Flax (scientific name: Linum usitatissimum
L.: Yes) annual
Herbs can with flax, flax oil and oil and fiber flax fibers were divided into three types. Stems erect, up to 1.2 meters high, the upper soft, waxy; leaves alternate, lanceolate, 20-40 mm long, 3 mm wide, surface glaucous; petals 5, 15-25 mm in diameter, blue or white; the fruit is a capsule, seeds oval, hi cool moist climate.
Flax is the earliest human use of natural plant fiber, dating back more than 10 thousand years of history. Flax is a natural fiber, because of its sweat absorption, good air permeability and harmless to the human body and other notable features, more and more valued by humans. At the same time, flax and oil crops, flax oil containing large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, is used to prevent hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.
Flax originated in the Near East, the mediterranean. As early as 5000 years ago in the Neolithic age, the Swiss Lake habitat residents and the ancient egyptians. Has cultivated flax and the textile fiber cloth, Egypt around the "Mummy" is also covered with linen cloth. Flax like a cool and humid climate. Tensile strength, softness, good fineness, water absorption, water fast, conductive weak expansion rate and other characteristics of flax fiber, spinning yarn, high-grade clothing.
Oil used flax and flax called. At least 1000 flax planting history in Chinese. Fiber flax was introduced from Japan in 1907. Flax native Mediterranean region, Europe and subtemperate has the cultivation.
Flax History of Botany
The earliest natural fiber and is used to plant skin as raw material in the ancient ape people to bark cover, natural fiber textile technology is the earliest application of plant skin - linen, as far as the stone age, the Swiss Qihu and tropical Egypt, people have cultivated flax, the woven fabric the material, to the ancient Rome empire period of prosperity, more common throughout Europe, there are several century BC in ancient Greece, flax remains Ruseb in Bulgaria and georgia. As the use of ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, a symbol of civilization. So called flax is natural fiber is the oldest fully deserve. Flax is a pioneer in human fashion, flax lit human dress light, flax and counterparts of human civilization.
As early as one million years ago, the ancient Egyptians began planting flax in the Nile basin, 1854 people found fragments of flax as recently as ten thousand years ago in the Swiss Lake, which is the world's oldest found linen fabric. 3000 BC to 332 years, early agricultural farming, using the Nile basin yield of flax produce higher quality linen, as the ancient Egyptians mainly clothing material, wrapped mummies found in the tombs of ancient Egyptian linen can be seen with excellent corrosion resistance of flax. In the near future, France and Egypt archaeologists in the southern Cairo area 25 kilometers in caves excavated more than and 50 mummies belonging to tenth Century BC, they are wrapped in linen, linen has excellent anticorrosion property visible. Although flax dyeing difficult, but the red and treated them with a madder. A square inch area by 160 star, 120 star Wei root, high level can be seen at the time of textile technology.
Spread in the world of the king of Egypt to the Greek goddess of Athens embroidered with golden bright pattern linen breastplate, the weaving density for each line is 360 rows of flax fiber. It can be inferred from the discoveries of modern archaeology, linen fabric latest appeared in five thousand BC to four thousand years, but then there have been a loom. Study on the Pharaoh's tomb shows that when the linen weaving level has been very high, then the pharaohs have begun to use linen. The ancient Egyptian men regardless of status are topless shoulder, wearing wraparound apron is made from flax is called "Luo Yin cross" (loin cloth) is known as the French Linen loincloth as "free" (shenti). BC to fifth Century the ancient Romans used linen a women's lightweight fabric, with a tight waist straight skirt with linen suspenders in shoulder belt or belt, the variety of styles called "popular" (TUNICA). Because of the flax dyeing difficult, Egyptian clothes with white tone is more common in white linen weaving playing for girl married, ancient people used a white ash content in milk boiled and dried in the sun, called "the mist" products such as gold price of linen. The Neolithic age, the Egyptians will introduce flax in Mediterranean countries, the middle ages, and flax from Switzerland spread to France, Britain, Belgium and other countries. At the beginning of the tenth Century, flax began as a commodity in the market circulation.
In 1760, Russian inventor Green Keefer. Luojiang invented the flax carding machine, the linen textile industry has entered a new era, then, in the linen of France, Napoleon in order to solve the clothing problem at the time of the release, ordered to reward 1 million francs reward invention of spinning machine, can produce better linen textiles in 1810, the French Philip. Gerard invented the wet spinning machine, textile and human history appeared in the first period of prosperity of flax textile industry. Linen in a wide application field into people's lives. In the development of flax spinning machine, comb machine is the product of sparse, and is now widely used in the production of flax textile, was hailed as "a hundred years machine". In more than a century later, the textile material and the textile technology development, cotton, wool development faster, then is the rapid development of artificial fibres, although the amount of other textiles is much more than the ancient silk and hemp, however, human society will not and can not forget that for thousands of years so affected people living in traditional products.
