew, aphids occurred earlier and heavier than conventional varieties. According to the forecast, early prevention.
In six, wheat flowering before the break, [just] about 60-70% (pictured below) when spraying time Wheat treasure The activation of enzyme activity in wheat, and promote the coordinated development of male and female organs, enhance the function of leaf photosynthesis, reduce yield significantly, improve seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight, so as to achieve the effect of increasing production.

Wheat Drought resistance and yield

The depth of tillage, the soil water storage. Deep plowing can break the plow, increase water permeability, increase water storage capacity, and can promote and expand the scope of root tie root absorption, improve water and fertilizer use efficiency. But the roots must be according to local conditions, generally in the preparation early, more precipitation, moisture foot year should be deep plowing, tilling depth of 22 - 25 cm, then, after plowing harrow plow flat; after tillage rains, often because the soil is not real and serious water. Practice has proved that dryland wheat in 3 - 4 years, with deep enough moisture for a year, after treatment 2 - 3 years, can achieve the purpose of deep soil, and increased soil moisture sink opportunity is an important measure to increase the wheat drought.
Fertilizer and water by fertilizer. Dryland wheat to organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer formula applied enough, especially to apply sufficient fertilizer to improve soil fertility, improve the utilization of water and fertilizer and water capacity rate. General land per mu organic fertilizer 2500 - 3000 kg, 50 kg of the ammonium bicarbonate and calcium superphosphate, and appropriate fertilizer fertilizer and fertilizer; if fertility is poor, but in three or four years of continuous application of standard 40 - Mu n 60 kg, 50 kg p - 100. In the high yield wheat, may adopt the "fertilization method shelling", will all the fertilizer applied in the soil with tillage once as base fertilizer, the nitrogen fertilizer should be appropriate fertilizer deep application, shallow application, in order to cultivate seedlings before winter.
The crackdown, the reduction of water evaporation. In the wheat single ridge stage repression can increase the secondary root number per plant, improve the water absorption capacity of the plant, destroy the surface of capillary, reduce evaporation.

