Songhua, also called pine flowers with yellow pollen . Namely Pine Masson The flowering, Pinus massoniana, Latin name: Pinus massoniana Lamb. Pinaceae , Pine The pine pollen is collected during flowering Pine pollen Sweet, warm, non-toxic. The main moist heart lung qi, in addition to the wind to stop bleeding, can also be brewing. Songhua, also called songhuang, Loose head General; people do not understand the characteristics of pine, pine is yellow cone and Songhua Be confused。 In fact, Songhua Is the spring bud at the Matsuki O branch Bud That is a kind of precious nutritious food raw materials.

Songhua Morphological character

Trees, up to 45 meters high, 1.5 meters diameter; bark red brown, lower gray brown, split into pieces of irregular squamous;
 Songhua Songhua
Branches spreading or oblique, crown wide tower or umbellate, branches grown every year round, but in the south of Guangdong is usually growing two rounds, light yellow brown, no pigment, rare white, glabrous; winter buds ovoid, cylindrical or cylindrical, brown, tip, bud scale margin filiform, apex acute or acuminate long tine, micro music. Conifer needles in bunches of 2, thin needles in bunches of 3, 12-20 cm long, slender, slightly distorted, both sides have stomatal lines, margin serrulate; cross section skin layer cells single layer, the first layer is composed of second consecutive individual cells intermittently arranged, about 4-8 resin on the back side,, there are also 2 or ventral edge; leaf sheath at the beginning of a brown, after gradually into the black, persistent. Male flowers reddish brown, terete, bent, 1-1.5 cm long, crowded on lower branches in bract axils, spicate; female flowers solitary or clustered shoots was born in 2-4 near the top, purple red, round or oval fruit annual ball, diameter of about 2 cm, brown or purple brown, the upper part of the umbo with pearl scale short thorn upright, blunt umbo lower ovuliferous scale unarmed. Cones ovoid or conical ovoid, 4-7 cm long, 2.5-4 cm in diameter, with short stems, drooping before mature green, cooked chestnut brown, gradually glabrescent; middle scales near oblong obovate, or nearly oblong, ca. 3 cm; placoid rhombic, slightly raised or flat, slightly obvious transverse ridge umbo, slightly concave, unarmed, was born in the dry environment often with short spines; seed ovoid, 4-6 mm long, with wings 2-2.7 cm long; cotyledon 5-8; 1.2-2.4 cm long; primary leaf shaped, 2.5-3.6 cm long, leaf margin with sparsely serrate bristles. Florescence 4-5 month, 10-12 month cone for second years.

Songhua Growth habit

 Songhua Songhua
In the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and its vertical distribution in an altitude of 700 meters below the altitude of 1100-1200 meters below the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in the west, located in 1500 meters below sea level.

Songhua geographical distribution

ecological environment 1: born in themountainous regions below 1500m. Born in 2 in 100-2600m altitude mountain. Three
 Songhua Songhua
Born in temperate coastal plain and hill. Born in 4 in eastern coastal areas.
Resource distribution: 1 distributed in Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and other places. 2 distributed in Northeast, North and northwest and Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu and other places. 3 located in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu. Cultivated in Nanjing area. 4 located in Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu, Wuhan, Nanjing, Shanghai; and Hangzhou, many are cultivated.
Produced in Jiangsu (Liuhe, Yizheng), Anhui (Huaihe Valley, the Dabie Mountains in South Western Henan, Shaanxi), south of Hanjiang River Gorge, the Yangtze River provinces, South Fujian, Guangdong, northern Taiwan low mountain and west coast, West Central Sichuan Daxiangling Dongpo, southwest to Guizhou, Guiyang Bijie and Yunnan funing. A Masson Pine Plantation in northern vietnam.

Songhua cultivation techniques

Light, deep rooted species, intolerant of shade, likes the warm and humid climate, born in arid, barren soil, stone soil and sandy soil, or in the rocks, the barren forest restoration pioneer species. Often composed of pure forest and secondary or oak, kalkora, rosewood and other hardwood mixed. In the fat, the deep sandy loam on rapid growth, poor growth or cannot be grown in calcareous soil, not salinity.

