Fern

Fern (Pteridium aquilinum var.latiusculum) is also called Fist dish And the cat's paw, Longtoucai Hi, Yang was born in light of mountain land, with most areas of China, more sparsely distributed in the coniferous forest; the edible part is unfolding tender buds treated bracken fragrance taste smooth, then mix with the sauce, cool Refreshing That is a rare quality Food and wine Also, can be eaten fried, processed into dried vegetables, stuffing, pickled into Can Etc.. There are widely distributed in Chinese, and Southeast Asia, and also welcomed the table in these areas. Because of its" Ptaquiloside "Cattle, excessive consumption will lead to death, human consumption will lead to increased incidence of cancer, it is also considered the cause of gastric cancer in Japan The high ratio of one of the culprit.
Fern

Fern Appearance characteristics

For bracken Pteridaceae Leaf herb. Fern The general height of one meter long cross, root
 Fern Fern
Go, have dark brown hair, spring new leaves circinate, a forked. Handle leaf fresh, with white hair, this time for the collection period. Petiole length 30 ~ 100cm, the blade is triangular, length 65 ~ 150cm, width 30 ~ 60cm, 2 ~ 3 times of bipinnatifid, lower pinnae, brown sporangia continuous was born in the edge of the blade has dual indusium. Growth in the mountainous soil moist, fertile soil, deep sunny slope.

Fern Morphological character

Fern root

Rhizome black brown, long and transverse stretching, diameter 0.6 ~ 0.8 cm long, 10 cm, up to 30 cm.

Fern leaf

Bracken leaves grow from underground stem, Veinlet Pinnate. Leaf margin curled inwards. Petiole delicate, fine hairs, herbaceous after stalk smooth, hairs disappear. Early summer, which leaves students of reproductive organs, namely ascus group was reddish brown.

Fern Distribution

Fern A wide distribution in our country, many different types, different varieties of different regions, according to the general origin can be divided into the following:
 Fern Fern
1, Hebei Chengde Bracken is the famous wild vegetables in Hebei Province, Chengde area has more than 33 thousand hectares, mainly in Fengning, Pingquan, Longhua area, Kuancheng etc.. The annual output of 1000 tons, is the main production base of bracken.
2, Liaoning fern are distributed in mountainous areas of Liaoning Province, especially in the eastern mountainous areas are widely distributed, the number of. Mainly exported to Japan and other countries, the domestic market is also very popular.
3, Inner Mongolia fern are distributed everywhere in Inner Mongolia, but in the main producing areas Chifeng City , hinggan league So, the annual output of about 200 tons. The local harvest period in June.
4, Jilin is located in Jilin Province, mountain fern, yield. Every year around May the beginning of the listing, mainly exported to South Korea, and domestic sales is also very good.
5, Heilongjiang fern are distributed at an altitude of 200 to 800 meters in the alpine zone, and mixed weeds. In mid May to late May to early 6 in early may be harvested.
6, Guizhou fern, fern widely distributed in Guizhou, many kinds of edible ferns are about. The bracken picking period in the local mid March to August.
7, Hunan fern, in Yueyang The mountain also has bracken distribution, such as Xiangyin, Miluo, Zhang Guying hill has,
When the spring is bracken picking period, about June will grow up not to eat fern forming. The local distribution of bracken is very scattered, are generally used for some farmers to pick their own food and hospitality.
8, Shandong Muping Kunyu Mountain also has distribution, rapid growth in the rain.
9, the Guilin of Guangxi Mountain state wide distribution, variety, especially the cedar forest zone. The growth period is from March to September.
10, Ningxia, Guyuan and Gansu, is booming in Yuzhong County, Zhang county and Weiyuan two more distributed, particularly higher quality Zhangxian bracken. Jingyuan Taihe mountain, Hasi mountain also has a large distribution, high quality, exported to overseas.
11, Anhui to the south of the Yangtze River in Anhui, Nanshan District area more wild. Local processing pickles and dry bracken.
12, near Ningxia, Xiji Huoshizhai and moon mountain wide distribution, particularly steep growth of higher quality.

Fern cultivation techniques

Fern Production of medium

Mixed sowing soil spore fern, which is economical and convenient. use Peat soil , River sand And turf ash mixed in proportion, mix, sieving, mixing soil, then steam for half an hour.

Fern Spore collection

Choose the appearance of brown bracken, Sporangium No cracking sporangia, leaves with a clean cut with scissors to spore, into the bag stem for stroke.