Wheat The common diseases and prevention methods

The harm of wheat diseases: Wheat stripe rust , leaf rust, stem rust, fishy Smut Loose smut, yellow dwarf, red dwarf disease, Take all disease Mildew spot disease, etc.. A pest wheat aphid , Wheat flies , Sitodiplosis mosellana Red spider, Leafhopper And grub, Wireworms Cricket, Wheat sawfly , Meromyza saltatrix Etc..
(1) timely clean the canal excavation of deep groove improve field a ditch, row down the dark water stains, do everything possible to reduce farming layer of stagnant water is the main target of waterlogging control in wheat. Deep groove canal on long-term disrepair to silt dredging, lift the field lowering underground water, prevent winter frequent rain or heavy rain too much for drainage, do Shuijin Tian Gou smoothly. At the same time in the "three" package, or wheat paddy field dryland wheat must open ditch, ditch, ditch ditch waist, be connected, all through the rain field dry, not waterlogged, dark one, a large area of contiguous planting irrigated wheat advocate.
(2) fertilizer on waterlogging heavy crop, early application of skillfully relay fertilizer, heavy fertilizer fertilizer in jointing booting, upgrade and promote seedlings. Winter increased application of organic fertilizer such as heat, slag fertilizer, pig manure, cow dung, straw ash, miscellaneous horse, human excrement and ditch. The fertilizer phosphorus potassium, conducive to root development, strong stalk, reduce damage.
(3) soil moisture temperature around the hoe. To enhance the permeability of the soil, promote root development, increase tillering, seedling cultivation. His hoe can promote seedling growth, accelerate the growth of the seedlings transformed, wheat spike, grain growth and yield increase.
(4) supporting leaf disease. Rust, scab, powdery mildew in time after spraying control, in addition to the "802" spraying mepiquat chloride, plant resistance, fertilizer, harvest yield agent Jiamu Huimanfeng, promoting Feng Bao and Wan Jiabao. It can spray "plant power 2003" 10ml of water 10L, every 7 ~ 10 days 1 times, continuous spray 2 times. To promote application of rare earth are pure nutritional agent, every 50g to 20 ~ 30L water spraying effect is good.
Prevention and cure rust
Agricultural control: A. local planting resistant varieties, varieties that reasonable collocation and rotation, which is the basic measures for the prevention and treatment of wheat rust, wheat rust disease epidemic races changes rapidly, different parts of the same period of popular little different, so you need to cultivate new varieties of anti epidemic races. B. regulating sowing date. As in Longnan, Gansu, Sichuan, Guan Zhong, the North China Winter Wheat Region, premature sowing. The early autumn sowing, slim rust occurred earlier and heavier, provides a source of bacteria for the local wintering. Therefore, the soil moisture under the premise, as far as possible not to early sowing. C. in tillage stubble and cultivation, eliminate volunteer seedlings, reduce the source of bacteria. D. making a reasonable layout of resistant varieties, cut off the source of bacteria propagation route. The south in the rain, in high humidity, is conducive to the development of rust, strengthen the drainage ditch can reduce the damage. E. reasonable and uniform fertilization. Control of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer reasonably, in order to prevent late maturing, rust damage aggravated. Especially in the lack of soil phosphorus and potassium fertilization area, these two kinds of chemical fertilizer, can reduce the damage of rust. F. strengthen forecasting, timely spraying disease control.
Chemical control: A. fungicides, reduce pathogenic bacteria. The autumn seedlings perennial heavy disease plots, 15% Triadimefon wettable powder 60 ~ 100 grams or 12.5% diniconazole WP every 50 kilograms of seeds with about 60 grams of dressing. Be sure to dry mix, stir, strictly control the dosage, concentration slightly affect seedling. B. control in field, in the autumn and spring, the field should be timely detection of the disease center, spraying control. If the disease leaves rate reached 5%, the severity of below 10% per mu, 15% Triadimefon wettable powder 50 grams or 20% Triadimefon EC per acre or 40 ml, 25% Triadimefon wettable powder per 30 grams, or 12.5% diniconazole WP medication 15 to 30 grams per acre, 50 ~ 70 kg of water spray or, on the water 10 ~ 15 kg of low volume spray. In the epidemic years if diseased leaf rate reaches above 25%, the severity of more than 10%, it is necessary to increase the dosage, depending on the severity of the disease, with more than 2 of the drug to 3 times the concentration of spray. The commonly used drug: Bayleton , diniconazole GKL, 3% wide, Lingshui dry agent.