In Fourteenth Century, Pope John the twelve bedroom wall on the fine linen. Now, in the first-class cabin world-class Airlines Flights in London, Fulin Hotel and many other international hotel linen accessories are widely used, with linen in Europe widely cultivated and spread of flax textile industry came into being. At the beginning of sixteenth Century, by the British linen textile popular and rapid development. Marx in the capital first volume twenty-fourth chapter fifth "the agricultural revolution in the industrial reaction. The formation of industrial capital in the domestic market in flax production as an example, tells the story of Friedrich II at all times, spinning flax Westphalia farmers was violent deprivation, seen at the time of flax production scenario.
In China, according to historical records: Northeast China as early as 1906, the Qing government was imported from Hokkaido Russia cultivated flax "bernaud" and other four varieties, planting in Northeast China, early planting flax is mainly used as oil crops, known as flax, the Republic of China before construction had the highest acreage reached 1 million acres. Flax crop from oil crops mainly to after using fiber, Heilongjiang province have established flax processing factory in 18, and has a linen textile production equipment behind the small. At that time by Japanese flax planting technique and tissue acquisition guidance, most of flax are shipped to japan.
In 1952, the first batch of large and medium-sized enterprises to do the original Soviet Union built Chinese -- Harbin flax textile factory in Northeast China was born, this is the starting point and the beginning of the modern Chinese flax textile industry. Mark China linen textile industry has entered the modern production from the Chinese flax textile industry progress is remarkable and the world formed a new pattern of flax textile technology in Western Europe, and Russia as the representative of the China.
Flax Morphological character
Flax is an annual herbaceous plant. Stems erect, 30-120 cm tall, in the upper branches, sometimes from the stem base also has branches, but not densely branched, basally glabrous, lignification, phloem fiber reinforced elastic structure, such as cotton. Ye Husheng; leaf blade linear, linear lanceolate or lanceolate, 2-4 cm long, 1-5 mm wide, apex acute, base tapering, sessile, involute, 3 (5) out of the pulse.
Take the upper leaf axils was born in a single branch top or branch, consisting of evacuation cymes; flowers 15-20 mm in diameter; peduncle 1-3 cm, erect; sepals 5, ovate or ovate lanceolate, ca. 5-8 mm, apex acuminate or long pointed convex, 3 (5) a central vein; bulges, edge membrane no matter, glandular punctate, margin entire, sometimes distally serrate, persistent; petals 5, obovate, 8-12 mm long, blue or purple blue, thin white or red, apex erose; stamens 5, filaments basally connate; degenerate stamens 5, subulate; 5 locules, styles 5 gold, isolation, stigma than style micro thick, line shaped or clavate, longer than or equal to a few.
Capsule globose, dry brown yellow, 6-9 mm in diameter, top tip, septicidally dehiscent into 5 valves; 10 seeds, oblong, compressed, 3.5-4 mm long, brown. Florescence 6-8 month, month of fruit period 7-10.
Flax Growth habit
Hi cool moist climate. Cold, afraid of high temperature. The lowest seed germination temperature 1-3, the optimum temperature of 20-25 DEG C; suitable growth temperature 11-18 nutrition. The soil moisture reached the maximum water holding capacity was 70%-80%. The growth period of 70-80 days. Before the corn, Wheat
Or soybean as well. In deep soil, loose fertile, well drained acidic or neutral soil cultivation is appropriate, salt content in alkaline soils under 0.2% can also be cultivated.
Flax Distribution range
Originating in the Mediterranean region, has cultivated Eurasian temperate. There are Chinese around the cultivation of northeast and Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan etc.. But in the north and southwest are common; sometimes escape to wild.
The distribution map of flax
Flax Species classification
Their classification standards are different types of flax. Chinese will be divided into 3 types of cultivated species:
60-120 cm tall, thin stems, erect, basally rarely branched, the upper part of a few branched inflorescence, smaller, less the number of capsules per plant, seeds, grain weight 3.8-4.5 grams. Process length (from sub branch to the first leaf scars the length of the longest). The growth period of 70-80 days. Long day, usually 70-80 days to mature. The two sub No. 5, No. 7, No. 8, Heiya No. 3, No. 11, is a drought resistant varieties, rate of about 10%; the world is that, the varieties of Arya, Ailong that iNO, drought resistance than domestic varieties, but the products rate is higher than the domestic varieties, generally around 16.7%.
