Atomic bomb

Atomic bomb (Atomic bomb) is Nuclear weapon One is the use of nuclear reaction Thermal radiation, shock wave And the induced radioactivity caused by killing and destruction, and caused widespread radioactive contamination, and prevent other military operations to achieve the strategic objective of the weapons of mass destruction. Including (first generation nuclear fission weapons, often called atomic bomb) and fusion (also known as weapons Bomb Which is divided into two levels and three levels). Some are also internal weapons into light elements with induced radiation, to expand or increase the intensity of radiation pollution, strengthen the anti personnel (such as neutron radiation In the bullet ).
Atomic bomb
Refers to the use of nuclear weapons is self-sustaining Nuclear fission or fusion The reaction energy released, resulting in the explosion, and has all the damage effect of weapons of mass destruction. The main use of 235 uranium (U or Gui) 239 plutonium (Pu Qian) etc. Atomic nucleus Fission chain reaction The principle of fission weapons, usually known as the atomic bomb is mainly used; Deuterate (Dao H, deuterium (Chuan H) or heavy hydrogen, tritium) and other light nuclei Thermonuclear reaction The principle of thermonuclear fusion weapons or weapons, usually called Bomb .
In October 16, 1964, the first atomic bomb explosion Chinese developed successfully . According to declassified documents, to the atomic bomb explosion, China spent a total of 2 billion 800 million yuan. In June 17, 1967, Chinese successfully conducted the first test of a hydrogen bomb, broke the superpower nuclear monopoly and nuclear blackmail policy, has made great contribution to People's Republic of China.

Atomic bomb Structure principle

Atomic bomb Energy power

coal , petroleum The release of fossil fuel combustion energy
 The people's Daily reported The people's Daily reported
From. carbon , hydrogen , oxygen The Chemical reaction . General chemical explosives such as TNT ( TNT ) when the explosion of energy released, the decomposition reaction from compounds. In these chemical reaction In the carbon and hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen nuclei did not change, but combination between atoms have changed. nuclear reaction And the chemical reaction is not the same. In nuclear fission or Nuclear fusion reaction In the reaction nuclei into other nuclei, atoms have also changed. People used to call these weapons for atomic weapons. It is essentially atomic reaction and nuclear changes, so that the nuclear weapon is more accurate.
Nuclear weapon When the explosion of energy released, than only chemical explosive The conventional weapons Much. For example, 1 kilograms of uranium fission all the energy released about 8 * 10 4.19 x 10 joules, 1 kg of TNT explosive energy release The Joule is about 20 million times larger. The total energy of nuclear weapons explosions, namely the power size, used the same energy release of TNT explosive that is called TNT equivalent. TNT equivalent various nuclear weapons the United States and the Soviet Union's equipment, small only 1000 tons, or even lower; large amounts to 10 million tons, or even higher.
Nuclear weapon The explosion, only to release enormous energy, and nuclear reaction is very rapid,
 Atomic bomb Atomic bomb
Microsecond time can be finished. Therefore, the formation of high temperature in the range of nuclear weapons around the small explosion, heating and compression air around the rapid expansion, high pressure shock wave . Ground and air nuclear explosion, will form a fireball in the surrounding air, a strong Ray radiation . Also produce all kinds of radiation and nuclear reaction radioactivity Material debris; radiated by strong pulse radiation interactions with the surrounding material, causing the current growth and disappearance of the electromagnetic pulse. These characteristics are different from chemical explosives, nuclear weapons that have special strong shock wave and light radiation, Early nuclear radiation , Radioactive contamination and Nuclear electromagnetic pulse Other damage effect. The emergence of nuclear weapons, to Modern Warfare Have had a significant influence on strategy and tactics.
Is the use of atomic bomb Nuclear fission A weapon of great energy released to kill effect. With it nuclear reactor The same, according to the same nuclear fission chain reaction. Normally, since the reactor can realize the chain reaction, so as to make it neutron The proliferation coefficient of K is greater than 1, without control, the chain reaction will become more and more large scale, it will eventually explode. That is to say, the reactor can also become a "atomic bomb". Is actually the case, if the multiplication coefficient of K is greater than 1 compared with the control, the reactor will indeed explode, the so-called Supercritical reactor The accident is such a situation. The reactor weighs hundreds of tons, thousands of tons, cannot be used as a weapon. But in this case, the use of fissionable material rate is very low, the explosion is not. To make an atomic bomb, first of all to reduce Critical mass At the same time, in order to improve the explosive power. This requires the atomic bomb must use the fast fission system, charge must be fissile material of high concentration, and the charge exceeds the critical mass, so that the multiplication coefficient is greater than 1 K.
The atomic bomb charge, can get a lot of, and can be used as the atomic bomb charge is only 235, and 239 uranium plutonium uranium 233 three kinds of fissile material. uranium The 235 is the main charge of the atomic bomb. In order to obtain high concentration uranium 235 is not an easy job to do, this is because the content of natural uranium 235 is very small, about 140 of uranium atoms contain only 1 uranium atoms in 235, and the remaining 139 are 238 uranium atom 235; especially uranium and uranium is 238 of the same element isotope Their chemical properties, almost no difference, but between them The relative quality The difference is very small. With ordinary chemical method could not be separated; the separation of light isotopes are of no avail.