Note: in the rust treatment early is best, if there is a pandemic situation, in addition to timely prevention of the serious occurrence of wheat, to application of chemical control on the surrounding light incidence and no incidence of wheat, in order to control the further spread of disease, reduce the loss.
pest control
Agricultural control: A. planting resistant varieties, especially with slow mildewing resistance (tolerance) varieties. In the regular intensive areas, resistance to varieties require higher, in general can lower incidence of B.; according to the reasonable density variety characteristics and crop fertility; C. by cultivation measures can reduce the incidence of right. For example, to pay attention to reasonable fertilization, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer increased properly. South China pay attention to drainage ditch in North China to make timely watering, vigorous growth, enhance the ability to resist disease. In addition, in the summer can volunteer seedlings area should volunteer seedlings in Wheat in autumn before trying to remove the field and yard, etc., in order to reduce the source of bacteria in autumn seedling.
Chemical control: in the cultivation of varieties resistant or resistant ability is weak, chemical control is the most important prevention measures. Key control is good growth, high yield and heavy disease areas and crop. The commonly used reagents: A. three oxazolone (Fen Xiuning), with the active ingredients of 8 grams per mu, spraying 1 times in wheat booting and heading stage, the general can control the disease harm, and can cure wheat rust. In the autumn seedlings in more areas, three Triadimefon seed dressing can effectively control the fall seedling condition, reduce the amount of bacteria in winter, and can cure all kinds of smut and rust in seedling stage. The dosage is 0.03% of the weight of seed dressing (active ingredient); B. Fengning, Zhi Baoning, etc. the control effect of Triadimefon compound, is also good, usage with the same three Triadimefon; C. three diniconazole (baytan), applied with the same three Triadimefon, the dosage is reduced by half; D. sulfur preparation 0.5 ~ 0.8 degrees, such as Baum LSSS, sulfur colloid 200 times liquid, 50% sulfur 0.5 kg per mu, these drugs generally need to spray 2 times, each time interval of 7 days, start spraying time should be earlier.
Note: in the powdery mildew treatment at the beginning of the best, if most of the onset of leaf, stem and spike, spraying basically no effect, mainly depends on the resistance of disease control of the breed itself, but the need to control the hazard diffusion disease.
Bunt, Take all disease And powdery mildew
Commonly used fungicides can control wheat smut, also can effectively control the occurrence and damage of wheat rust and powdery mildew, take all disease before winter, winter to reduce the amount of bacteria.
(1) loose smut, bunt, root rot, sheath blight, etc. all disease occurrence area, available for 40% of the weight of Wheat by 0.5% PCNB dosage dry mix (i.e. 40 grams per mu, with 8 kilograms of wheat), controlling wheat bunt; can also choose 6% tebuconazole (Ke Xiu) suspended agent a bag of water (10 ml), 0.8-1 kg, with 50-70 pounds, or 2.5% fludioxonil (Celest) suspension according to the recommended dose of wheat seed, at the same time can cure autumn seedling rust and powdery mildew; 15% Triadimefon wettable powder according to the seed weight of 0.2% or 20% with three fold 1 pounds 5 pounds of water by EC, with 500 pounds of wheat, powdery mildew, leaf rust prevention and control.
(2) take all of wheat occurred seriously, can choose 12.5% silthiopham (total net) suspension of seed treatment, a good control effect on wheat take all disease. With a bag of total net (20 ml), first 300-500 water ml, can mix 20-25 pounds of seeds, mix well after 6-12 hours stuffy (to kill the seed and agent to play with germs), dry in the shade after sowing.
(3) the occurrence area of wheat yellow dwarf and dwarf disease, can be used Imidacloprid Seed treatment, prevention of infection insect, occurrence and control of wheat yellow dwarf dwarf disease, and treatment of underground pests.
(4) a variety of diseases and insect pests occurred in the mixed zone, to vigorously promote the use of fungicides and insecticides composite seed coating or coating or treatment of seed dressing agent. The country should be based on the local species of important pests, select the appropriate formula seed dressing agent or Seed dressing agent The dosage is generally, compound (mixed) as effective components of single agent and agent when used alone.