Fern Spore sowing

The ready mixed soil culture containers placed in shallow water to fully wet the day before sowing bracken, will Spore Uniformly dispersed on the culture medium, and then cover the lid, soaked in shallow water, second days out of training.

Fern spore cultivation

The container is moved to plant the good or a culture box, keep the temperature at 25 degrees Celsius, humidity is above 80%, light more than 4 hours a day. After 1 months of spore germination, grow young Protonema Then, a heart shaped or flat ribbon of gametophyte. In the gametophyte abdomen grow The archegonium And spherical The sperm is . When day spray 2 times, for 1 consecutive weeks, sperm egg binding by water flowing out and the formation of embryo. After a week of development Sporogonium Small plants.

Fern Transplanting sporophyte

Sporogonium bracken grow 3 ~ 4 leaves for the first time after transplanting, still tend to make the bed soil mixed with soil. 1 to 2 weeks after the move to the hotbed, seedlings grew up, second times of transplanting or colonization.

Fern Asexual reproduction

1, Gemma breeding: some ferns grow in the axillary and spore pinna rachis at the top, with some axis meristem and produce new strains, or a nutrition tip can also produce new strains.
2, vegetative propagation is: Stolon Segments can also be cultivated, rhizomes erect for 2 cultivars slitting, but must take root on each segment with Ye Caiyi survival.
3, tissue culture: fern somatic cells also has regenerative capacity. This method only needs to capture a small part of vegetative organs will be able to train a large number of fern seedlings.

Fern Field management

1, planting: in the production of multi use asexual reproduction method. The underground rhizomes dug up, choose the strong ramet planting, row spacing 70~80cm, 50~60cm spacing, height 10~15cm colonization.
2, site preparation for bed: humus rich soil is appropriate, when applied into the soil litter compost and manure, made of 1m wide flat beds or high bed, can be planted after thawing soil.
3, field management: during the growth period should be diligent Cultivator Weeding and watering during the rainy season, to strengthen the drainage, so as not to cause root rot; multiple thin topdressing fertilizer, harvesting time apply fertilizer, fertilization in 2~3 days after harvest; winter to grass cover, with moisturizing cold; in early spring before germination should be timely watering and fertilizing, promote germination of stem and leaf.
4, planting a harvest: bracken could be harvested 10 years, every spring and summer, when the stem length to 20-25cm, the young Oba Naomi started a petiole, punch hook can be harvested. After the party affected food value, and has a bad effect on early next year's harvest will reduce yield. At harvest, with a knife cut or hand pinch, to try to close to the ground. The recovery time, 10-15 days can be harvested second times a year of continuous recovery 2-3.
5 introduction: in general, the seedlings at the beginning of spring growth period as well, and keep the air in the process of transportation of moist soil.
6, the introduction of rhizome: time to fall as well, in stems and leaves withered, the earth before freezing digging; in the spring before the emergence of digging. Rhizome With the length of bud clusters of more than two, the thickness of 7~10 mm is appropriate, a vertical bud should have 10 mm above the root. Erect buds must be well protected, this is the key to the success of introduction and cultivation.
7, colonization:
Soil fertilizer: Autumn deep pine, with spring land preparation, Mu apply pure chicken manure 2000 kg and then make the bed. To go to bed, bed, bed can be underground, bed width 1~2 meters, 15~20 meters high 20 cm long bed remained between the 50 cm work channel.
Planting rooted rhizome: according to the 25 cm spacing open planting furrow 10 cm wide, 15 cm deep, 5 cm away from the bud and press adjust put root segment, and then cover 10 cm soil, water, water sink after covering 5 cm, with a rake flat.
When the seedling transplanting seedlings: 10~12 cm tall, with ball transplanting. When transplanting dug 20 cm in diameter, 15 cm deep planting hole, according to the density of 10 plants / m2 placed spacing was 30 cm, and then filled with soil seedlings around 12 cm, immediately pouring a Permeable And water permeability after soil.
8, open field cultivation fertilization: 3 ~ 4 years to update 1 times, so before planting to applying adequate manure and fertilizer, organic fertilizer application amount was l000 ~ 1500 kg / mu, 10 kg / mu diammonium phosphate. Second years later, the fall of the year to be applied into chicken, pig and horse dung dung with hijab do scarification, turn to soil. This will not only increase the soil fertility , loose soil, but also can play thermal insulation and moisturizing effect. If the manure source is insufficient, can also be covered with leaves, also have certain effect.
9, water drainage: planting should be planted in furrow irrigation water, to ensure the survival rate of planting. The rainy season in the water should be discharged in time, in order to avoid waterlogging.
10, covering: bracken roots after planting, to prevent drought, improve the survival rate, on the ground should be covered with straw, leaves, thickness 2 ~ 3 cm, the trial conditions can be covered with plastic film. Do not heat, can also prevent weeds.
11, weeding: to prevent soil compaction and overgrown farmland, annual growth period of weeding 2 ~ 3 times, as far as possible the field free of weeds.
12, update the roots: a few years after the growth of bracken roots gradually aging and withered, therefore should be updated. General in 3 ~ 4 years old in the autumn field, wheeled tractors with Coulter will cut off part of the fern rhizome, this can protect in harvest without significantly reduced.
First years after planting, field management task is to do Miao, Miao Qi, Miao Zhuang, the soil moisture must be between 55% to 60%, after watering after covering the leaves or straw, hay has light and moisturizing effect. The growth period can leave fewer intertillage weeding, growing good grass fern shade, winter cold water 1 times water, namely irrigation water in winter; second year mission is to cultivate the root, the root stout formed multiple buds, when the soil layer melts 6 cm, in the middle row of ditching, 10 cm deep 8~ Mu, chicken manure 2000 kg or 1000 kg mixed with ash, combined with soil, water 1 times water, other management with first years; third years on earth after thawing, rake surface soil loose, not too deep, generally about 3 cm, 2000 kg acres of chicken manure to the surface, pouring 1 permeable to other management of the previous year; fourth years later, with third years of management.