Songhua Masson

 Masson Masson
(1). The biological characteristics of subtropical plants, requirements: warm and humid climate, the annual average temperature of 13-22 degrees, more than 800mm annual rainfall area growth is good, low temperature area is not suitable for growth, resistant to drought, barren soil, not afraid of waterlogging, salt tolerance, likes sun and acidic soil, the best growth in the pH4.5-6.5 mountain.
(2). Cultivation techniques:
With seedling transplanting method: Masson cone In mid October to early December, choose the crown shape symmetry, straight stem, healthy, without disease, was born Xiangyang Lots of seed trees, pick the cones by stacking or heating and drying treatment, the seeds fall off. 2-3 month early sowing and seedling, nursery To select flat, sunny sandy loam, many spring plow and base fertilizer for high ridge furrow opener, 15-21cm high, 100-115cm wide strip surface pad by a layer of 0.3cm from ground mining following sieving yellow subsoil dug, the thickness is 0.5-1.0cm. Before sowing in 30 degrees warm water or cold water soaking 12-24 hours, go fishing float. For the prevention of disease, with 0.5% seed Copper sulphate After soaking 4-6 hours disinfection, or use 0.3% kinds of Formaldehyde Solution spray
 Masson Masson
After boring 30 minutes, choose cloudy sowing, soil surface cross ditch Drilling Ditch, distance 17-20cm, deep 0.5-0.8cm, after sowing covering soil, each 1hm2 seed 105-150kg, slightly crush immediately cover grass, to maintain the surface of bed wetting. Transplanting: 1 years after the seedbed cultivation, in 1 months, in late February to late transplanting, the spacing of 1.7m * 1.7m or 1m * 1.7m lhm2 3600-6000, each planted seedlings. Should be with the seedling with planting seedlings, to prevent water loss.
(3) field management:
After removing the cover of seedling emergence in the grass, and bird, often weeding, 5 months late, thinning, mid July. Dingmiao From 4-5cm, seedling, rain and drainage to prevent Damping off, transplanting the forest should maintain a reasonable density of pruning and thinning.
(4) pest control:
 Masson Masson
The main diseases of pine seedling Damping off disease (Rhizoctonia solani Kiiha.), can choose good drainage, loose fertile soil seedling, and available Fenaminosulf 15-22.5kg/hm2, or ferrous sulfate 225-300kg/hm2 prepared medicine soil applicator. The incidence of spraying Fenaminosulf 500-800 times liquid or benzalkonium bromide solution 5000 times. Is the main pest Pine caterpillar Available. Bombyx Batryticatus , Bacillus thuringiensis etc. Microbial preparation Control seedlings overwintering period available 1000-1500 times 50% or 50% marathon emulsion Agrothion Emulsion spray.

Songhua Chinese pine

(1). The biological characteristics of temperate plants, strong adaptability, drought, light and cold, can tolerate a low temperature of 25 DEG C. Born in the forest. Brown earth Brown soil and black soil acidity and micro oven, hi Neutral soil No, salt tolerance.
 Chinese pine Chinese pine
(2). Sowing cultivation techniques of seedling transplanting in spring and autumn, in spring as well. Sowing should be carried out before germination and disinfection. Seedbed seedling, length 10m, width LM, high 15-20cm. A distance of about 20m ditching, sowing, soil 3-7cm, 1-1.5cm, 1hm2 225-300kg slightly suppressed per sow.
(3) the field management of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings to drought resistance and waterlogging, frequently weeding, fertilizing early mainly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer after the late. The spring and autumn 2 year old seedling transplanting, hole spacing of 0.7-1.5m or 1.0m * 1.5m, lhm2 per plant seedlings 3600-6000 strain.
(4) pest control of seedling Damping off disease, seedbed available carbendazim disinfection, or sprinkling Fenaminosulf Every day, after the emergence of 7-10 injection 0.5%-1.0% equivalent
Bordeaux mixture or 0.5%-1.5% ferrous sulfate solution. A pest Dendrolimus labulaefqrmis Damage, larvae winter hunting, but also can be used Beauveria bassiana and Trichogramma Conduct Biological control .