Wheat Species classification

The following general classification method.
(a) in accordance with the division of wheat grain.
According to the different skin color of wheat, wheat can be divided into red wheat and white wheat, referred to as red wheat and white wheat. Red wheat (also known as red wheat grain) skin for deep red or red brown; white wheat (also known as white wheat grain) skin is yellowish white or milky white. The red and white wheat mixed together called hybrid wheat.
(two) according to the wheat grain quality Division
According to the grain quality of different wheat can be divided into hard wheat and soft wheat, referred to as hard wheat and soft wheat. The wheat endosperm structure closely, translucent, also known as the cuticle or vitreous endosperm; loose structure of soft wheat, a plaster shape, also known as the powder. When the wheat grain, which accounted for more than horn section 1/2, called cutin grain, for hard wheat when it is less than 1/2; keratin, called powder plasmid for soft wheat. A batch of wheat, according to the Chinese standard, hard wheat refers to the cutin rate of not less than 70% of the wheat; soft wheat flour quality refers to the rate of not less than 70% of the wheat.
(three) according to the classification of the planting season
According to the different sowing season, can be divided into spring wheat and winter wheat. Spring wheat is planted in spring, the summer Huoqiu two season harvest wheat; winter wheat, refers to the autumn and winter two season sowing, second summer wheat harvest.
New varieties of Wheat
  