Fern Harvesting and processing

Planting a bracken can harvest 15~20 years, the annual 5~6 month recovery. When the seedling height of 25~40 cm, petiole, young Oba Naomi series, which should be harvested. 10~15 days later harvested second times a year of continuous recovery 2~3. Not only were all collected, harvest 2/3~3/4,.
Export bracken processing method have two kinds of salted and dried.

Fern Pickled

Material selection: thick, no insects, the length of more than 20 cm in the fresh fern.
Treatment will cut bracken roots, followed by over 20 cm long, each diameter 5 ~ 6 cm, weight 250 ~ 260 kezza
 Bracken harvest Bracken harvest
The.
The salted bracken into the cylinder Saline . First at the bottom of a layer about 2 cm thick salt, then a layer of bracken, a layer of salt placed neatly arranged. Full cylinder, the overlying 3 cm layer of salt, salt amount reached 30% of the weight of bracken. The top put a clean tasteless wood, heavy pressure plate.
Two saline: after 7 ~ 10 days after salt, poured out cylinder, will hide the dish in another bowl, it turned to the following, according to the weight of the 15% salt salted bracken, a layer of a layer of salt bracken, above Zaisa 2 cm thick layer of salt, and injected into the brine filtration concentration of 22% cover, wooden board, heavy pressure plate, 10 ~ 15 days to packaging.
Barrel: salted bracken in 22% saline rinse again, remove impurities, drain off water, into the two layer lined with non-toxic plastic bag in the bucket, add a layer of toilet salt, filled with 22% filtering solution, two layers of plastic bag, discharge the air tight lid lid, put in the shade save or sale.

Fern Dried

Choose fresh thick, no pests bracken, remove impurities, with boiling water soak for 10 minutes, remove and dry. When the skin dry, rub, rub repeatedly in more than 10 times, after 2 ~ 3 days to dry. Export standard dry bracken is completely dry, not moldy, no impurities, hand rub, soft roll, hard stems without aging.
The cleaning and finishing good bracken into boiling water burns for 7 ~ 8 minutes. Hot Adding mass fraction 0.2% ~ 0.5% citric acid and 0.2% mass fraction in liquid Sodium metabisulfite The use of clean, sulfur conditions, the first after hot smoked sulfur. Every 100 kilograms of bracken sulphur content is 0.2 ~ 0.4 kg, and bracken blanching liquid ratio was 1:1.5 ~ 2; hot immediately after the end of the bracken with flowing water cooling to room temperature, and then drying or drying. In order to prevent external bracken uneven moisture, especially to prevent the dry bracken surface broken and broken, should eliminate wet caking, debris, and the accumulation of 1 - 3 days, in order to achieve the balance of water. At the same time the dry bracken softened so that the pressure piece or package.
Bracken finished use low temperature and humidity storage conditions and storage temperature to 0 ~ 2 degrees is appropriate, not more than 10 degrees Celsius, relative humidity below 15%.

