Bristlecone pine (scientific name: Pinus longaeva
): evergreen tree, is a medium height of the pine tree, 5-15 meters high, 2 meters in diameter. Rounded crown, smooth bark, orange or reddish brown, lobes thick, scaly, irregular. Branchlets gray or reddish brown. Each bundle of 5 coniferous needles, upcurved, 15-35 * 0.8-1.2 mm, dark yellow green, a resin sheath spot, 1 cm off early. When immature cones green or purple, after 16 month maturity of red brown, with cone scales, mature cones open up to 4-6 cm thick, immediately release the seeds, each seed has a length of 5-8 mm, 10-12 mm with wings, flying with the wind. Some seeds are edible birds, bird seeds can germinate producing new plant.
Native to U.S.A
The northern states, extremely tenacious vitality, which is noted for its longevity, is known as the world's oldest trees of which the highest age has reached 4800 years of age.
Bristlecone Pine Morphological character
Bristlecone pine is a medium height pine, about 5-15 meters, up to 16 meters high, 2 meters in diameter, and up to 3.6 meters?. Rounded crown, forming irregular shape in the high mountains on the ground sometimes. The bark is smooth, orange or reddish brown, lobes thick, scaly, irregular, massive ridge. Branch twisted, pendulous; branchlets gray or reddish brown, old gray to grayish yellow, puberulent, young branch is similar to the long lasting Bush leaves, closely spaced evenly into the wheel shaped and formed by needle angle. Each bundle of 5 conifer needles, 2.5-4 cm long, blue green, bright white surface pores, leaves is the longest life of plants, some leaves remained green in 45 years.
Buds ovate, acuminate, reddish brown. 1 cm long, resinous. Leaves mostly 5, upcurved, 10 - 43 years (in the long duration of the known), 15-35 * 0.8-1.2 mm, dark yellow green, a few resin spots, but often pale squamous scales. The outer shaft surface lack groove, but there are 2 under the epidermis with resin. The adaxial surface obviously and stomatal whitening. Margin entire, serrulate distally, apex obtuse to short acuminate; sheath 1 cm, rosette forming quickly, early fall off. Pollen conical, 7-10 mm long, purple red.
Cone 6-9.5 cm long, 3-4 cm thick, immature green or purple, after 16 month maturity of red brown, with cone scales, there is a 2-5 mm long spines on each scale, mature cones open up to 4-6 cm thick, immediately release the seeds, each seed 5-8 mm long, oval shaped follicles, mottled light brown or dark red, with 10-12 mm wings, flying with the wind. Some seeds are edible birds, bird seeds can germinate producing new plant.
Bristlecone Pine Growth habit
Compared with other plants, the main advantage is that it bristlecone pine is almost not affected by diseases. Due to high density of foxtail pine and contains a large amount of resin material, making all kinds of pests and pathogens are discouraged. Resin, sticky cold fungus do dry air also makes love the parasitic on rotten wood, so even if the bristlecone pine dead, sometimes also can save hundreds of years before the final collapse.
The other two Bristlecone pines are the Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, the bristlecone pines thorns have two resin glands, so the resin spots caused by spikes; the other is "bristlecone pine", spike is only 2 mm long, rounder cones.
The bristlecone pine needle shaped leaf growth cycle is 30-40 years. A tree full of needle shaped leaves together, far looked like fox's tail, dotted with alpine mountain. The scientists also noticed the bristlecone pine rings interval width is different, which reflects the ability to regulate it has to deal with a difficult period. When suffered a continuous drought, bristlecone pine might move into "sleep": a growth in the thousands of years of bristlecone pine will terminate all until the improvement in the external environment The new supersedes the old., returned to create new cells. The bristlecone pine specific function that scientists marvel.
Bristlecone Pine The origin of habitat
Because the blocking stretches of the Sierra, United States Nevada
The annual precipitation is less than 30 cm, and the precipitation concentrated in two seasons (the rain fall in autumn, while in winter snow). Even in summer, there is also little sunshine, in a year for the total production and accumulation of Fox Nutrients
For the winter time is not more than 6 weeks. On the nutrient accumulation level, bristlecone pine is all the plant in the least. In addition, the growth of local bristlecone pine is surrounded by dolomite, no fertile soil, the limestone Bottom layer
For some nutrients itself only contains a few. The sunshine time and soil nutrient supply constraints, the growth rate of foxtail pine is quite slow, average every 100 years to less than 2.5 cm tall.
Bristlecone Pine Distribution range
The bristlecone pine can be roughly divided into two categories: one is called the mountain bristlecone pine, mainly in the United States The state of Colorado
Arizona, and The state of New Mexico
China; the other one called mountain bristlecone pine, located in the western United States. The state of California
and The state of Utah
Territory. Especially in the life in Baishan area of California Prefecture mountain bristlecone pine is most ancient, this life at an altitude of about 3000 meters of the subalpine tree is really worthy of the name of the old pine.
Bristlecone Pine Related knowledge
Bristlecone pine is a kind of growth in the dry mountain the western United States. Pineal
The Evergreen tree
Is wood, because the pineal scales like native to call. They are known for their long life span, some samples have survived for 3000-5000 years, they became known to the world's longest surviving trees. This tree only the distribution of the two populations: Colorado and Utah Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine and California
Southeast of the Great Basin bristlecone pine Baishan Mountain and Panamint.
The bristlecone pine grows extremely slowly, their rings increased in 100 years, less than 2.5 cm. A 700 year old tree was only 90 centimeters in height, trunk diameter of 7.5 cm. stay Mount Bai
, people found the most ancient Bristlecone pines are weathering, looks of odd shape. Generally speaking, they have only one living branches, and several long pine shoots; the branches on a narrow living bark upward from the soil moisture transmission. The needle can ensure that 30 years do not fall, in 30 years, it is only ten cm damage bark. Unlike other bristlecone pine trees, dead wood rots, causing trees fragile down; their dead wood will remain solid.
In the dead after the bristlecone pine to remain upright, even if only a bare tree from the trees often emerge from the one or two branch branches continue to grow. The same is very long survival time of conifers - the United States looks like a big fir, towering tall and straight shape, and bristlecone pine are more inclined to the horizontal development. Scientists at The state of California
Find the highest national reserve of Sequoia is as high as 111 meters, and the highest bristlecone pine is only about 18 meters, the vast majority of the bristlecone pine head is generally small. In extremely harsh environmental conditions, big head does not have any advantage. Here due to a higher elevation, even in summer the temperature is not high, the carbon dioxide in the air (necessary for photosynthesis) content is not much, so by the bristlecone pine growth is quite limiting, can only rely on previously accumulated energy of survival.
Because the head is not high, in the dead after the bristlecone pine can still keep upright. Sometimes the root of the body are all necrosis, trunks and branches connected due to wind erosion and completely dry, often only a bare trunk, but even so, from Witherbark
It will often emerge from the one or two branch branches continue to grow a sigh of its vitality.
There are many long-lived trees on earth, one of the oldest tree called The Methuselah tree
And it is a 4800 year old Great Basin bristlecone pine, long alley in Methuselah nevada. There is a tree of older trees, whose name is Plo Michel J, but because of its serious decay, was cut off in 1964. Most people think of this tree longevity, but on the earth there are many other more ancient species.