Yumai 7
  
Miannong 6
  
Yangmai 12
  
Huaimai 16
  
Huaimai 18
  
Yumai 58
  
Yan Mai 8911
  
Gaoyou 503
  
Zhongyu 6
  
4589 Handan
  
Longmai 26
  
Dragon longfumai 10
  
Ning Nong No. 2
  
Jinmai 63
  
Dragon longfumai 8
  
Chuanmai 107
  
Anhui 8906
  
Annong 92484
  
Huaimai No. 17
  
No. 25 Xuzhou
  
Yumai 49
  
Yumai 51
  
Yumai 62
  
5316 Handan
  
Chuannong wheat 1
  
Chuanyu 14
  
Emai 12
  
Jingdong 8
  
Mianyang 28
  
Stone 4185
  
Wanmai 19
  
Wanmai 38
  
Changwu 134
  
Huaimai No. 14
  
Jimai 37
  
Jimai 38
  
Jinmai 47
  
Liaochun 10
  
Longmai 19
  
Lumai 15
  
No. 24 Mianyang
  
No. 26 Mianyang
  
Qinmai 8918
  
Too T15
  
Xinchun 6
  
Yumai 34
  
Yumai 41
  
Zheng Feng 3
  
No. 9 in Wheat
  
Zhongyou 9507

Wheat The main value

Wheat Medicinal value

[Medicine] part of the autumn harvest Ear Lay, drying, removing impurities from fruit, ripe fruit (wheat), immature fruits (floating wheat), dry spare.
[identification] characters of Caryopsis oblong, slightly pointed at both ends, long to 6mm, diameter of 1.5 ~ 2.5mm. The surface of yellow brown or yellow, slightly wrinkled, with a deep ventral central, apex with yellowish white pilose. A hard, white section, powder. Weak gas, light. Sometimes with goods not off and glume palea, net glume leathery, with sharp ridge, apex mucronate; lemma membranous, awn tip, palea thick papery, bromus.
The differential cross section: [] caryopsis pericarp and seed coat healing. Pericarp epidermis cell row, thick wall, flat week Biyou; pericarp cells middle series, thick wall; horizontal cell row, and pericarp epidermis and middle layer cells vertically staggered with pits; sometimes in the cell layer under visible duct cells. Testa brown, decadent in cell shrinkage, the residual cell square, visible lamellar texture. within endosperm The outer Aleurone layer The rest is rich. Starch grains The parenchyma cell.
Fruit powder white, yellow brown skin piece. Main features: the main starch grains into flat round, oval or round triangular shape, diameter of 30 ~ 40 m, lateral view is double lenticular, shell shape, width of 11 ~ 19 m, and both ends are sharp or blunt, umbilical point crack shape, complex particle minority, consisting of 2 to 4 or more grain. Horizontal cells into slender column, the length of 38 ~ 232 m, diameter 6 ~ 21 m, wall thickening with beads. Peel cells or long rectangular polygonal, long 64 ~ 216 m, diameter 16 ~ 42 m, beaded wall thickening. Peel the middle cell slender bar or irregular shape, wall thickening beads. Non glandular single cell, 43 ~ 950 m, diameter 11 ~ 29 m, the wall thickness is 5 ~ 11 M.
[chemical composition] seedlings containing Apigenin - di - C - acylglycosides, one of the new Sinapyl 8 is a glycoside D galactosyl 6 C arabinosylapigenin. In addition, it also contains Vicenin - 1.isoscha - ftoside, and schaftoside or their Galactose Radical isomers and dhurrin [Dhurrin 2 beta - D - glucopyranosyloxy - 2 (4 - hydroxyphenyl) 2S - acetonitrile]. Leaves and rod containing CH3 (CH2) 7CHO and its isomers of aldehydes and alcohols and other volatile substances.
The seed starch containing 53 to 70% protein, about 11%, sugar 2 ~ 7%, 2 ~ 10% dextrin, fat is about 1.6%, about 2% of crude fiber. The main fatty oil were oleic acid and linoleic acid, palmitic acid And stearic acid Glycerol ester . It contains a small amount of sitosterol, lecithin, Allantoin Arginine, amylase Maltase, protein, enzyme and trace vitamin B. wheat germ Contain the plant lectin.
[function] Chinese medicine taste sweet, cool. Wheat: Yangxin tranquilize the nerves, except vexed. Floating wheat: Qi, removing heat, sweat.
[indications] cure insomnia, hung up, women hysteria, irritability, spirit depressed Sad to cry. Floating wheat: cure Spontaneous sweating , night sweats, deficiency to heat.
[usage] Chinese medicine 30 ~ 60g, Shuijianbi; external wheat flour amount, apply hot fire.
[taboo] wheat flour pepper, Luo Fu Han wei .
Immature wheat can also be used as medicine to cure Night sweat Wheat; skin treatment Beriberi .