Atomic bomb Enrichment method

In order to obtain high concentration uranium 235, early, Scientist We have a variety of methods to attack the storm.
 Atomic bomb explosion Atomic bomb explosion
At last" Has the factory test in the middle stage, and the new method of chemical separation and crown ether Laser separation method Is more attractive. We can believe that the separation of the future will have more better Uranium isotope The method is put into use, Gas diffusion method The monopoly will end.
The atomic bomb is another important charge of plutonium 239. The 239 is through the production of plutonium reactor.
 Nuclear test explosion Nuclear test explosion
In the reactor, uranium 238 absorbs a neutron and fission into uranium 239 does not occur, uranium decays into 239 Neptunium 239 , Neptunium 239 plutonium decay into 239. Because plutonium and uranium is different, although only a small part of uranium into plutonium, but the separation of plutonium and uranium, uranium isotope separation than the is much easier, so it can be easily extracted with pure chemical method plutonium .
A charge is 233 uranium atomic bomb, it is by 232 thorium in the reactor by neutron bombardment, generated thorium 233, and then gradually after two times Beta Decay process.
From the above we can see that after two charge is produced by the reactor. They are relying on uranium fission neutrons released 235 generation, that is to say, their generation is to consume 235 uranium for the price, also cannot do without the slightest uranium 235. In this sense, can be called "235 uranium nuclear fire, because there is no 235 uranium reactor, no atomic bomb, there is no large scale atomic energy Use.
The nuclear charge, as long as the volume or quality are above a certain critical value, can realize the atomic bomb explosion. There is only a problem of the atomic bomb, which is how to do: do not need it exploded, it does not need explosion; it exploded, it will explode immediately. This can be achieved by controlling the critical mass or critical size. In principle, the most simple atomic bomb using the so-called gun type structure. Two pieces of uranium were less than the critical mass, separated by a certain distance, will not explode, when they are together, it is larger than the critical mass, immediately exploded. But if they will slowly together, then the chain reaction has just begun, the generated energy is enough to blow themselves, and the chain reaction stops, the atomic bomb explosion and nuclear charge utilization rate is very small, and this Supercritical reactor The explosion when a somewhat similar situation. So the key problem is to enable them to rapidly together.
This can be shown as the next, will be part of uranium on end, and another portion of uranium on the "barrel", with the help of high explosives, very quickly it all together, resulting in supercritical, efficiently produce explosion. In order to reduce the loss of the neutron, a layer of neutron reflection layer outside the nuclear charge; in order to delay the nuclear charge scattering, atomic bomb with a hard shell.

Atomic bomb "Little boy" structure

August 1945, U.S.A Investment to Japan Hiroshima The atomic bomb (code named "little boy") is the use of a gun type bomb structure, weighing about 4100 kg, a diameter of about 71 cm, 305 cm long. The nuclear charge for uranium 235, explosive power of about 14000 tons of TNT equivalent. The gun type structure, each nuclear charge can not be too large, only close to the critical mass, and must not be equal or exceed the critical mass. So when the two nuclear charge closure, total quality can only be nearly one times more than the critical mass. This makes the atomic bomb explosion limits.
In addition to the gun type structure, two pieces of the nuclear charge despite the rapid closure, but experienced in the closing process in time is still too long, so in the previous two nuclear charge has not yet been fully merged, neutron emitted by spontaneous fission caused by explosion. This "premature ignition" caused by the low efficiency of using the nuclear explosion, the charge rate is very low. A kilogram of uranium 235 (or plutonium 239) all fission, about to release 18000 tons of TNT equivalent energy, nuclear medicine an atomic bomb is generally 15 to 25 kilograms of uranium 235 (or 6 to 8 kilograms of plutonium 239), this calculation, "little boy" the nuclear charge utilization is less than five percent.
The density of Uranium under normal pressure is about 19 g / cm. Under high pressure, uranium can be compressed to a higher density. Research shows that, for certain fissile material, the higher the density, the less the critical mass. According to the characteristics of the development of the gun type structure at the same time, but also the development of an internal explosion type structure. The gun type structure, atomic bomb is a sudden increase in the amount of fissile material with normal density to reach supercritical, explosive structure and atomic bomb is the use of a sudden increase in pressure, thereby increasing the density of supercritical method.
The implosion type structure, high explosive detonation velocity into spherical nuclear device, charging will be less than the critical mass of the pellets made from placed explosives. Through the synchronous electric detonator ignition, the explosive blasting at the same time, have a strong centripetal focusing compression wave (also known as the implosion of nuclear medicine, the wave) and peripheral to the center fold, the density is greatly increased, which greatly supercritical. Using a controllable neutron source Wait until the maximum compression wave effect, when it "lit". This has led to a self-sustaining chain reaction, violent explosion. Implosion type structure is better than the gun type structure where time is the time required for compression wave effect than the gun type structure are short, so the risk of premature ignition "greatly reduced. In this way, the implosion type structure can use the greater probability of spontaneous fission of fissile material, such as plutonium 239 for nuclear charge; at the same time to increase the utilization efficiency of the.

Atomic bomb "Fat" structure

The United States voted in Japan Nagasaki The atomic bomb (code name" The fat "), is the implosion type structure is adopted, with 239 plutonium nuclear charge. Bomb bomb weighs about 4500 kilograms, diameter at the widest point about 152 cm, 320 cm long bomb explosion, is estimated to be 20000 tons of TNT equivalent.
The further development of the atomic bomb is Bomb , or thermonuclear weapons. One is the use of certain Light nuclear fusion reaction The huge energy released. It can charge the deuterium and tritium, can also be Lithium deuteride 6, these substances are called nuclear materials. According to the unit weight of the material, nuclear fusion energy released more than a fission reaction, and there is no so-called Critical mass The limit, so the hydrogen bomb explosion more powerful than the atomic bomb, usually hundreds of times to thousands of times.
not too hot nuclear reaction Only at very high temperature (tens of degrees) can be conducted, and such a high temperature only in the atomic bomb explosion can be generated, so the hydrogen bomb must use the atomic bomb as a detonator igniting thermonuclear material "". The hydrogen bomb explosion will release a large number of high-energy neutrons, these high-energy neutrons can make 238 uranium fission. So in the general hydrogen coated uranium 238, can greatly improve the explosion. such Bomb The experience of a fission explosion, three fusion - fission process, so called" tri-phasebomb ". It is characterized by low cost, high power, multi radioactive pollution.
There is a new bomb, the so-called In the bullet . In the bullet may actually be a small bomb, but the small elements in the fission bomb is very small, while the fusion component is very large, so the shock wave and radiation effect is very weak, but strong neutron flux. It depends on the neutron flow strong killing effect, allegedly can do "murder and not destroy". Atomic bomb is uranium, plutonium can be used, but plutonium is produced by uranium. You must use the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb to lead. Therefore, after all, nuclear weapons, Thermonuclear weapons Manufacturing cannot do without uranium. Therefore, in the past, today, in the future quite a long period of time, the most important natural element is important, first of all is Military The need to.