Flax Oil type
30-60 cm tall, stout stem, stem basal branches, branches and shoot some more, larger inflorescence, number of capsules per plant, seed large and small granules two grams of small, weight 3-5, 8-10 grams of large grain. The growth period of 90-120 days. Short day, 80-100 days period. This type of flax seed oil 32-48%, higher soybean doubled, can be used in the production of paint, ink, paint, etc. made of edible oil. Seed cake containing protein 23-33%, can be a good fodder.
Flax Oil and fiber
The special type of difference, you can also be out of oil, hemp, not suitable for planting, plant height 50-1750px, stem diameter, height between fiber and flax oil, a small amount of stem tip branches, more branches, the number of capsules per plant also, growth period of 85-110 days. There are varieties of wild goose yuanza 10, Jinya 2, etc..
Flax cultivation techniques
Flax is mild and cool humid climate, suitable. Flax requirements during the growth period of the temperature change is not fierce, small temperature difference between day and night. Seedling emergence to flowering more than rainfall, and uniform distribution, weak sunshine. Flowering to maturity stage less rainfall and adequate light, there is conducive to growth and development of flax stem fiber. Flax oil demand during the growth period of light strong branches, increase the capsule and promote early maturing, improve seed yield.
Flax seedling stage
The seed germination to leaf expansion; slow growth period: 20-30 days, the main root of this period, the underground part of vigorous growth, stem growth is very slow, the temperature around 10 degrees; rapid growth period: the part on the ground began to grow fast, takes about 20 days, during this period, the length and the decision process of flax stem the thickness is an important period to determine the yield and quality of water and nutrients, and the illumination requirements are relatively high, the illumination time is long, the longer the hemp stalk; flowering bud formation period: seed; process maturity: fiber has formed a mature stage; cell wall lignification begins.
3-5 C, seed germination, growth of the most suitable temperature is 20-22 DEG C; water: the critical period of water requirement in the rapid growth to flowering bud stage, this period should be the most water; light: flax is a long day crop, every day 8-13 hours of light; fertilizer: fertilizer requirements of flax lax fertilizer requirements, less soil organic matter content in 2.7-5.3%, suitable for neutral and acidic soil pH value should be 6.5-7.0.
Flax The election
The moist waterfertilizer good drainage surface clean Hirakawa, severe drought to choose two depressions, but must be able to drainage, selection of condition relatively close distance from the water source land, irrigation wells can or should not choose huangtugang, irrigation, hillside soil, especially fertile areas should be selected as fertility plots of flax.
Should the stubble manure quantity, residual fertilizer, land surface clean, with corn stubble as well, followed by soybean, wheat and the stubble autumn over the stubble. Beet, cabbage, sunflower stubble stubble stubble and melon crop is not suitable for flax, flax not stubble, the same piece of land the best interval of more than four years of planting.
Flax seeds are very small, emergence ability is very poor, which requires the preparation of good quality. Requirements for deep loose or plowing depth 8-550px, turning, rake, float and the suppression of several links of joint operations, to not leak, drag harrow pile, turn neat tight, not heavy, not leak plough tillage, the soil surface is smooth, fine, it is best to reach the state of sowing, summer and autumn ploughing.
Flax Apply fertilizer
Fertilization is an important measure for high yield and quality of flax. Flax fertilization requirements of early fertilization, nitrogen fertilizer is good. Before crop fertility of the large farm manure in flax crops, is conducive to the growth of stubble and flax, leaving residual fertilizer. The stubble fertilization less to weak plots, soil preparation in autumn when applying manure, also can be in before the spring will ascend to the surface soil manure combined with land buried in harrow. Application of farmyard manure, fertilizer and crop before plowing fertilization before sowing 2000-2500kg fertilizer per mu; fertilizer per acre applied rake should be 1000-1500kg, be sure to send good manure after application of pea.
The use of fertilizer to take fertilization method, according to the results, determine the proportion of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer and the weak plots to improve fertilizer dosage and proportion of nitrogen, water foot plots not only nitrogen fertilizer; soybean stubble, stubble less nitrogen, fertile black soil and two depressions as far as possible no nitrogen fertilizer, improve the relative amount of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, not only won the high yield and anti lodging. According to the soil characteristics and soil fertility situation in our region, the proportion of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be based on 1:2:1, the application amount to the productivity difference between using 50-150kg/hm2 or diammonium phosphate, special fertilizer applied to flax, fertilization depth 200px.