Songhua Medicinal value

Songhua chemical composition

Masson Songhua flavour, pure and sweet, fat and rich in trace elements, containing the human body needs more than 10 kinds of minerals,
 Songhua Songhua
The content of potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, zinc, iron, selenium containing most; inhibition of tumor cell enzyme etc. Physiologically active substances And mediate the physiological function of hormones, enzymes and alkaloids etc.. Preserved since ancient times known as the immortality elixir, "compendium of Materia" Na, Songhua "run cardiopulmonary Qi, in addition to the wind, bleeding and other effects. Song dynasty Su The Song said: "the pound is indispensable, 82 Pollen Typhae Do not fry. Sophora japonica Xinghua five money, two kilos of white honey with Dao; eat good, bath or red face until the old." But after pollen technology for breaking, in order to achieve the desired effect.
The effect of dispelling wind and dampness, Qi, hemostatic, detumescence, detoxification. Can treat headache dizziness, diarrhea, diarrhea, eczema, eczema, prickly heat in children. The effect of trauma hemorrhage, animal bites, night blindness is also good. But the blood and heat clothing.
Oil containing pine pollen, and contains rich trace elements, the more content of potassium, magnesium and sulfur, manganese, zinc and iron. Pine Go to the hydrogen containing pollen Chorismate (dehydrochoismic acid) and a variety of enzyme malate synthase (malate synthase), acid phosphatase (acid phos-phatase), ISO Citric acid lyase (isocitrate lyase), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ester of glucose Transferase (hydroxybenzoate
 Songhua Songhua
Glucosyl transferase).
Processing: "materia medica words": baking. Current, from raw materials, removing impurities, slightly drying. Character: see identification item pieces. Dry storage container, a ventilated and dry place, anti damp agglomerate, moth.
Taste: sweet and warm;
Tropism: liver stomach;

Songhua Medicinal profile

 Songhua Songhua
Also known as the pine " .
Two Pine The flowers.
3 fingers Songhua wine .
The 4 fingers like yellow.
5 finger cones. Pine cones off, the wooden scales open as the lotus shaped, it said.
6" Preserved egg "The province said.
7" Pine pollen "The province said. Also known as the pine pollen pine flowers with yellow pollen That is collected from China Native tree species Pinaceae Botany Masson (Pinus Massoniana Lamb.) and Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) of the pure and dry pollen. Sweet, warm, non-toxic. The main moist heart lung qi, in addition to the wind to stop bleeding, can also be brewing.
8 Japanese Antiques Tea set . Leaves do Chinese Southern teapot, and matsushima, Three the sun and the moon And said the world from the three pot. Murata Juhikaru experience Oda Nobunaga , Toyotomi Hideyoshi Hand, finally spread to obari Tokugawa Home.

Songhua Indications function

Yiqi Qufeng; hygroscopic; hemostasis. The main headache and dizziness, diarrhea; diarrhea; eczema eczema;
 Songhua Songhua
Trauma hemorrhage
Usage: oral: decoction, 3-9g; or. External use: amount of dust dry or apply.
Note: blood deficiency, heat clothing.
1 "herbal medicine Yanyi Addendum": eat to the heat.
2 "Sichuan zhongyaozhi" 1960 Edition: weak constipation, drowning yellow jiyong.

Songhua textual research

Songhua, also called songhuang, Loose head . Most people do not understand the characteristics of pine, pine cones and a confused yellow pine. In fact, the spring bud of the Matsuki O branch Bud That is a kind of precious nutritious food raw materials. Li Shizhen Think: "long take that light therapy is better than bark, leaves, and fat." Every year in February and March, Flower As long as the best when the heart pumping.
The source, only contained in the " The newly revised materia medica ", said: the name Songhuang, Seoul is like blowing from pollen.
1 "map" that: the herbal flower powder name Songhuang, timely take as good brush mountain, the soup. But was stopped for a long time, so far to send fresh.
2 the "compendium" refers to: repair large multi section screw pine fall asleep, the skin is thick rent scale form, its leaves wither...... In March two, Rui smoke flower, four or five inches long, the flower for its production. Strong like a pig heart, folded into a scale built, autumn is old Long Scales. And that the leaf has two needle and three needle,
 Songhua Songhua
When not.
[name] S only N and Hu.
[alias] Songhuang, loose powder, pine pollen
Medicine based sources: Pinaceae pine, pine, pine pollen, Akamatsu etc..
Latin name: 1.Pinus massoniana plant animal fossil Lamb.2.Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.3.Pinus densiflora Siebet Zucc4.Pinus thunbergii Parl
Harvesting and storage: spring flowering during harvest dry rub, tassel, pollen, sieving, collection of fine powder, and then the sun.