Atomic bomb The development of history

The nuclear weapon system, generally by the nuclear warhead, projection tools and command and control system and other parts, the nuclear warhead is the important part of. Also known as the nuclear warhead Nuclear warheads , and often with the two name of nuclear, nuclear weapons for use. In fact, the nuclear device refers to the nuclear charge and other materials, explosives and detonators overall form, can be used for nuclear test Usually, but also cannot be used as a reliable weapon; nuclear weapons refers to the entire nuclear weapons systems, including nuclear warhead. The emergence of nuclear weapons, before and after 1940s Science and technology The result of the development of major.
At the beginning of 1939, the German chemist O. Hahn and physical chemist F. Strassman published uranium Nuclear fission The phenomenon of the paper. In a few weeks, scientists in many countries to verify this finding, and further put forward the possibility of creating the self-sustaining fission reaction conditions, which opens up a broad prospect using this new energy to create wealth for mankind. However, as the history of many new discoveries of science and technology, nuclear energy The development was first used for military purposes, namely manufacturing powerful atomic bomb, the process is affected and restricted by social and political conditions.
From 1939 onwards, due to fascist Germany to expand the war of aggression in many European countries to carry out research work more difficult. At the beginning of September of the same year, Denmark Physicist N.H.D. Bohr And his partner Wheeler J.A. from the theory. nuclear fission reaction The process, and points out that the best elements can cause the reaction of uranium isotope is 235. While this has guiding significance to the research results published, Britain and France declared war on germany.
The summer of 1940, the German occupation of france. French physicist J.-F. Joliot - Curie led a part of scientists were forced to emigrate. The British had a plan of study in this field, but because of the war, the manpower shortage, later also can only be taken in cooperation with the United States to send to the physicist J. Chadwick A team of scientists led by the United States, attended by Theoretical physicist J.R. Oppenheimer The leadership of the atomic bomb research work.
In the United States, Tsirad Leo moved to Europe from the Hungarian physicist of the first account, once Fascist Master the German atomic bomb technology may bring serious consequences. After he and several other scientists from Europe immigrated to the United States to promote the running, in August 1939 by physicist A. Einstein Write to the thirty-second President of the United States F.D. Franklin Delano Roosevelt That suggests the development of the atomic bomb, was caused by the U.S. government's attention. But only the funds allocated $6000, until the December 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor After that, the expansion of the scale, in August 1942 developed into a code named "big plan project of Manhattan area", the direct use of the manpower of about 600 thousand people, an investment of $about 2000000000. reach The Second World War At the end of 3 made of the atomic bomb, the United States has become the first atomic bomb of the country.
To make an atomic bomb, it is necessary to solve the weapon in the development of a series of problems of science and technology, but also can produce the required nuclear charge, 235 uranium plutonium 239. Natural uranium isotope abundance of uranium 235 only 0.72% atomic bomb, according to the design requirements must be increased to more than 90%. When the United States through many ways of exploration and research, take the electromagnetic separation, gas diffusion and thermal diffusion of three kinds of methods of producing this highly enriched uranium. Dozens of kilograms of highly enriched uranium for a "shot" by the atomic bomb, by electromagnetic separation process. The construction of electromagnetic separation plant costs about $300 million (conductive coil magnet is borrowed from the Treasury silver Manufacturing, its value has not included). 239 in the reactor to plutonium with uranium 238 produced by neutron irradiation. For the two "Implosion" atomic bomb with dozens of kilograms of plutonium is 239, with 3 water cooled graphite moderated, natural uranium reactor and the chemical separation plant. The above examples to illustrate the scale of the project. As a direct threat to industrial facilities and construction technology has not been influenced by the American war, have the necessary resources to focus on a number of domestic and foreign talents, so that it can realize the fast development of atomic bomb program.
German science and technology, this time in a leading position. Before 1942, Germany in the field of nuclear technology and the level of Britain and the United States are roughly the same, but later left behind. The first test of the United States Graphite reactor In E., a physicist Fermi Under the leadership, built in December 1942 and reached the critical; Germany is used in heavy water reactor plutonium 239, to early 1945 to build a small sub critical device. For the production of highly enriched uranium, Germany has focused on the development of high speed centrifuge, due to air and electricity, lack of supplies, the progress is very slow. A. Hitler The persecution of scientists, and some scientists are not cooperative attitude, is another reason for the progress of work is not fast. What's more, the German Fascist leader over confident that the war would end very soon, don't need no effort to have developed into the grasp of the atomic bomb, the first is not supported, then grasp the development work has been fraught with difficulties, finally failed.
In May 1945 after the German surrender, the United States has a lot to know" Manhattan Project To "insider, including physicist J. Frank A large number of scientists engaged in this work led by the opposition, the bombing of the Japanese city with atomic bomb. At that time, the Japanese invaders by China A powerful blow to people's long-term resistance, strength greatly weakened. The United States and Britain on The Pacific Region The attack, and almost completely destroyed The Japanese Navy Japan's naval blockade, which supplies extremely, pan. In Japan's defeat is a foregone conclusion, the United States on August 6th, 9 days in Japan Hiroshima And Nagasaki dropped two atomic bomb only.
Soviet Union In June 1941 by the German invasion, has been the development of the atomic bomb work. Uranium nuclear fission, in this period by the Soviet physicist. The Eph gamma. Liaoluofu And now I took. Pater. Zach Found. After the Great Patriotic War, the development work was interrupted until early 1943. A physicist in the way. Kurchatov Under the leadership of the organization gradually restored, and accelerated in the postwar. In August 1949, the Soviet atomic bomb test. January 1950, USA president H.S. Truman The accelerated development of the hydrogen bomb ordered. In November 1952, the United States was carried out in liquid deuterium for hydrogen bomb test principle of thermonuclear fuel, but the experimental device is very heavy, can not be used as a weapon. In August 1953, the Soviet Union carried out in solid state Lithium deuteride 6 for the nuclear fuel hydrogen bomb, the hydrogen bomb of the utility becomes possible. The United States was similar to the February 1954 nuclear test. Britain and France successively in 50 and 60s respectively the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb.
Chinese at the beginning of the period of all-round socialist construction, basic industry develops to a certain extent, that is to develop atomic bomb ready. Beginning in 1959, the national economy has serious difficulties. In June 1959, the Soviet government in October 1957 signed the Sino Soviet break on new technology of defense agreement, then the withdrawal of experts, Chinese determined to achieve this task completely rely on their own strength. China first atomic bomb test "596" for the code, is to encourage China military cooperation to do this work. In October 16, 1964, the first atomic bomb test. After more than two years, in December 28, 1966, the small equivalent H-bomb principle test successfully; half a year later, in June 17, 1967 successfully conducted airdrop test megaton hydrogen bomb. Chinese independent, adhere to the principle of self-reliance in the world, the fastest to complete the nuclear weapons of the two stages of development tasks.