Wheat Nutritive value

Wheat is rich in starch, protein, fat, minerals, calcium, iron, Thiamine , riboflavin Niacin, and Vitamin A Etc.. Because of the variety and environmental conditions of different nutrients varied. See from the protein content in wheat grain quality, the growth of the continental arid climate region is hard and transparent, with a higher protein, up to 14 ~ 20%, gluten strong and flexible, suitable for baking bread; in wet conditions of wheat protein containing 8 ~ 10%, soft grain, gluten, visible when the influence of Qi the formation of the product is very important.
In addition to flour for human consumption, only a small amount used to produce starch, alcohol , gluten So, after processing by-products are of high quality livestock feed. The content of eating whole wheat can reduce blood circulating estrogen, which can prevent and cure Mammary cancer The purpose of; in menopausal women, eating unrefined wheat can relieve the symptoms of menopause syndrome.
Nutritional composition
The main component of wheat is a carbohydrate, fat, protein, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and niacin and other components, and a component of allantoin. In addition, wheat germ is rich in dietary fiber and vitamin E, a small amount of heart Arginine Sitosterol, amylase, Lecithin Protein and enzyme decomposition.
(each containing 100g)
Component name content
The edible part of 100
Cholesterol (0 mg)
Vitamin C (0 mg)
Sodium (6.8 mg)
Water (10 grams)
Ash (1.6 grams)
Vitamin E (T) 1.48 mg
Magnesium (mg) 4
Energy (317 kcal)
Vitamin A (0 mg)
A-E1.48
Iron (5.1 mg)
Energy (1326 kJ)
Carotene (0 mg)
(beta gamma) -E0.24
Zinc (2.33 mg)
Protein (11.9 g)
Retinol (0 mg)
Delta -E0.1
Selenium (4.05 micrograms)
Fat (1.3 grams)
Thiamine (0.4 micrograms)
Calcium (34 mg)
Copper (0.43 mg)
Carbohydrate (75.2 grams)
Riboflavin (0.1 mg)
P (325 mg)
Manganese (3.1 mg)
Dietary fiber (10.8 g)
Niacin (4 mg)
Potassium (289 mg)
Iodine (0 mg)

Component name content
The edible part of 100
Cholesterol (0 mg)
Vitamin C (0 mg)
Sodium (6.8 mg)
Water (10 grams)
Ash (1.6 grams)
Vitamin E (T) 1.48 mg
Magnesium (mg) 4
Energy (317 kcal)
Vitamin A (0 mg)
A-E1.48
Iron (5.1 mg)
Energy (1326 kJ)
Carotene (0 mg)
(beta gamma) -E0.24
Zinc (2.33 mg)
Protein (11.9 g)
Retinol (0 mg)
Delta -E0.1
Selenium (4.05 micrograms)
Fat (1.3 grams)
Thiamine (0.4 micrograms)
Calcium (34 mg)
Copper (0.43 mg)
Carbohydrate (75.2 grams)
Riboflavin (0.1 mg)
P (325 mg)
Manganese (3.1 mg)
Dietary fiber (10.8 g)
Niacin (4 mg)
Potassium (289 mg)
Iodine (0 mg)