Fern Preservation and storage

Bracken need high temperature cooked with pure water bag. Vacuum packaging preservation.
The pickled bracken has the advantages of simple processing, easy storage and long-distance transportation, and market stalls net effect. Today, the advent of a new process using plastic composite bag packaging, while keeping the bracken color green, crisp, refreshing fragrance and other basic characteristics at the same time, beautiful appearance, long shelf life, easy to carry, health, high value-added products.
A: according to the 7, salted vegetables, 3 salt preparation. Marinate the first in the pool looking bottom salt, then a layer of a layer of vegetables, salt evenly, then salt cap, press 10 to 15 days.
Two, desalination: marinate well into bracken pool, cleaning 6 ~ 7 hours, and then change the water, wash again 3 ~ 4 hours. In order to shorten the time of desalting, can make the appropriate mixing, but to avoid crushing.
Three, the green complex: reagent grade copper sulfate as green processing. Green complex, solution temperature control in 65 to 70 DEG C, copper sulfate was added with pH value of about 6 is appropriate. Green bracken close to the fresh color, after cleaning 2-3 times, the adhesion of the copper residue in bracken is not more than 10ppm.
Four, brittle: complex Impregnation after 0.6% bracken green calcium chloride The solution, after wetting into sealed container for vacuum embrittlement treatment, vacuum pumping
The vacuum is maintained in 0.08MP2, temperature 50 to 55 DEG C for 20 minutes. Because bracken contains pectin, heat will produce pectinase And the formation of calcium pectate gel state interacting with metal ions, thus maintaining the brittleness.
Five, bagging, sterilizing: soup with salt solution 3.5%. Appropriate to add other seasonings with citric acid to pH 6. Per 0.5 kg bag plus soup 75 ~ 85 ml of bagging, hot sealing, then at 105 degrees 20 minutes to obtain the finished product in steam sterilization.

Fern quality standard

The color: bright green or slightly deep;
The form: Miao Qi, full, crisp;
The taste of the original flavor of fresh fern has no smell;
The microbial indicators: per gram of bracken The total number of bacteria Less than 500 per 100g; bracken coliform bacteria detection shall not be less than or equal to 40MPN.
Good economic value.

Fern Nutritional composition

Fern leaves containing carotene, vitamin, protein, fat, sugar, crude fiber, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pterosin, pteroside, acetyl pterosin, choline Sterine. In addition, contains 18 kinds of amino acids. Every 100 grams of bracken contain nutrients as follows: calories (39 thousand calories) and protein (1.60 grams), fat (0.40 grams), carbohydrates (9 grams), dietary fiber (1.80 g), Vitamin A (183 micrograms), carotene (1100 micrograms), vitamin C (23 mg), vitamin E (0.78 mg), calcium (17 mg) and phosphorus (50 mg), magnesium (30 mg), iron (4.20 mg), zinc (0.60 mg), copper (2.79 mg), manganese (2.31 mg), potassium (292 mg).
Medicinal method
The roots for medicinal fern. Taste: sweet and cold. Function: heat, Qi, phlegm, smoothing intestine. For food, gas, belch belch intestinal wind heat toxin.
The clinical use of Chinese medicine :
1 treatment of intestinal wind heat toxin fern cauliflower (leaf) for the end of baking, each serving 10 grams, rice drink ("San Hui Fang").
2 cure diarrhea abdominal pain fern powder 150 ~ 200 grams, a little to use cold water and mix thoroughly, add brown sugar, boiling water ("zhe Hui Zhi" Tianmushan plant).
3 treatment of fever of 50 to 100 grams of fresh root decoction ("Zhejiang Tianmushan Zhi").
4 cure eczema first will be affected with water or wine will wash, sprinkle with glycerin or fern powder rub ("transfer of Chinese medicines and herbs simple prescription" compilation).