Atomic bomb Classification of weapons

The United States to Japan dropped two atomic bomb,
 Fat Man Fat Man
 Atomic bomb Atomic bomb
Is to take the parachute Anti missile and nuclear missiles, anti submarine nuclear rocket, deepwater nuclear bomb, Nuclear bomb , Nuclear bombs , Nuclear mines Etc.. Among them, with Multiple warhead The ballistic nuclear missile and cruise missile, nuclear emission mode, is the main nuclear weapons USA and USSR equipment.
Usually the nuclear weapons divided its combat use into two categories, namely for the attack of enemy strategic targets and its strategic defense Strategic nuclear weapons On the battlefield, and mainly used to combat the enemy fighting force Tactical nuclear weapons . The Soviet Union also divided into "tactical nuclear weapons". Classification of nuclear weapons, and the geographical conditions, social and political factors, and not very strict. Since the end of 70s after the official documents of the United States rarely used "tactical nuclear weapons", instead it has "theater nuclear weapons" and "non strategic nuclear weapons", and put in a remote, medium range nuclear missiles are also classified in this category.
Has been produced and the armed forces of the nuclear weapons, according to nuclear warhead design, mainly belonging to the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb two types. As for the number of nuclear weapons, there is no accurate figures, estimates of the relevant research institutions are not consistent. According to the comprehensive analysis of data in recent years, by the middle of 80s, the United States and the Soviet Union between the two nuclear warhead a total of 50000 medals, accounting for more than 95% of the total in the world. The TNT equivalent, a total of 120 tons. But during the Second World War, the United States and Japan dropped the bomb in Germany, a total of about 2 million tons of TNT, only the equivalent of American B-52 bombers carrying the equivalent of 2 hydrogen bombs. We can see that nuclear weapons storage large from a rough comparison.
The United States and the Soviet Union strategic offensive nuclear weapons (including Intercontinental nuclear missiles The submarine launched ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and nuclear, nuclear Strategic bomber In comparison with the number and equivalent), the United States in the projection tools (land-based launchers, submarine launch tube, aircraft) and the total number of TNT equivalent gross were less than the Soviet Union, but the total number of medals in the nuclear warhead more than the Soviet union. Taking into account the damaging effects of nuclear explosions across the target with the same equivalent size is not a simple proportional relationship, another estimation method is ability to destroy the damage area with certain shock wave pressure corresponding to measure nuclear warhead, take nuclear warhead (equivalent value per million tons for the calculation of 2/3 power unit) the equivalent of millions of tons of equivalent value (also according to the target characteristics and the distribution and size of nuclear attack in different situations, the other party is less than 2/3 times), according to a variety of nuclear warhead missiles to calculate the gross number of tired. According to the method of estimation of strategic nuclear weapons between the United States and the Soviet Union between the two countries because of less than equivalent damage ability, millions of tons of nuclear warhead medals, the United States more than the Soviet Union, the gap between the two countries is not large.
But since 80s, with the Soviet Union in the sub type Multi warhead missile The development of nuclear weapons, the gap is constantly expanding. The point (hard) target (see target) damage ability, will play a more important role in projecting the accuracy of nuclear weapons, the United States in this regard is still in the leading advantage. In addition to the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France and China have mastered nuclear weapons, India Conducted a nuclear test in 1974. Generally, the necessary nuclear technology and has a certain industrial base and economic strength of the country, it is entirely possible to make an atomic bomb.