Songhua The discussion

1 "compendium": people receiving flowers and white sugar cake for printing paste filling, fruit cakes, and hard for a long time, fear of light cure disease, not necessarily fat leaves.
2 "plant": an illustrated Dongcui Bi Ling Kanto pine stem, strong fragrant, is the fruit. Yongping There are.
 Songhua Songhua
Where the North Pine to long, multi section hard materials, as the pillars, through calling pine, summer internode juice overflow. Southern pine for Qiaoxin, prone to termites. But the water does not rot in Changchun. Yu Lou Nong said: "Ya": fir, pine cypress body. "Note": this temple Beam material The so-called "," sub body pine rats, I do not know the beauty of Tang dense fir and pine fir; heterogeneous ear cover. The carpenter's attack with a gray pine wood, Ponderosa Two. Grey pine prone, light speed rot, and by the salary, is also. Also, ponderosa pine, greasy, grain Kennedy, more rocks. The north big room, this is not equal to. I used to Lulong Shiyuan, view of the so-called pines, are hundreds of years, the body for stem spines, birun multi section, and the old cast of methylprednisolone scales. While traveling waves shake out, tall and straight, its shares are the hairpin, seven lie, means that the fir is. In Hunan dialect, called pine bushes, or made of bamboo slips, fir, pine, fir is a kind of fruit. Sturdy pine leaves with wooden barge, such as punch and characterization, but Yan, and Yunnan of liaoning. "Fanlu" to play for the fir cypress. Pine, leaves are different, "Yi" for two years, not class. Garden Court, temple dust omatsu Trichosanthes (i.e. teeth loose) sub pine, larch, pine feather, all pots several play, non pillar, the five doctor of Shu Nie ear.
 Songhua Songhua
Beyond the Great Wall Five Taiwan Have the skin with Larch, Mongolia tea. In the fall a wood, and the wood from the base, Kennedy barbed poison, can rot into meat. Parasitic double five or six inch White, smooth like jade, Microsoft and Kennedy, or useful for boots. There are white pine, straight stem branches, under the short length, such as at the pagoda, only light wood and non plastid, other family, is vary its shape. The pine pollen run heart lung and the effect of temper Ye The LORD: Songhua, run cardiopulmonary, food into the stomach, spleen dispersing essence and lose in the heart and lung. The sweet taste of Tonifying the spleen, spleen stomach temperature can, as for the fluid, lose in the heart and lung, so it can run heart lung. Yang Qi, tonifying liver temperature, Yin Yi also sweet temper. Liver wind, temperature scattered liver, so in addition to the wind. Splenic blood, sweet and spleen, so also bleeding. Can wine, fragrance Aromatic Also, for the wine. ("Materia Medica" solution) [note] the same plant pinus densata Pinus densata Mast. is located in Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet, Simao; P. kesiya Royle ex Gord. Var.langbianensis pine (A. Chev. Gaussen) distributed in Sichuan, Yunnan; Huashan pine P. armandi Franch. distributed in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet. The pollen in the region also preserved medicinal.