Wheat Therapeutic value

Wheat bran and wheat germ is usually added to breakfast cereals or adding stuffing, pastry. The refined white flour and wheat germ or wheat bran mixture can increase the nutritional value of flour (1/4 cup 1/4 cup instead of wheat germ flour). In the vegetables and Fried Eggs volume Samai embryo can increase the nutritional value. Wheat germ can also be used to replace the cake and cookie nuts.
Coarse crushing wheat is small particles will be crushed into wheat. Before cooking must be soaked (1 cups of wheat with 2 cups of water, cooking time is 30~40 minutes). Coarse crushing wheat can be added to the bread dough, can also be a breakfast food or cream dessert.
Students must first cereal soak for several hours before eating, and then cook for about 1 hours, every cup of oatmeal with 2 cups of water. The nutritional value of cooked cereal depends largely on wheat and refined cooking process. The way to obtain raw oatmeal rolled oats and the same, will put in the polished grains.
Suitable food: blood deficiency, heart palpitations, upset, insomnia, yawn like sad to cry, beriberi, peripheral neuritis, asthenia, spontaneous sweating, sweating, sweating in patients suitable for consumption. In addition, the woman back to the milk is also suitable for human consumption.
Diet: diabetes and other diseases are not suitable for food.
The new wheat heat, Chen Mai ping. Wheat peeled and red bean porridge eating can stomach fluid, to edema, it can remove heat, only polydipsia, dry throat, diuresis, nourishing qi, stop the leakage of blood spitting blood, can make the woman is pregnant. Nourishing Qi, people who have heart disease suitable for consumption. It will be suffering into soup to eat, can cure gonorrhea . To end use, can kill Ascaris Chen Maijian, a soup drinking, can also stop sweating. It will burn into ash, mixed with oil, can be coated with the cure of all sores and burns and scalds.
Wheat : The main Qi and removing heat, stop sweating. For adults and children tuberculosis hot, hot women work.
Noodles: The tonic, long time consumption, the muscular strength, raise a stomach. It can nourish the spirit, to supplement, contribute to the five internal organs. Will it and the water transfer service, can be treated Heatstroke The horse lung heat disease. It will be deposited in the carbuncle sores, can dissipate blood and pain.
Wheat bran: Attending Plague And heat Sore Soup fire ulceration, sore injuries or broken blood stasis, with vinegar and bran fried, can be affixed to the affected area. It will be used for ironing and steaming with vinegar after rheumatism Arthralgia Cold, beriberi, alternately until sweat, the effect is very good. It will take research into the end, can stop sweating. Human body pain and sore festering, or out of a child in summer, can not sleep can fester, clip suture to cushion mattress containing wheat bran, wheat bran by nature Cool and soft, it is really a good method.
Flour: Buzhong Yi Qimai, attending, and adjust the internal organs, meridian. Fry flour and take a bowl of soup, can stop diarrhea. The flour and vinegar boiled paste, can eliminate all the pain and swelling, fire injury soup.

Wheat Ornamental value

The wheat can be used as cut flowers, decorated in flowers, can also be used with wood flower arrangement.

Wheat Storage storage

Wheat Storage principle

The afterripening. General semi winter wheat ripening period is 60 - 70 days after ripening period of winter wheat for 80 days in the ripening period, strong seed respiration, the release of carbon dioxide and water continuously, cause the seed surface wetting. To this end, not completed after ripening of wheat seed, storage stability is poor, measures must be taken to accelerate the completion of the after ripening stage.
Dry air, oxygen and sunlight exposure, are conducive to seed ripening.
The resistance to heat. Not completed after ripening of seed has strong heat resistance, moisture content in more than 16% of the wheat seeds, as long as the temperature within a short period of time does not exceed 50 degrees, dry, will not reduce the seed germination rate. The wheat seed is based on the principle of heat into the warehouse.
However, completed after ripening of wheat seeds, the thermal resistance decreased significantly, if the high temperature treatment, it will affect the seed Therefore, the germination rate, has been completed, with a high moisture content after ripening Samick wheat seed, should use the method of sun drying, and high temperature drying can not be dry, but not the seeds in storage heat treatment.
The hygroscopicity. Wheat seed moisture absorption, moisture absorption rate, easy to absorb moisture in the air, especially when air humidity, the moisture content of seeds increased.

Wheat Storage method

The heat in dense storage .
In the summer high temperature, sunny weather, the sun will Maiwen to around 50oC, continued for more than two hours, the water dropped to below 12.5%, to 3 in the afternoon after the heap, while hot into the warehouse, bulk warehouse cover closed, the grain temperature above 40oC for 10 days, before the death of the sun and the the worm died, according to the situation, can continue to be closed, can be converted to ventilation.
The frozen .
The use of low temperature in winter, turning the warehouse, cleaning, frozen, will Maiwen down to 0oC, and then take advantage of cold closed, to kill overwintering pests in maidui, has a good effect, but the low temperature of the maidui, warm air to prevent contact to avoid maidui surface condensation.
The nature of hypoxia .
The wheat harvest during high temperature drying, if timely rainfall to below 12.5%, the grain temperature is higher, the characteristics of strong physiological activity during the ripening period of film sealing, achieve natural maidui hypoxia State, harm to suppress pests, for next year, Chen Mai, the auxiliary reduction of oxygen, or carbon dioxide or nitrogen filling method for pest control in storage.
The drying sealed .
As long as they meet the requirements of the storage of wheat, you can bulk warehousing, cover closed, to prevent moisture and pest breeding, which is particularly effective to suppress cerealella breeding in high temperature season should pay attention to pest control, cool autumn after positive ventilation, uncovery cool moisture; strengthen the gland or closed after spring, to keep the grain dry at low temperature without insects. In short, only to take scientific storage and storage methods, in order to ensure the normal life characteristics of wheat.