Atomic bomb Development and test

except 235 uranium 239, the production of nuclear materials such as plutonium, nuclear combat development itself, must be with the entire nuclear weapons development program coordinated system. The development process is as follows: starting from the idea stage; pre feasibility study or research project of key technologies and components, including the formation of several design schemes of weight, size, form, power, nuclear materials, nuclear testing requirements, development time, funding and other content; after comparison and evaluation, the selected design, determine the tactics technical indicators; then the model research design, simulation test; process test and trial production, by reasonable design of inspection of the nuclear tests, and finally achieve the design process and approved the production of stereotypes, stereotypes. To carry out the work, to have a specialized team of science and technology, and equipped with the necessary test site, including the nuclear test site. Weapon delivery units, research and production departments to provide maintenance, repair and replacement of parts and other services, to make the necessary improvements according to feedback information, and is responsible for the decommissioning or update.
To do a good job of nuclear warhead design, must have a thorough understanding of the reaction process, and understand the various physical parameters must have, grasp the intrinsic relation and the change rule of the various factors. Therefore, to carry out nuclear physics, nuclear physics, condensed matter physics, high temperature and high pressure supersonic fluid mechanics Study on detonation, science, computational mathematics and material science in a series of problems of science and technology, and the development of the practice of nuclear warhead will in turn promote the development of these disciplines.
In the process of development, the following aspects play an important role:
The calculation of theoretical study on the reaction process with a large capacity computer fast, this calculation should be as close as possible to the actual situation, in order to find the optimal solution from a variety of ideas or design, so as to save the cost and reduce the number of nuclear tests. Since 1940s, one of the important factors to promote the rapid development of computer technology, it is because of the need for nuclear weapons development.
According to the requirements of the program or index, repeated simulation test in many aspects, including the detonation test of chemical explosive material and strength test, environment test, control, ignition and safety test. These are all essential to achieve highly reliable and secure nuclear weapons.
The necessary to conduct a nuclear test. Whether it is a large amount of computation on a computer, or the corresponding simulation test, the total can not reach one hundred percent to conform to the actual situation of nuclear weapons program. Especially in high temperature conditions needed for hydrogen fusion reaction, but only by the fission reaction to provide (to create the simulation test conditions, the use of inertial confinement laser or particle beam until the beginning of 80s is still in the research stage). Therefore, the ability to meet the design requirements, but also must pass through the nuclear explosion test device to test itself. Of course, the role is not limited to the nuclear test. It is because of a nuclear test in nuclear weapons plays a key role in the development of the United States and the Soviet Union between the two countries, for the limitation of other countries to develop nuclear weapons, in 1963 signed a not prohibited Underground nuclear test The "prohibition in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water treaty" nuclear weapons test in 1974 and signed a still fit they need to limit the equivalent of underground nuclear test treaty.

Atomic bomb Nuclear value

As a weapon of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb will eventually be eliminated. But as the release energy to a nuclear explosion, it has great application prospects in peace building attractive. Due to the nuclear explosions release huge energy, so it can make many other methods could not complete the work to be completed. Nuclear explosion can be used to mountains, open road, canal construction, mining artificial ports etc.. For example, there is a program, only four nuclear explosion can be dug a 10000 tons ship moored harbour. First of all, a million tons of TNT equivalent of nuclear explosion, can be blown to a diameter of 300 meters, 30 meters deep pit. Then the three smaller nuclear explosion, opened a canal to connect the pit and the deep sea (the explosion of course should minimize the radioactive substance produced). Only after several months of time, when the tide had produced little radioactive material after the tsunami, the harbor is safe to use.
Also, in many areas there are a large number of petroleum asphalt sand and oil shale, drilling and mining the oil can not rely on, but high temperature nuclear explosion can force the oil flow, so it can be mined. Allegedly, a single region in the western United States in oil shale oil out, can be used all over the world for a long period of time.
As for the use of high temperature and high pressure of underground nuclear explosions, graphite will become diamond The use of powerful, neutron production of underground nuclear explosions Uranium That has started to practice.
Nuclear explosion can also change the desert, the desert into fertile fields. Many deserts are actually some rain, but the rain is mostly from the ground into underground rivers flow into the sea, a little rest evaporates quickly, therefore, not a little water on the ground, the desert became gally. Nuclear explosion can cause huge water layer-" Underground reservoir ". During the rainy season, the water in the water storage layer, and then slowly through the soil moist porous surface, which is suitable for the growth of plants.
The prospect of peaceful nuclear explosion is really fascinating. History has eloquently proved that people will bury superpower atomic bomb; the hard work of several generations of scientists, will be fully used to benefit mankind.

Atomic bomb Development cost

In October 16, 1964, the first atomic bomb Chinese. According to declassified documents, to the atomic bomb explosion, China spent a total of 2 billion 800 million yuan. The combination of fuzzy data released earlier, China in early 80s the entire nuclear program (the first generation of nuclear weapons development and industrial construction investment), the equivalent of a large-scale steel plant of Baosteel, is estimated to be 30 billion yuan.
In January 15, 1955, plans to develop China start code for 02 nuclear weapons. If this calculation, atomic bomb development costs ten years average year is 280 million. If is the 596 project, namely Chinese's first atomic bomb development project, and in 1959 as a starting point for the calculation, the annual cost is 470 million. If the extreme calculation, from 1962 officially launched the first atomic bomb test program began, three years the average annual fee is 930 million yuan.
Provide some data:
Three years, a total cost of 6 billion 200 million yuan in the Korean War, the Soviet Union provided the equipment cost is RMB 3 billion. ("Cambridge people's Republic of China history 1949 - 1965" the data is $10 billion, wrong)
In 1959 two, the state budget, defense spending 5 billion 800 million yuan; debt expenditure 1 billion 100 million yuan; foreign aid spending 600 million yuan; other spending 270 million yuan.
The estimated loss generally three to 120 billion, the great leap forward.
Four, the Soviet Union to repay the total debt is 5 billion 900 million yuan, 1 billion yuan per year.
Five, 1956, Zhou Enlai announced the donation of 800 million yuan in vietnam.
Six, Chinese from 1 billion 450 million rubles to aid for North Korea during the Korean War (conversion) debt, 1954 - 1957 1 billion 600 million rubles aid.
Chinese nuclear program in full swing in 1958, to 1962, after discussing whether to dismount, into the decisive stage. China atomic energy industry construction target is small and complete, according to the data from the uranium exploration to create the first atomic bomb, in 1957 prices of about 10 billion 700 million yuan, in 1981 prices of about 12 billion 860 million yuan.
Mao Zedong to visit marshal Montgomerie said: "we take a little money to test. We have strong economic foundation." The meaning of this sentence should be the nuclear test costs are low, the nuclear industry construction should not belong to the category within the nuclear test. According to the comprehensive estimation of the above information, China the detonation of the first atomic bomb direct cost $2 billion 800 million; the construction of nuclear industry system and related expenses (such as uranium mining etc.) in billions of yuan, up to 8 billion of the scale; in addition, including nuclear armed and other expenses, such as nuclear submarines and missile nuclear weapons development, is the construction of a total the price of baosteel. This is a heavy, but although can afford it, but not really "when my pants off.".
The maximum estimate is: to the nuclear program, Chinese also played two Korean War in ten years, but no longer than one hundred thousand lives, and let the Chinese permanent free foreign invasion!

