The Rio Grande

The rivers of southern North america. Rio Grande del Norte Spanish (or in the territory of Mexico called Rio Bravo or Rio Bravo) del Norte. The source is based at the mountain, to the East, the south, along the borders of Mexico for the United States, and finally flows southeast into the Gulf of Mexico.
The Rio Grande

The Rio Grande brief introduction

The Rio Grande Grand River
The rivers of southern North america. Rio Grande del Norte Spanish (or in the territory of Mexico called Rio Bravo or Rio Bravo) del Norte. The source is based at the mountain, to the East, the south, along the borders of Mexico for the United States, and finally flows southeast into the Gulf of Mexico. 3030 km long, the valley area of 570 thousand square kilometers. In the Mexican border of Bravo river. The downstream navigable, but according to the international shipping agreement, closed. Most of the flow through the dry area, sparse vegetation. Over the summer rain, the river sediment concentration is high, often forming a flood. There are vegetable farms and citrus gardens in the Fertile delta region. The main city along the river is in the United States Albuquerque Paso, Mexico and Matamoros etc..
 Sketch map of the Rio Grande position Sketch map of the Rio Grande position
North America The fifth longest river in the United States and Mexico border. Mexico person Rio Bravo del Norte . From the United States The state of Colorado The Rocky Mountains of southwest of San Juan hill. Flows southeast into the Gulf of Mexico. 3030 km long, the valley area of 445 thousand square kilometers. From the source to the El Paso (United States) and Juarez (ink) for the upper reach, acceptance into a series of high mountain snow, cutting gorge, clear flowing water. From El Paso Presidio in the middle reaches of the river. Texas The formation of a large bay, the scenery is spectacular, with Grand Bay National park. The dry climate, scarce tributaries. Plessi Dio following downstream, mainly through the Great Plains and Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, tortuous flow slowly, forming a typical estuary Delta . In summer rain, flood period from 6 to November. The river is dry climate areas, sparse vegetation, large sediment content, small river estuary the average annual flow of 77 cubic meters per second, is an important source of irrigation water in the downstream.
 Chisos mountains flowed through the desert of the Rio Grande Chisos mountains flowed through the desert of the Rio Grande
According to the length of Fifth North American river, twentieth of the world. The river forms the boundary of all States of Texas and Mexico in the territory of Mexico, called the North Bravo river. The whole basin area of about 870000 square kilometers (336000 square miles). Because most of basin is arid or semi-arid regions, so the total area of only about half, or about 455840 square kilometers (176000 square miles), in fact the water flows into the river. The Rio Grande originated in the United States of Colorado, the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 3700 meters (12000 feet) above the mountain, the source for the clear snow, down through the prairie and desert, irrigate fertile agricultural areas, and finally into the Gulf of Mexico, a total length of 2830 kilometers (1760 miles).

The Rio Grande Natural features

The Rio Grande from southwestern Colorado San Juan Mountains The source, in the territory of Colorado to the southeast and south of 282 kilometers (175 miles), continues south through The state of New Mexico About 756 kilometers (470 miles) to the southeast, Texas in the United States and Mexico, Chihuahua, C Avila (Coahuila), Nuevo Leon (Nuevo Leon), Tamaulipas (Tamaulipas) between the states of flowing about 1996 km (1240 miles), into the Gulf of Mexico.
The main tributaries of the Rio Grande Becks in the United States (Pecos), de Wells River (Devils), Chama River (Chama) River and the F Elco River in Mexico province (Perco); Konjos (Conchos), Salado River (Salado) and San Juan river. The peak may appear in 4 to 10 months in any month. Upstream due to snow melting and occasional thunderstorms, flood often occurs in May or June, the downstream because of the summer rain, high water level generally occurs in June or September. It is estimated that the annual average in the Rio Grande water is about 3 billion 200 million cubic meters (2 million 600 thousand feet), the upper Rio Grande city built in 1953 Falken (Falcon) before the dam, about 1/3 into the Gulf of Mexico; now the average flow of the river is about 85 cubic meters per second (3000 cubic feet / sec).