Wheat Quality standard

Wheat grain texture soft, just a key index to evaluate the wheat processing quality and edible quality, and is closely related to many aspects of wheat breeding and trade price. Hardness is one of the important basis for classification of domestic wheat market and pricing, one of the breeders is the national important breeding objectives.
Wheat hardness is defined as the resistance by grain crushing, crushing the grain needed to force. The appearance and texture of wheat endosperm (transparency) are two different concepts. The hardness is composed of endosperm cells and starch protein matrix between the bonding strength of the decision, combined with the strength of the genetic control. In wheat, between the cell contents closely. Soft wheat endosperm cell contents of starch and protein in appearance and wheat is similar, but the binding between protein and starch is easily broken, soft wheat starch granule surface adhesion has more molecular weight 15K Dalton protein, starch grains and the surface of hard wheat protein content is less or not and starch granule proteins exist in the physical to weaken the bonding strength between protein and starch, the assumptions about the wheat hardness is more acceptable for cereal chemistry theory explanation. Wheat endosperm appearance (transparency) affected by wheat cultivation, growth and dry condition and other factors, is not hereditary. There is air gap in grain, due to diffraction and diffuse light, which makes the grain appear opaque or silty. The grain filling closely, no air gap, the light in the air and the grain boundary diffraction and through the formation of translucent glass grains. The air gap in the grain is due to the drying process in the field of protein shrinkage, rupture. Grain drying, shrinkage of glass grain protein remained intact and the formation of greater density of grain, so the more transparent. Generally speaking, hard wheat high protein is often glassy, soft wheat low protein is often opaque. Due to the transparency and hardness is not the same fundamental factors, the two are not always associated. Sometimes, may be completely opaque and hard wheat soft wheat is Horny The whole wheat grain is horny moist, and fast drying, the wheat into flour and plasmid characteristics before and after the test of wheat hardness basically unchanged.
 Wheat Wheat
Wheat milling quality and grain hardness is closely related. The changes of wheat hardness can make the system of wheat milling process in quantity and quality, the working efficiency of the equipment, the wheat yield and flour quality, processing power consumption has a great change. Hard wheat starch granules and protein matrix and dense structure of hard wheat grain endosperm (slag) in heart grinding system is difficult to achieve by grinding particle size, grinding energy more, but the endosperm separated easily from wheat bran, high flour yield, wheat bran, good color star, ash content Low, and crushed along the endosperm cell wall The direction of rupture and not through cell inclusions, the formation of larger particles, coarse powder with relatively regular shape, good fluidity, easy screening; soft wheat in wheat flour particles are small and irregular, rough surface, small particle size distribution and there are many small, soft wheat flour and flour of intermediate material is more fluffy small, compactness, poor mobility, easy to cause the powder road jam, sifting efficiency Worse, the total flour extraction rate decreased, the comprehensive performance for the processing of soft wheat yield decreased, total consumption increased, increasing the difficulty of operation and management. Wheat milling process and the corresponding technical parameters of the equipment is usually based on the hardness range of raw wheat to be processed to determine the hardness change of milling process to determine the scope of raw wheat has great limitations. Therefore, the pre determination of wheat hardness, for the timely adjustment of milling process and the corresponding technical parameters, determine the wheat blending scheme, maintain material balance and stable production process, improve production efficiency, has an important guiding significance.
Method for the determination of wheat hardness with horny rate method, pressure method, grinding method, near infrared method.
The new national standard "wheat" (GB 1351 ~ 2008), will be officially implemented in May 1, 2008.
The new national standard "wheat" is to meet the needs of the development of wheat production and circulation, organized by the National Food Authority concerned expert And the coordination of various departments in the 1999 edition of "wheat" national standard revision form. The main contents of a revision of the standard is to modify the classification inspection method of wheat, will change sensory inspection for equipment inspection, established Chinese wheat hardness classification evaluation system. Two of the wheat classification was simplified, the new standard in the classification of Wheat by 9 changed into 5 categories according to the classification, cancel the original winter and spring sowing. Three is the appropriate relaxation of secondary wheat imperfect grain restrictions, consistent with the international standard. The four is to increase the labeling requirements, stated in the packaging or accompanying documents in wheat variety name and category, grade and origin and harvest time for wheat, product traceability.
Stressed that the National Food Authority, national standards of wheat is a mandatory national standard, according to the requirements of China relevant laws and regulations, mandatory standards must be implemented, do not meet the mandatory standards of products, prohibit the production, sale and import. In wheat production, acquisition, storage, processing, sales and other links must strictly implement the national standard of wheat. On the implementation of the national standard of summer acquisition in this year will focus on supervision and inspection of the implementation of the new standards, not the behavior, according to the relevant regulations severely punished.
News analysis: why should the implementation of the new national standard of wheat?
Xinhua news agency, Beijing, April 30, issued by the State Administration of Quality Supervision Inspection and quarantine, the National Standardization Management Committee approved the new national standard of wheat will be officially implemented on May 1, 2008. The implementation of this standard will make the world China wheat and wheat country standards tend to be consistent, to ensure the acquisition of wheat quality inspection objective and fair, plays an important role in protecting the interests of farmers, will have a positive impact on the improvement of wheat flour quality.
The new national standard of wheat is conducive to the protection of the interests of farmers, improve the quality of wheat flour. One of the main contents of the revision of the national standard of the wheat is to modify the wheat classification test method, the sensory test to test instrument. The wheat classification equipment inspection, so as to maximize the elimination of human error caused by the sensory inspection, to ensure the acquisition of wheat quality inspection objectively and impartially, plays an important role in protecting the interests of farmers, to further promote the optimization of wheat quality, promote the quality of wheat production, guide the price of wheat, improve the processing quality of wheat flour will also produce positive impact.
The new wheat national standards with international standards, is conducive to promoting the development of production and trade of wheat. The new standard in the analysis of Chinese wheat quality survey data on the basis of established Chinese classification of wheat hardness evaluation system. More than 3500 wheat samples of National Grain Bureau organized experts in 2006 and 2007 collected over 8 wheat producing provinces to conduct a comprehensive inspection system, the analysis has made a lot of data on the basis of the relevant experts, the main wheat producing provinces and relevant departments of the state to fully discuss consultation, determine the hardness index greater than or equal to 60 for wheat that is less than or equal to 45 for soft wheat, intervening for hybrid wheat. Overall, this will promote the development of production and trade of wheat, and actively with the international standards.
The new national standard of wheat to guide the production and pricing of high-quality wheat, promote the further optimization of China wheat quality. According to reports, compared with wheat production and export country in the United States, Chinese standard hardness index 60 corresponds to the American "wheat", the lower limit to the United States hard wheat classification. From the China imported wheat inspection data in recent years, the United States and Canada wheat hardness index was 70 ~ 75, the Australian wheat hardness index was 65 ~ 70, France Wheat hardness index of around 60. In recent years, China wheat hardness index of more than 70 of the proportion has gradually increased, compared with the implementation of the new standards will facilitate Chinese wheat and imported wheat quality, to promote the China wheat quality was further optimized, to guide the production and quality of wheat Chinese reasonable pricing will play an important role.

Wheat market price

The national development and Reform Commission, the State Grain Bureau, Ministry of Finance and other departments jointly issued the "2016 implementation of the minimum purchase price of wheat and rice plan".
A, wheat
1, the minimum purchase price of wheat (three) 50kg/118 yuan.
2, the main producing areas of Jiangsu, Anhui, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Hubei province 6.
3, the execution time: in May 21st of that year to September 30th.
4, standard: GB (GB1351-2008) three wheat.
1) hard white wheat hardness index is more than 60, soft white wheat hardness index less than or equal to 45, the seed coat of white or yellowish white grains were more than 90%.
2) hard red wheat hardness index is more than 60, soft red wheat hardness index less than or equal to 45, the seed coat of deep red or reddish brown grains were more than 90%.
3) the specific quality index standard for bulk density: 750g/L = <770g/L; the water is less than 12.5%; the impurity is less than or equal to 1%; the imperfect grain is less than or equal to 8%.