Fern The main value

Fern Medicinal value

Fern leaves ambiguous [2], potassium, calcium, magnesium, pterosin, pteroside, acetyl pterosin, Bilineurine, sterol.
In addition, bracken contains 18 kinds of amino acids etc.. In the view of modern study bracken cellulose can promote intestinal peristalsis is, reduce the absorption of fat stomach. Bracken sweet and cold medicine, detoxification, Runchang, heat, phlegm and other effects, regular consumption can reduce blood pressure, alleviate dizziness insomnia. Bracken can also Zhixie diuretic, the content of dietary fiber can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, the gas purge, bowel detoxification function, but also the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, dysentery, hemoptysis and other diseases. And have a preventive effect on measles and influenza.
The fern is found so far only a carcinogenic ability of edible plants. It broke the carcinogenicity of many people Fantasy - "natural food safer and more nutritious". The evolution of animal plant is to adapt to the environment in order to survive, to become a human "good food" is clearly not consistent with their evolution direction. Plants can't run to jump, in the face of animal, bacteria or fungi attacks, they can only be passive. In order to survive, many plants have evolved some "defensive substances" -- when attacked, has a certain ability to fight back, ptaquiloside is one of them.
Although "bracken carcinogenic" have clear scientific evidence, but "carcinogenic" means "to increase the risk of cancer," rather than "eating will get cancer". The so-called "increased risk", is to increase the likelihood of catching. "Irrefutable evidence" is that "will increase the risk of this thing is certain, but it with the increase in the number of risk" are two different things. Is the fern carcinogenic, according to epidemiological survey of Japan in 1970s, often eat bracken to a man's risk of esophageal cancer has increased 2.1 times, the female is 3.7 times. It increases the proportion of it is quite normal, but considering the risk of esophageal cancer is not high, two or three fold increase is still a relatively small probability. And this is in the long-term often eat bracken area, the local drinking water will also have the existence of ptaquiloside. The size of the risk associated with the amount of intake, if really love the taste, occasionally eat several times to taste fresh, the risks are small enough to be ignored.
Fern nutrient rich, the general population can eat, spleen deficiency with caution, ordinary people should not eat.

Fern Dietotherapy method

[properties]: sweet, bitter, cold. Can Qingrejiedu, diuresis, slippery bowel.
[ingredients]: containing ergosterol, choline, glycosides, tannins, starch etc..
[use]: for damp heat diarrhea or dysentery; urine small profit, or wet tropical women; constipation, or habitual constipation.
[usage]: decoction, powder, or cooking, fried food.
[note]: to slide the intestines, to make food. Stir fried meat or soup was very beautiful. As for food, after soaking, bleaching, heating, heat detoxification, dampness effect is weak. Vegetarian food for a long time, can hurt yang.
[effect]:
1 bracken hormone inhibition of bacteria, can be used for fever, intestinal wind heat toxin, eczema, ulcers and other diseases, and has a good Qingrejiedu sterilization Qingyan efficacy.
2 under the gas pressure. Some effective components of bracken can dilate blood vessels, reduce blood pressure; crude fiber can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, the gas purge of the role.
3 bracken can Qingchang detoxification, the common folk bracken treatment of diarrhea and dysentery and urine dripping barrier, have a certain effect.
4 bracken can be made of vermicelli, powder long grain to eat, spleen qi, strong body, enhance the ability to resist disease.
[attach]:
1, fern powder: bracken at the end of the research, each serving 3~6g meters, drink down.
From the "San Hui Fang". The party to take power and bracken Qingrejiedu dampness. For damp heat diarrhea or dysentery.
2, bracken fungus meat: bracken 15g with immersion after bleaching segments; fungus 6G, and vesicular swelling; lean pork slices, 100g, wet starch mix, to be cooked into the pot cooking oil, fry color, add salt, edible fungus and bracken, soy sauce, sugar, vinegar, pickled ginger bubble, hot pepper stir evenly food etc..
Bracken, fungus and smooth matter can be gut, cold, and only meat fry, is calm and taste delicious. For the old and the weak Tianjin blood deficiency, constipation or constipation.
The classical theory of injection
1 " Dietetic materia medica "Five: fill insufficient gas obstruct meridian between the bones, gas.
 The wild red fern The wild red fern
2 " Chinese Materia Medica "To hot, Lee.
3 "herbal medicine to the new": the slippery bowel, phlegm.
4 "materia medica seeking original": qi.
5 "Nanjing folk": food, herbal treatment belch belch gas. Morphological character。
6 "Compendium of Materia Medica": cough, qi.