Atomic bomb Development trend

Because the accuracy of a nuclear weapon delivery tool, since 60s, the development of nuclear weapons, the first nuclear warhead weight and size are greatly reduced but still maintain a certain power, namely power ratio (the ratio of power and weight) has been significantly improved. For example, in the United States Nagasaki The atomic bomb dropped, weighs about 4.5 tons, about 20 thousand tons of power; in late 70s, the armed forces of the Trident II SLBM, the total weight of about 1.32 tons, a total of 8 sub guided bullet, each bullet power is 100 thousand tons, its power with Nagasaki than the atomic bomb dropped compared to increased 135 times. Thermonuclear weapons more powerful than the power, the improvement is more. The ultimate development of this aspect may have practical permissible.
Since 70s, the development of nuclear weapon system focuses more on improving the viability and precision weapons, such as the "defenders of peace /MX" Intercontinental missile And "dwarf" SICBM, Trident II SLBM, Soviet SS-24, SS-25 intercontinental missile And in these areas have improved greatly. The nuclear warhead detonated and reliability of safety control insurance system, and various service and operational capacity of the environment, also improved. The United States and the Soviet Union between the two countries also developed a variety of nuclear weapons for use on the battlefield, such as variable equivalent nuclear warhead, universal nuclear warhead of various vehicles, miniature nuclear weapons even developing equivalent of only a few tons. Especially how to improve the anti nuclear reinforcement ability of nuclear weapons in the environment of nuclear war, to prevent the destruction of the enemy, more attention. In addition, due to the large number of production and deployment of nuclear weapons, its security also caused the attention of the countries (see nuclear safety).
Another trend of development of nuclear weapons, is to adjust its performance through the design, according to different needs, strengthen or weaken some damage factors. "Enhanced radiation weapon" and "reduce the residual radioactivity weapon" all belong to this category. Before a high-energy neutron radiation share increases as far as possible, make it become the main damage factors, usually called in after a bullet; the remaining radioactivity is reduced to a minimum, outstanding shock wave , Ray radiation The role, but this kind of weapons still belongs to the category of thermonuclear weapons. As for the beginning of 60s has caused extensive discussion of the so-called "pure fusion Weapons ", 20 years has done a lot of research work, such as research on high power laser ignition fusion reaction, 80s is still continuing, but also do not see the possibility of such weapons.
The application of nuclear weapons, is still limited to two atomic bomb when it came out, but due to the development of nuclear weapons itself for 40 years, and a variety of project related or vehicle development and application, especially through the nuclear test on thousands of times by the accumulation of knowledge, the people of the destruction of some understanding the existing deep (see injurious and destructive effect of nuclear weapon ), and to explore the possible ways to combat application. The United States and the Soviet Union both formulated and revised many times the various strategic importance of nuclear weapons.
There will be a spear shield. In the continuous improvement and enhancement of strategic offensive nuclear weapons performance at the same time, the United States and the Soviet Union between the two countries have been seeking effective against nuclear attack methods and technology. In addition to improve the anti nuclear reinforcement ability of nuclear weapon system, adopt a wide range of building underground bunkers and room civil defence In order to reduce the loss of engineering measures, for the research and development work of defense technology more effective reconnaissance, target tracking and recognition, intercept the nuclear missile has never stopped. In 60s, the United States and the Soviet Union between the two countries had to deploy nuclear anti nuclear anti missile system. In May 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union signed "Treaty on the limitation of Anti Ballistic Missile Systems". Soon, the United States to stop the "guard" the deployment of anti missile system. At the beginning of 1984, the United States claimed to have developed a directed energy weapons, including nuclear excitation of high-energy laser, neutral particle beam, non nuclear missile, electromagnetic guns and other multi-layer interception means" Strategic Defense Initiative ". Although this defense system The effectiveness is still controversial, but certainly, for the United States and the Soviet Union on nuclear superiority will continue.
Because Nuclear weapon With tremendous power and unique role, it may change the course of global war in the future, as it is the reality of international political struggle has been and is constantly affected. At the end of 70s, the United States announced the successful development In the bullet And it is most suitable for use on the battlefield, it should belong to the category of tactical nuclear weapons, but it was strongly opposed to the world is almost. From this example can be seen, the complexity involved in nuclear weapons struggle.
Chinese government in the detonation of the first atomic bomb is a statement: the development of nuclear weapons China, not because I believe nuclear talks, to the use of nuclear weapons. On the contrary, the development of nuclear weapons China, is forced to, in order to defense, in order to break the nuclear monopoly and nuclear blackmail, in order to prevent nuclear war, the elimination of nuclear weapons. Since then, the government has repeatedly stressed that China at any time and in any case, Chinese are not the first to use nuclear weapons, and how to prevent nuclear war has repeatedly proposed. The idea of Chinese has gradually agreed and supported by more and more countries and people.