The Rio Grande Economics

The population and the increase in water consumption for the United States and Mexico have a water Treaty (1905 ~ 1907; 1944 ~ 1945). Similarly, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas signed on with the Rio Grande upstream watershed (area above Fort Quitman Fort Quitman site of Texas) water "agreement" (1939), the New Mexico and Texas signed on Texas Girvin (Girvin) above " The Pecos River Agreement "(1948). The Rio Grande River upstream is mainly due to an average of 3 million feet above - water production (including according to the agreement assigned to Mexico - 60 thousand feet) are basically in the sub watershed consume. Not only in the downstream cuite fort, and to Texas from New Mexico - Colorado border Brownsville (Brownsville) many of the downstream have dried up in different periods. The water depth in some areas from 18 meters (60 feet) to trickle or anhydrous. In the lower Rio Grande as Fort Quitman The Joss River hole And other rivers in Mexico and full of vitality. The Joss river is a tributary of the Rio Grande hole is the most important, the total water supply more than 1/6, plus other rivers in Mexico, available water produces about 2/3.
The main reservoir basin of the lower Rio Grande Falcon reservoir, Lake Toronto hole Joss River (by boquilla dam La Dam, New Mexico Boquilla interception) on the Rio Grande village of Xiangshan reservoir, the San Juan Mar Tai Gomez (Marte Gomez) reservoir and the Salado River on Venus Nobel - Carranza (Venustiano Carranza TIA) dam. In the downstream Deweier Adams River confluence of the Amistad dam International (Amistad Dam) in 1969, according to the provisions of the Treaty of complete mexico. The Great Basin Hydropower generation.
In addition to the upstream irrigation benefit areas, the Rio Grande also provides approximately 850000 hectares of farmland irrigation water (2100000). More than half of the land in the territory of Mexico irrigation benefit. The main crops are Colorado irrigation and cultivation of potato and alfalfa, southern New Mexico, Texas, El Paso (El Paso) in Mexico and Ciudad Juarez (Ciudad Juarez) in cotton, pecan and grapes, as well as Texas and Tamaulipas delta downstream of the Rio Grande area of citrus, cotton and vegetables.
After the main industry of agriculture and animal husbandry of the Rio Grande area is mining (oil, natural gas, coal, uranium ore, silver, lead, gold, potash and gypsum) and entertainment (national and state parks and protected areas, holiday ranch, rafting sports, fishing and hunting, summer and winter resort). Mexico city of Monterey, Chihuahua, Saltillo, Ciudad Juarez (Saltillo), Matamoros (Matamoros), Guadalupe (Guadalupe), Larido (Nuevo Laredo), Reinosa (Reynosa) and San Nicolas; the United States of New Mexico, Bukwiki (Albuquerque) and Texas, El Paso, Larido and Brownsville.

The Rio Grande The main tributaries

The Rio Grande river is an international river flows through Mexico and the United States, originated in the United States The state of Colorado San Juan (San Juan) County in the foothills of the Rockies, from north to south through New Mexico to El Paso (Mexico side of Ciudad Juarez) to the southeast, to become the United States and Mexico circle (Mexico called the river for the North Bravo River), in Brownsville (Mexico side Matamoros) into the Gulf of Mexico. The length of 3034km, watershed area of 470 thousand square kilometers. The United States accounted for about 230 thousand and 500 square kilometers, 239 thousand and 500 square kilometers of Mexico. The border river length 2019km. Laredo Tx station measured annual runoff of 3 billion 900 million cubic meters, annual runoff ranged from 8 billion 700 million to 1 billion 200 million cubic meters.
In Colorado, a tributary of Cornejo J River (Conejos) and Ala Moosa (Alamosa) River, a tributary of New Mexico Prefecture in Chama (Chama) into the river, Jemez River (Conejos) and Pueko (Puerco) River; tributary in Texas with Pecos River (Pecos) and Defour Mars (Devils) River Konjos; in the branch of Mexico (Conchos) into the river, Salado River, Arrojos della Sola (Salado) (Arroy de lazorra), the San Juan River (Sun Juan), etc..
The Pecos river is the largest tributary of the Rio Grande, sousangerd originated in the Chris mountains, the eastern state of New Mexico, flowing Southwest Texas, finally in Langtry near to the Rio grande. The river is 1490km, watershed area of 91 thousand and 500 square kilometers.

The Rio Grande The river section

The rivers of southern North america. The source is based at the mountain, to the East, the south, along the borders of Mexico for the United States, and finally flows southeast into the Gulf of Mexico. 3030 km long, the valley area of 570 thousand square kilometers. In the Mexican border of Bravo river. The downstream navigable, but according to the international shipping agreement, customs
 The Rio Grande Valley Map The Rio Grande Valley Map
Closed. Most of the flow through the dry area, sparse vegetation. Over the summer rain, the river sediment concentration is high, often forming a flood. There are vegetable farms and citrus gardens in the Fertile delta region. The main city along the river is the United States of Albuquerque, Paso and Mexico Matamoros etc..

The Rio Grande Water conservancy project

The main reservoir basin of the lower Rio Grande Falcon reservoir, Lake Toronto hole Joss River (by boquilla dam La Dam, New Mexico Boquilla interception) on the Rio Grande village of Xiangshan reservoir, the San Juan Mar Tai Gomez (Marte Gomez) reservoir and the Salado River on Venus Nobel - Carranza (Venustiano Carranza TIA) dam. In the downstream Deweier Adams River confluence of the Amistad dam International (Amistad Dam) in 1969, according to the provisions of the Treaty of complete mexico. The Great Basin Hydropower generation.