Fern Edible method

Only a few edible fern, Matteucciastruthiopteris , Platycerium Dishes with cinnamon fern are edible. Pteris Having pinnately compound leaves, ratio of matteucciastruthiopteris taste bitter, there is an ostrich fern, each plant can pick 3~5 tree. Bracken roots and a small portion of the stem leaves are edible, have comfortable bracken should not be consumed. Bracken can be served cold or hot food.
1 bracken can be fresh or dried vegetables, making hot with boiling water after the sun is. Eat hair with warm water, then cook a variety of delicious dishes
2 fresh goods before eating should be soaked in boiling water hot after the cold, to remove the surface of clay and soil.
3 fried with egg and meat for
 Cold fern Cold fern
Fresh fried bracken
[material]: fresh bracken repeatedly washed with water several times, wash away the topsoil and surface villi. Cut off the tail part of the black fern. In the boiling water burns for 2 to 3 minutes, and then soak in cold water for a long time, soaking for 1 hours, there is almost no astringency. Also said that for 2 days, there is no need to. Bracken and cut into sections, carrots, shredded meat, soak the dried shrimps, onion ginger garlic.
[Methods]: hot pot temperature oil, saute onion ginger, add shredded meat and stir fry for 2 minutes. Add carrots, dried shrimps stir fry 2 minutes. To stir the fire 2 minutes segment of bracken. Cooked into a few drops of fresh Yellow Wine. And then stir fry a few minutes, according to personal taste, add pepper, salt and seasoning can. Although the approach is very simple, but you can eat fresh and pure taste smooth and tender fern.
Cold fern
[material]: bracken, garlic (according to personal preferences).
[methods]:
1, wash cut bracken;
2, open water and cook for about a minute;
3, remove subcooled boiling water;
4, garlic mashed garlic;
 Fern Fern
5, add soy sauce, chili, sugar, vinegar, salt, sesame oil, green onion and mix well;
6, pour in the mix with a mix of bracken.
Fried pork
[materials]:
Bracken 350 grams, 150 grams of pork, garlic bolt two, two pepper, oil amount, the amount of salt, rice wine, soy sauce amount.
[methods] :
Dry bracken in boiling water and cook for 20 minutes, cooked for more than half the hand can break blisters. Wet bracken can be used directly.
Pork slices, bracken by hand breaking, pepper cut garlic bolt.
The pot without oil, put the fried dry bracken, add half a bowl of water, add salt and cook for a few minutes (such bracken flavor fried dried water).
Fried bracken filled out another pot. Wok put oil to saute pepper.
Add pork and stir fry, add salt, rice wine, stir fry pork until both sides are golden brown.
Add fried dry bracken and stir fry, add a little water, soy sauce and simmer for two minutes, a little sauce, stir fry a few can be added garlic bolt.
Bracken Hairongsi mix
[materials] :
Hairongsi radish 50 grams, water amount, amount of red pepper, garlic amount, sugar, soy sauce, vinegar amount, amount of Chili oil amount,
100 grams of bracken.
[methods] :
The first Hairongsi with cold water soak for 20 minutes, then blanch too cool.
Water washed and shredded radish, bracken blanch too cool, cut into small pieces.
Red pepper dices, after all the ingredients above, packed in small bowl.
Add appropriate amount of sugar, mashed garlic, soy sauce, and then pour the right amount of white vinegar, Chili oil, mix well.
Dish, decorate the edible coriander.
Hot and sour fern
[material]: bracken amount, amount, ginger, garlic, bacon, dried chili, appropriate amount of soy sauce, vinegar amount, amount of salt, sugar amount
Chicken amount
[methods]:
1, bracken wash, cold water boiled water, cut appropriate size sections.
2, Jiang Qiesi, garlic, red pepper strips, sliced bacon.
3 hot pot, add bacon stir oil to turn golden shredded meat.
4, add red pepper saute ginger and garlic.
In 5, bracken fire stir fry for a while.
6, transfer a small fire into the vinegar.
7, add soy sauce 15ml.
8, add salt.
9, add sugar.
10, add chicken.
11, turn off the fire fire stir fry.
Appropriate to the crowd
Bracken edible Shenhun, high fever, aching pain wind intestinal toxicity, negative urine, constipation, tropical wet women or habitual constipation patients. About 30 grams each time.
The taste of bracken cold, spleen deficiency diet, ordinary people also should not eat.
Potential hazards
1 Sun Simiao: long food into the mass.
2 Meng Xian: an weak legs do not, Xiao Yang, shrink jade stem, eat a net, stuffy nose, eyes dark.
3 "therapeutic Materia Medica": many people eat cold abdominal distension.
With cancer related substances containing 4 benzene in oxalic acid, bracken fern lactames, yellow alkaline alcohol compounds, quercetin and quercetin and similar substances. These carcinogenic substances in bracken content in rhizome of the highest in the leaves of.
According to many countries in the world are carcinogenic bracken fern test showed that rats can induce colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, leukemia, etc..
Scientists also cooked processed bracken carcinogenic test showed that even after processing the bracken, can also cause cancer.
Some studies show that the bracken ptaquiloside has a clear carcinogenic, and the substance content in bracken seedlings especially rich, should try to avoid eating, and appropriate processing.