Selection of fine varieties of domestic varieties: Double sub No. 5, No. 7, No. 8, 6, 7, 8, Heiya No. 11, these varieties in growth period 75-85 days, the yield of 3-4 tons, a rate of about 10%; foreign varieties, Iran Ariana Nona, love dragon Na, these varieties of fiber yield up to 16.7% tons, the yield of 4-5.
Seed treatment: firstly, seed cleaning and germination test requirement of seed purity was more than 98%, purity was more than 98%, the germination rate reached more than 95%, not less than 70%. The second is the treatment of seeds with FA- drought resistance to drought resistant seed dressing agent, and with zinc fertilizer dressing could enhance photosynthesis and lodging resistance, improve the yield and quality of fiber, is 3g99% per hectare with 0.06% zinc sulfate solution dressing, can also use carbendazim 5 1000 seed dressing to prevent disease.
Sowing date: fourth accumulated temperature and sowing date of May 15th to 20; five or six accumulated temperature and sowing date from May 15th to June 10th.
Sowing quantity: generally 1300-1500 million hectares of seedling number lines, sowing rate was 97.5-105kg/hm2; fertility plots seedling numbers 1200-1350 million trees; sowing 90-97.5 kg/hm2; fertility plots seedling numbers 1500-1800 million trees, sowing amount was 105-112.5 kg/hm2.
Methods: using the same direction repeated sowing sowing wheat seeder, which broadcast two times. Such as wheat row spacing is 375px wide, then second times between the sowing to be over two lines, do not repeat cross seeding, is not conducive to the harvest.
Sowing depth: Flax sowing depth mainly depends on soil moisture, generally 2-75px, soil moisture is good, after the suppression of sowing depth is 50px, moisture, repression after sowing depth is 3-100px, the depth of less than 100px. Planter must take cover, after sowing covering soil to close.
Flax Field management
Soil treatment with 72% dual EC against barnyardgrass, Ma Tang, Setaria, Goosegrass and amaranth, quinoa and some other small seeded broadleaf grass and dodder. Sandy soil per hectare was 1.5L, if the soil organic matter is greater than 4% 2.5-4.5L per hectare, loam with 2.0L, clay 2.5L before sowing after spraying shallow soil mixing effect 4-125px. After sowing application available Ding harrow shallow soil mixing can also be used 2.4-D butyl 1.5-2.0L broadcast a week before the soil treatment.
Leaf processing: Flax seedling height 5-250px, with a two of four (effective chlorine content of 70% 1.0-1.25L) with sethoxydim 1.5kg, 400-500kg water spray; anti broadleaf weeds available 48% Bentazon water per hectare was 2-3L against water spray; anti gramineous weeds can be 35% fluazifop emulsifiable concentrate against water spray 1.25-1.5L.
Pest control: armyworm and meadow moth is a major pest of flax, should pay attention to the relevant departments to timely forecast control, available 5% Dichlorphos 500-800 times, the amount of acres of 30-35kg spray or 2.5% decis, Mu dosage 7-10mL, 30-35kg water spray, spray to pay attention to the hot wind or storm.
Artificial harvest: when there are 1/3 peach Brown linen, hemp stalk 1/3 lower Yellow lower stem 1/3 leaf abscission, began to pull ma. Ba Ma to see Matian uniformity of graded films. Pull to pull hemp hemp, grass, net net pick fell land, pier Qi root, around the size of a fist bales of wool and linen, linen tied around near the roots of two inches. Flax of unequal heights plots to be graded into small bundle of flax pulling, respectively, fanned out to dry, when the hemp stalk reaches six, 70% dry, back yard storage, stacking into small round pile, each stack 80-100, the end of the stack to be steady to slightly positive, the Ma on the branches in the lower Ma to use the time cap, ma.
Mechanical harvesting: the Russian NK-4A type joint flax pulling machine, working width 1.5m per hour, Ba Ma 0.5-0.7hm2; 4BM-1.5 type flax pulling machine developed Jiamusi harvest machinery factory every hour can pull hemp 1-1.5 Hm2, range 1.52m.
Drying: one is not bound to dry, two is tied into small drying, three yards into a small round pile drying, each stack 80-100.