Songhua Identify

 Songhua Songhua
1 character identification
This product is light yellow fine powder, quality easy flying, hand twist is smooth, does not sink in water. Flavor, taste greasy feeling. With light yellow color, uniform fine, liquidity is better than the strong.
2 microscopic identification
Pollen elliptic, long 45-55 m, diameter of 29-40 m, the surface is smooth, both sides have an inflated balloon, 25-37 long m, wide 20-40 M. The outer wall has obvious mesh texture, polygonal mesh.
3 trees, up to 45m, bust 1.5m.
The lower part of the bark red brown, gray brown, irregular long block crack. Branchlets yellowish brown, usually whorled, non white, glabrous; winter buds ovoid cylindrical, brown, apex, bud scale margin filiform, apex acuminate or long. The needle shaped leaves, needles in bunches of 2, thin needles in bunches of 3, 12-30cm long, slender and soft, leaf margin serrulate, resin about 4-8, on the back side, or have 2 ventral edge; leaf sheath at the beginning of a brown, after gradually into the black, persistent. Male flowers Reddish brown, terete, bent, 1-1.5cm long, crowded on lower branches in bract axils, spicate; female flowers solitary or clustered shoots was born in 2-4 top, purple red. Cone conical ovoid or ovate, length 4-7cm, diameter 2.5-4m, short stem, pendulous, cooked millet brown; middle scales nearly oblong obovate, ca. 3cm; placoid rhombic, slightly raised or flat, umbo slightly concave, no thorns. Seeds ovoid, 4-6mm long
 Songhua Songhua
And even the winged 2-2.7cm. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in 10-12 months.
4 trees, up to 25m, bust up to more than 1m.
Bark brown, irregular scutes crack, crack red brown. Whorled branches, branchlets stout, pale yellow or yellow orange; Winter buds Broadly elliptic, apex, red brown. The needle shaped leaves, needles in bunches of 2, dark green, coarse, length 10-15cm, diameter of about 1.5mm, margin serrulate, both sides of stomatal lines; leaf sheath initially pale brown, becoming dark grey. The male cone cylindrical, long 1.2-1.8cm, poly generation spikes in the new branches; female ball inflorescences broadly ovate, 7mm long, purple, was born in the year on new growth. cone Ovate or ovate, 4-9cm long, have short stem, bent down, when ripe pale yellow or light brown yellow, persistent for several years; Central Seed scales Nearly oblong obovate, long 1.6-2cm, Scale Shield Hypertrophy, uplift or micro uplift, flat diamond or diamond shaped polygonal cross ridge significantly, Umbo Protruding spikes. Seeds oval or long oval, pale brown, striped, even winged 1.5-1.8cm. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in October.
5 trees, up to 30m, bust up to 1.5m.
Bark orange red, irregular flake off. Annual branches pale yellow or red yellow, slightly white, glabrous; Winter buds Oblong ovoid, dark brown, conifer needles in bunches of 2, 5-12cm long, 1mm diameter micro tip apex, both sides have stomatal lines, margin serrulate, transverse semicircular, about 4-6 resin, edge. Male flowers Pale yellow, cylindrical, 5-12mm, was born in the lower part of a short spike poly shoots; Female flowers Reddish purple, solitary or aggregated 2-3, the annual. Seed scales Apex with short spines. cone When ripe dark brown or pale yellow brown scales; open, easy to fall off, a transverse ridge micro bulge, Umbo Flat or slightly convex, with short spines. Seed obovate
 Songhua Songhua
Oval shaped or oval, long winged 4-7mm, even 1.5-2m, fin width 5-7mm. Florescence in April, fruit ripening in 9-10 months.
6 trees, up to 30m, bust up to 2m.
Young skin dark grey, old black, thick, irregular block. Annual branches pale brown yellow, glabrous; Winter buds Silver white, cylindrical, oval or cylindrical, top bud scales, lanceolate, margin white filamentous. Conifer needles in bunches of 2, dark green, glossy, thick and hard, 6-12cm long, margin serrulate, two sides of the cross section with stomatal lines, 6-11 resin, students. Male flowers reddish brown, cylindrical, long 1.5-2cm; Female flowers Solitary or aggregated 2-3 branches near the top, straight, oval, purple red. cone When cooked brown, conical ovoid or ovoid, length 4-6cm, diameter 3-4cm, short stem, pendulous, Central Seed scales Ovateelliptic, Scale Shield A significant hypertrophy, transverse ridge, Umbo Have short spines. Seed obovate elliptic, long 5-7mm, even the winged 1.5-1.8cm, fin brown. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in October.