The Rio Grande Environmental protection

The Rio Grande river diversion, often flooding continuously southward, leaving large alluvial plain, causing both countries compete for land conflicts. Although the two countries have signed the treaty in 1889, but the contradiction is not resolved, until in 1963 the two countries signed a new treaty, decided to build a channel, to prevent the river diversion from the root, cut the average cost borne by the two countries. In order to solve the problem of the rational use of the Rio Grande River in 1906 and 1944, the two countries have signed the treaty, to determine the fair allocation of water and water division principle. The provisions of the treaty, the United States pledged to Mexico every year 2 million 600 thousand cubic meters of water in drought irrigation system when a problem occurs, try to ensure the water supply of Mexico farmers receive no less than the U.S. farmers. The treaty also provides that the two sides jointly build the necessary engineering, proportion of project cost by countries. From the beginning of 1830s, the Rio Grande River Basin has built dozens of water conservancy projects, including large engineering branches in the Rio Grande built water conservancy index table. In addition, both countries still built downstream of the Rio Grande levees and floodway.
Albuquerque city plans to invest 150 million dollars on a drinking water project. The project will be from the Rio Grande River out part of the surface water, after the water treatment plant with advanced technology, delivery to the user.

The Rio Grande Related to the war

The Mexican American war, the history of the United States territorial expansion
War on the United States affectation after independence in 1776, by the European powers in Africa and Asia for the colony of the machine, big expansion in North america. In 1823, President James Monroe proposed that "America is the American people of the Americas" slogan, established the territorial expansion and dominate the basic national policy of america. Soon, the government's aggressive eyes fell to his neighbor country Mexico. 1835, Mexico, Texas and California, the United States immigration slave started an armed rebellion in the Mexico government sent troops to suppress, the United States has directly intervened, and support the Texas declared independence in the following year. In July 1845, President James Burke celebrated the crazy expansion officially announced the Texas incorporated in the United states. Almost at the same time, Polk again ordered general Zachary Taylor led an army quietly entered the Texas and Mexico at the junction of the Nueces River, to launch a war of aggression. In November of that year, Polk in Mexico should be returned to the US $3 million debt as a hostage, Mexico admitted that the Rio Grande river boundary between the two countries, in the United States between 15 million yen to 400 million dollars to "buy" in New Mexico and California, the government of Mexico was rebuffed. In May 13, 1846, the U.S. government declared war on Mexico, the Mexican American war broke out. War is just the trick to deceive the world, before the U.S. military action has already carried out more than 4 months.

The Rio Grande The related culture

South of the Rio Grande developed Latin American Civilization
Effect of Indians in south of the Rio Grande developed Latin American civilization is great. Unfortunately, this effect has not been fully investigated, because most of the research is focused on the reverse process is the Iberian culture on Indian influence. However, even if is incidental to the Latin American traveler, also must pay attention to the signs of the culture of Indian residue. For example, building a house with brick masonry, with no saw the pine logs for the draft article rafters. Similarly, the shoulders that blanket blanket Serap originated from the Indian tribe, with two blankets sewn together, the open collar made of D Pang Joe head is so hood. The Catholic Church in Rome generally believe in most parts of Latin America, is a mixture of Christian doctrine and practices and beliefs and habits of the indians. Although the local Indians have given up the names of the gods, but they put these characteristics of God assigned to the virgin Maria and the saints, expect Catholic in Pantheon these idols can like their deity, cure diseases, control the weather and keep them safe from harm -- they believe that their God ever done. In Latin American cuisine, may find Indian influence the most obvious signs. Dumplings, corn tortillas and spicy Levin of Indian was in two famous faba bean and maize as raw materials.

The Rio Grande Related films

The Rio Grande Movie information

Title: "No Country for Old Men for"
Translation: "no country for old men."
Director: Coen Brothers Ethan Coen & Joel Coen
Starring: Tommy Lee Jones Tommy Lee Jones
Javier Baden Javier Bardem
Josh Brolin Josh Brolin
Kylie Macdonald Kelly Macdonald
Type: Crime / Drama / Thriller
Running time: 122 minutes
R (level: heavy violence and language)
Paramount advantage Paramount Vantage
Release date: November 21, 2007 (USA)
January 18, 2008 (UK)