Atomic bomb Protective measures

The explosion of atomic weapons with air and ground (water) and underground (underwater explosion). Nuclear explosion, can produce a variety of damage effect. When the atomic bomb explosion, do not see the fireball, should immediately use the nearest fortifications and favorable terrain and objects are hidden. In the open ground personnel, immediately back to the blasting down. Lie down when the abdomen, chest hands, eyes closed, mouth, face in between the arms. Hot air for breath. The future and leave the room, should avoid the window, stove, down on the foot of the wall, depending on the direction of the explosion under the table or under the bed.
Shock wave protection: shock wave through the convex area after the shock strength is weakened, so in the trenches, pit and mound, solid parapet after also can play a protective role. Enter the air defense fortifications and tunnels can effectively protective shock wave damage.
Early nuclear radiation protection: Early nuclear radiation time to For several seconds to tens of seconds, so that flash, immediately into the bunker or fortifications, can reduce the radiation dose of radiation. The effect of light in a very short time, the heat energy can only be surface absorption, no damage to underground fortifications.
Protection of radioactive contamination: The dose rate of contaminated area declining with the increase of time. The explosion time was increased to seven times, the ground dose rate dropped to 1/10 about an hour after the explosion, explosion about forty-nine hours after falling to one percent an hour after the explosion. So try to postpone entering the contaminated area. After the explosion, professional personnel quickly enter the blasting area, populated areas, main roads and an important goal for residents, radiation reconnaissance, identify the situation and degree of contamination, and insert the logo, temporarily banned.

Atomic bomb China atomic bomb development story

Atomic bomb policy

Mao Zedong The active defense strategy established in January 1967 to early 1956, as early as the mid 50s, the CPC Central Committee and chairman Mao Zedong made the decision to develop atomic bomb. According to the international situation, President Mao Zedong established the strategic policy of active defense. Chairman Mao In order to decide, defense, Chinese also engage in atomic bomb. First of all we don't attack others, but not passive defense, but active defense. That is to say, if people attack us, we must have the way to deal with him. This is Chairman Mao's consistent strategic thinking. If others use of the atomic bomb on us, we should also have to hit him back. Therefore, the central government decided we also developed the atomic bomb.
The total is the principle of self-reliance, supplemented by foreign aid. Rely on their own development, at the same time, to seek foreign aid. At that time, western countries blocked us, Sino Soviet relations is good, we want to give us some assistance for the Soviet union. However, there is a line, just for assistance, rather than engage in cooperation, not to engage in a total. That is to say, in the atomic bomb research institutes, factories, equipment and technology are Chinese own. You can help me, I welcome you, thank you, but you can't have in common with me, in common use. This is a big problem to safeguard national sovereignty. So, put forward self-reliance, supplemented by foreign aid, don't you and I together tube of this unit, this thing. This is the central figure of the atomic bomb is the strategy of active defense policy, the establishment of Chairman Mao look far ahead from a high plane.

Atomic bomb task

The central government decided to rely on atomic bomb. Then I decided to rely on a missile and developed Artificial satellite Collectively, "Two bombs and one satellite" . Atomic bomb and Bomb Is responsible for erjibu, missile defense department five (seven machines later) is responsible for. Chairman Mao has a instructions on the development of the atomic bomb: "to vigorously synergy to do this job." China academy is the central government in accordance with the "cooperation" and "three ningchengyigusheng" spirit, is mainly responsible for science and technology mission atomic bomb and missile development in a series of key, theoretical analysis, scientific experiments, design, development and manufacture of various special new materials, components and instruments the equipment required, including. As for the satellite, from conception to suggestions are put forward by Chinese academy, has two times (1958, 1965). The prime minister Zhou Enlai as director, Luo As approved by the special committee secretary general to specific leadership of this work in the central, unified organization of the national defense science and technology, the China academy is responsible for the entire system technology of the total catch and is responsible for the development of the satellite body, seven machine department vehicles, Academy of Sciences and Ministry of machine jointly responsible for the ground system.
Academy of Sciences attaches great importance to the Party Central Committee issued the "two bombs and one satellite", and by Peilisheng Vice president of specific work "two bombs and one satellite" research work arrangements to implement. In order to facilitate the work of academic secretary in every research institute has arranged several top-notch middle-aged scientists, through their understanding of the situation, to listen, to find other scientists talk about work. China Academy of Sciences in order to implement the development task developed a ", the management mechanism is divided into two parts: one is the export plan bureau, pipe does not assume the defense task units; one is the New Technology Bureau, national defense task unit tube.
New Technology Bureau tube units although less than the Planning Bureau, but it is the tube, the scientific research personnel to participate in the "two bombs and one satellite" of the development task of hospital scientific research personnel accounted for 2/3. Guyu Is the director of new technology bureau, Song zheng1 Deputy director, director Lu Shou view, help Gu Yu work. Is Guyu Hu Comrade lady, tree is Chairman Mao's political secretary, live Zhongnanhai . Gu Yu is very enthusiastic, active and able. She is more familiar to the State Planning Commission and the central ministries, to talk about work, mutual support and cooperation, very convenient. Sometimes Chairman Mao asked her to the Academy and" Two bombs and one satellite About the situation, but also to reflect the face of chairman mao.
The New Technology Bureau in addition to the required project funding, equipment priority guaranteed, there are a lot of non standard equipment can be arranged into various industrial departments to assist manufacturing. Non standard equipment of laboratory and experimental base, designed by the Institute of science, by the relevant departments to ensure the quality of the industry made on time, on time delivery. By the national defense science and technology unified management of the work, to send troops on behalf of mill supervision, puts forward the design of the study can also be sent in factory supervision.
Rely mainly on their own strength is China to carry out scientific research. At the time of nuclear science and technology strength is mainly concentrated in the Institute of atomic energy Chinese academy, there are some scattered in the more than and 20 Research Institute of Chinese scientific research institutions and other departments and colleges. Supplemented by foreign aid, mainly the Soviet Union promised to help us to build a 7000 kW laboratory in Beijing Province atomic reactor . This all belong to the Chinese academy tube reactor. In addition, a built in another place enriched uranium The factory, the key raw materials made of the original bullet is enriched uranium.