Venue: keep flax stem in the field of 6-7 after drying, to keep the venue. Is a big Duo Duo Duo into North and south, before using timber piling mattress, Genzhaoli, slightly down, a layer stack to 4-5 layer, a good hook duo heart with hemp, stacking height 2-3m; two is the pile into round pile, using 50-60 to Ma Li on the ground, take a pile bottom then, roots upward, slightly down one layer to ride, finally pointed Duo Duo Duo into, with straw or plastic cloth with good.
Threshing bundling: flax to seize the time, artificial wood or wood seed in the fall, can not fall on the stone roller, so as not to fall, broken flax stem splitting. Fall to hold the hemp seed roots, prevent hemp scattered, increase yarn, hemp seed to fall in net. Off grade grain of flax stem to 25-30kg in bales. To do with the deseeding off, along with the screen, with storage, avoid seed rain was fever mildew, loss of germination ability.
Flax Pest control
There are pests in flax throughout the growing period, we should adhere to the "prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control, implementation of rotation in the selection of resistant varieties, strengthen basic fertilizer and water management on the pest species timely prevention and control, in order to maintain strong growth to reduce the loss of Miao Jian ma.
The harm of main diseases and insect pests: Flax blight, Fusarium wilt, powdery mildew, rust, armyworm, aphid, cutworm. If the occurrence of blight, Fusarium Wilt of Mu carbendazim wettable powder 100 grams or 80% chlorothalonil wettable powder 80 grams Duishui 50-60 kg spray control; powdery mildew and rust mu with Triadimefon EC 30-40 ml Duishui 50-60 kg spray; armyworm, aphid acres with 25% EC 16 ml water Kung Fu 50 kg or disashi 1000-1500 times liquid spray control; cutworm can choose chrysanthemum lipid or organophosphorus insecticide spray control in young stage, also can choose and carbofuran were poisonous soil control.
Artificial weeding and chemical weed control two kinds of methods in flax field. The field weeds, artificial grass; such as low-lying, high underground water level and serious weed field according to weed species, select the appropriate herbicide. In 0.9% acres of gramineous weeds "Viper" EC 80--100 ml against 50 kg of water spray; controlling dicotyledonous weeds in two acres of a four g total water spray 50-60kg chlorine 100-150. After flowering, rodent plots, choice of bromadiolone, diphacinone sodium salt as bait for controlling agent preparation.
Flax The main value
The economic classification of the general value of cultivated flax into fiber flax, flax oil and linseed oil and fiber three types. Flax fiber has high economic value, from the original stem to seed processing and utilization:
Flax Flax fiber
The development and utilization of flax high value, flax fiber is an important raw material for textile industry, pure spinning, also with other fiber blends. As compared to flax fiber and animal fiber, plant fiber, synthetic fiber, it has many unique irreplaceable advantages, determines that it plays an important role in national economy. First of all, flax fiber tough, soft, its strength is 1.6 times 1.5 times, cotton fiber silk, spinning high count fabric, smooth and neat, suitable for the production of advanced materials. Secondly, flax fiber has strong moisture absorption, fast heat, friction resistance, high temperature resistance, non flammable, not easy to crack, conductivity, small dust rate is low, the antibacterial health care and other unique advantages, suitable for the production of aircraft wing cloth, cloth, fire protection, aerospace, medical and health care and clothing, canvas hose, interior decoration cloth and craft embroidery etc.. Third, the value of scutching tow and waste is also high, short fiber processing of cotton, wool, silk, cotton and chemical fiber, blended yarn production, can also be pure spinning yarn; tow is high quality raw materials of man-made sheet or fine paper.
Flax flax seed
Flax seed oil 30%-45%, linseed oil is rich in linolenic acid, linoleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids, especially rich in the human body must be a- r- linolenic acid and linolenic acid, which a- linolenic acid accounted for linseed oil fatty acid 57%, 2 times higher than the fish oil. Can reduce the body's blood pressure, serum cholesterol, blood viscosity, for treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, visceral disease, kidney disease, skin disease, arthritis, pulmonary disease, immune system disease. Britain, France and other more than and 30 countries have ratified the linseed oil as a nutritional additive or functional food ingredient. In addition, linseed oil is dry and strong, excellent drying oil is widely used in paints, inks, dyes, rayon and synthetic rubber indispensable raw materials. Flaxseed oil after meal protein containing 23-33%, residual oil in more than 8.6%, is good for livestock feed.
Flax Film mulching
In linen film mulching material development, can be used in paddy field, dry land and greenhouse cultivation, while the temperature can also fertilize the soil, the greater significance is to fundamentally eliminate the pollution of the environment, the hemp fiber film with its unique environmental friendly characteristics, have a bigger market.