The Rio Grande synopsis

The story takes place in 1980 in Western Texas, the United States and Mexico at the junction of the Rio Grande, a poor and blank before the Vietnam War veteran Levilyn Moss (Josh Brolin ornaments) the number of dead occasionally found in hunting, and the production value of up to $2 million of heroin, obviously, is the result of gang war. Lei Lun Trading home to large sums of money, night, Lei Lun to wife Carla Jean (Kylie Macdonald) say goodbye and then back to the trading location, do not want this time is not so lucky, give yourself into trouble. A cold-blooded killer Anton Chigul (Javier Badenque), Sergeant Ed Bell (Tommy Lee Jones ornaments), Mexicans are looking for him......
This film reveals that "with the changing times, the law under the control of a harmonious society has changed, replaced by the rampant international drug dealings and wanton violence in the twinkling of an eye, in front of the community was as if a generation had passed, for those who live in old age people, the stability and the legal system has become the past.
Leo Grande (Rio Grande) River is the border of the United States and Mexico. It originated in the United States Kelaladuo Colorado, snow capped mountains, a total length of 3034 km, into the Gulf of Mexico by the United States of New Mexico and Texas, North America is the fifth longest river, the boundary of 2019 kilometers long; catchment area of 470 thousand square kilometers, of which the United States and Mexico. Almost half of each. Laredo Tx station measured annual runoff of 3 billion 900 million cubic meters. The basin is arid and semi arid areas, rainfall in 200 ~ 760 mm (estuary reach), mostly in the form of heavy precipitation.
The Rio Grande river often flooded, riverbed diverted southward, causing the contradiction between the two countries. In 1963, two of the river bed curing, cost sharing, in order to solve this problem. The basin belongs to water shortage area, the United States and Mexico respectively in 1906 and 1944 signed the Treaty of water, provisions of the United States each year to supply 2 million 600 thousand cubic meters of Mexico, Mexico farmers under severe drought stress the content of not less than American farmers.
In the north of the Rio Grande river is a town called Presidio, at least 600 years ago today, the town where people had been hunting and farming, but in recent years, there is land desertification and salinization, the surface covered with a layer of salt crust. Here, once surging to the Rio Grande river has become a slowly flowing Brown trickle; which swim in the summer often completely get rid of, because the upper reaches of the river in the urban and rural areas has. In fact, from 50s, the river will slowly become smaller; after 1978, once the flood did not happen; Presidio 300 kilometers above the bed just like bed. The River residents originally had water, irrigation and general enough for their land, but now no water or water or desirable, salt is too high can not use (such water in addition to long alfalfa, the other is not long). Local official American newspapers should always tell people: what time you can take the water the lawn.
Founded in 1915, is located in El Paso Elephant Butte dam and its downstream dam built sister has completely changed the situation of river, pumping out the water in the river. Although it has a small amount of muddy water source Texas Pecos and Rio Conchos originated in the Mexico two tributaries join the river, but the water is trapped downstream of the reservoir. When the river passes through the Big Bend National Park, the only history of water content of 1/6, and often stop.
In the Rio Grande Valley, there are 9 million people depend on its water resources, of which 80% of the water used for agricultural irrigation, agricultural irrigation water and most of water consumption for the production of most crops: cotton and alfalfa. Here the annual evaporation is 2000 mm, the evaporation of 1 years only Elephant Butte reservoir amounted to 300 million cubic meters. Usually, the Rio Grande river will trickle to reach its mouth, but since mid 1990s runoff drought makes the lowest record: 2001 2 to June photo shows that there is no estuary runoff, river sand exposed. The next two years, a repeat of the tragedy, you can even drive from Mexico across the river to the United States, no one doubts that the river has been in trouble. In the El Paso on both sides of the highway to Presidio, people everywhere farmers extraction of groundwater bags after the sale, but this is a temporary measure, because of not enough precipitation and surface water leakage, the aquifer has been drying up.
Located in the Rio Grande River south of Mexico worse. Such a shortage of water resources, so that waste water and saline water has become the main water resources of the people. The government is ready to lining channels to water, but not because of water seepage, groundwater extraction, so that the water aquifer eventually became worse. Here in Mexico area of 9000 hectares of irrigated area in Mexico has been the past Ojinaga very prosperous place, the water resources from Rio Conchos, farmers grow cotton and corn. But now due to water shortage and food Diaojia, farmers have to survive and get to the United states.
The Rio Grande river has a distribution agreement, which was signed on 1944, in northern Mexico, not many people live, so water is mainly Americans, and then more rain. Have 1/3 6 branches per year agreement originated in the Mexico water flowing into the river. The annual precipitation can be different, Americans are required to provide constant number of tributaries of the Mexico River to river runoff. It is not, Mexicans had to Americans on credit, while the year of water for a long time but also it again. So, American farmers quit, who will pay the loss this year our economy? Mexico farmers have been relying on "living by the water". Now, the two countries to negotiate a solution: Americans pay for Mexicans lining channels, the section water to the United States, in fact, the water content is roughly equivalent to the American water in Mexico. It sounds like a win-win idea, the Mexican water supply safety is improved, the United States also increased water availability. But in fact, not much water to produce lining, it is not the real water-saving, but lead to more serious groundwater extraction!