Atomic bomb Story

The atomic bomb is the raw material of uranium - 235. Chairman Mao found geologist minister of geology At that time, he was the Minister of the Ministry of Geology and Chinese academy vice president. Chairman Mao Ask: "Chinese have made the atomic bomb with uranium ore?" Li Siguang said: "! However, the general natural uranium ore, as atomic bomb ingredients containing only a few thousandths." To put it a few thousandths of uranium from ore, then condensed into atomic bomb materials, the most important thing is to engage in uranium enrichment plant.
In order to set up a central atomic bomb, erjibu, Songrenqiong The minister. He is four or five years older than me, I told him the song brother. We work together in Anhui for a few months, it is in the millions of troops across the Yangtze River, the central government decided to set up Anhui provincial Party committee, when he Secretary of the provincial Party Committee The provincial government and the chairman, vice chairman of the provincial government when I.
I worked at the academy after the day, the song brother called to visit to my home. I said: "you don't come, I go, you are the elder brother." He said: "No. I must go to you!" Because in the atomic bomb, rely mainly on Academy of Atomic Energy Research Institute, in order to facilitate the work, the central government decided to give the entire establishment erjibu, but also called foreign Chinese Academy of Atomic Energy Research Institute, the name of the Academy of Sciences and erjibu Dual leadership . Due to the development of the atomic bomb the arduous task of scientific research is not enough, so the task decomposition, in addition to atomic energy bear one of the larger tasks, many important tasks but also by the scientific research institute to undertake. Of course, erjibu also find the central ministries to undertake some tasks. However, when the research institutions in the central ministries has just been established, and the strength is not strong, some can bear, some can not bear, the task fell on the shoulders of Academy of sciences. Atomic energy system to erjibu, the backbone is not enough, but also the Academy support, we are adjusting to them from the other one batch of technical backbone.
Institute of atomic energy in 1956 Zhongguancun At that time, Zhongguancun is building the best floor. Atomic energy to erjibu, by the assistance of the Soviet built experimental nuclear reactor. Atomic energy is divided into two parts, the majority of people moved to the experimental nuclear reactor. The Academy of Sciences engage in atomic energy two Yang: a scientist Yang Chengzong And returned from France; a Cheng Zhong , who returned from england. Their name is a bit with the words sound different. In order to distinguish, we call them "Yang", "Ying yang". "Yang" is engaged in Radiation chemistry At that time, radiation chemistry is the key. We are the most important measure is to Yang Chengzong and a number of scientists to atomic energy nuclear reactors there ("Ying Yang" Yang Chengzhong at the Lanzhou Institute of modern physics, responsible for the work of atomic energy). Atomic energy of another part of the people in Zhongguancun to engage in theoretical work. Atomic energy to erjibu, I say hello to them after the meeting said, Academy of sciences do not come, you have to go to the meeting erjibu. Party secretary, director of them every time to participate in the Academy, because we had scientific research policy, policy, policy issues of intellectuals many scientists, they are very willing to listen to, be sure to join us will. At that time, Academy of Sciences is very attractive. Have to transfer from the University chemist Wangdexi To erjibu.
In the atomic bomb, the most important problem is the problem of refining uranium, natural uranium ore can put forward in 235, isotopic content of only a few thousandths. In addition, uranium is also very important. So, the chemistry of the scientific research task is very heavy. At that time there are four Chemical Research Academy of science's most famous outstanding scientists have served as director, known as" The four families ": one is the Shanghai Institute of organic Changgong Mr. Zhuang; one is Changchun group Aesthetics Mr. Zhou Beijing Institute of chemistry; and Mr. Liu Dagang. In addition, Dalian Institute of chemical physics is very strong, there are Zhangdayu Sir。 I said to three, several chemical sciences assume your task, which can bear what tasks you are clear, which bear what tasks you make out, we have chosen the best arrangements for you to do the work.
At that time, Shanghai Institute of organic chemistry research strength not only production power, can not provide products. After I Institute of science and technology, make each set of small factories, the Shanghai municipal Party committee also gave us a number of small factories, to institute when experimental factory. And also, choose the best teacher. I am from the Ministry of Railways Lu Zhengcao Secretary invited a number of older workers, very good. I say you are the Ministry of Railways locomotive factory thousands of people, a selection of the best workers to support the teachers, Academy of Sciences, the Institute also our subsidiary factory. We need not do not own equipment. To establish a research laboratory to develop equipment. Some buy, some buy, to do their own. In addition, there are a lot of non standard equipment, scientific research personnel design drawings, the factory to do. So, we choose a lot of old master from the Ministry of railways. I am in Beijing Zhongguancun The old workers held a special meeting, I say you are gold craft, hand is gold, can make a lot of good stuff! The old worker was very happy to hear. In addition, the demobilized soldiers from the army corps, selection of thousands of skilled workers when the soldiers, they play a significant role.
In 1960, the Soviet Union unilaterally tore up the agreement the withdrawal of experts. At that time, the most affected is the uranium enrichment plant, the key material not to the Soviet Union, factory stops. The key technology of the most pressing issues three:
In addition, the atomic bomb test data collection, the academy is also done a lot of work. The test is mainly carried out in the empty place, can test its destructive force, for a variety of buildings, a variety of organisms, including iron cage monkey, rabbit and so on. Because the atomic bomb is radioactive, radioactive damage to see them much. Chinese academy has a lot of, are sent to the base to participate in the test.