Fern Books and records

The 1 was shown in "edible fern Book of Songs "" Zhi slope Nanshan, gather the fern." The ancient Boyi and Shuqi mining fern Wei to poor but never sway, Shouyangshan story, so future generations to adopt as a symbol of the Gao Wei.
2 "Ya - wing" contains: "fern students such as the children of boxing, purple and fat." The Tang Dynasty poet Bai Juyi "has been in bracken fist" of the sentence, the Song Dynasty poet Huang Tingjian has said: "the beginning of a long shoot boxing in children." This is a fern. Bracken areas, people put the custom called "bracken fist dish" and "fist sprouts" or "bergamot dish"," Bergamot shark's fin "Thus, the fact that" bracken shark's fin".
 Bracken country Bracken country
3 for bracken delicacies, into the dishes very long history. "Book of Songs south": "I ascended that Nanshan, gather the fern." The Tang Dynasty Chen cangqi in "herbal supplements" in the record: the Shang Dynasty, there son of King Bo Yi and Shu Qi, in taking out after mining fern, Wei swear poor but never sway, to eat, finally starved to death in the first yang. In the early Han Dynasty, "Sihao" said Mr. Lu Li, Xiahuanggong, Dong Yuan and Qi in the high season, shiyuki Shou Hao, Changde Shao, fleeing the Qin chaos, his wife will be in Shaanxi today, a hill, mining fern and food. The Han Emperor Liu Bang heard, very respected, then issued an edict to ask them to set an official, but they refused to call, to the poor in seclusion. The mountain area so far, "said fern's chicago". "Qin Zhi" or "rosie". "Herbal supplements" also contains: "food and Sihao Zhi Shou", said the four hermit edible fern and longevity. "Sihao" written "Shang song" said: "Momo mountains, meandering valley. Ye ye Rosie, can eat. Don Yushi far, I will return to what? Simagaogai, its advantages is very large. Rich people fear as poor Zhi Xi,." Thus, the longevity of the therapeutic efficacy of bracken.
4 Bo brothers and Sihao hermit edible fern method still needs to be verified. According to the "Minshu" records, Vijaya, Gansu Tianshui eat bracken, February acquisition, made of dried vegetables, edible in autumn and winter. Li Shizhen "Compendium of Materia Medica" records, the Ming eat bracken way is, to take tender stems, with gray mucus to cook soup, dried vegetables when eating. The Qing Dynasty is soaked with boiling water, choose to root leaf and stem thick, tender selection part, chicken soup simmer and cooked food. The bracken can cook, can burn, can simmer stew can be fried, cooked many dishes, be too numerous to enumerate.
According to legend, 5 son of Liu Bang Liu high one day out of the city. Suddenly a gust of wind rolling and put him and his entourage rolled to the clouds. When he opened his eyes, he was found hanging in a pine tree. Around the quiet, no sound. He wanted to get back to the palace, but where to find? Then he turned a few days in the woods, hungry to eat only eat bracken. Other followers find him, he has been dead for several days. A doctor to find out the deadly root from his body, but it was too late. From then on, people of the Han Dynasty are not eating bracken. If not bracken sins, so we should rewrite the history of the Han dynasty.

Fern Diet taboo

Menstruation can eat bracken?
The menstrual period can not eat bracken.
1 bracken hormone inhibition of bacteria, can be used for fever, intestinal wind heat toxin, eczema, ulcers and other diseases, and has a good Qingrejiedu sterilization Qingyan efficacy;
Some 2 active ingredients of bracken can dilate blood vessels, reduce blood pressure;
3 the crude fiber can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, the gas purge of the role;
4 bracken can Qingchang detoxification, the common folk bracken treatment of diarrhea and dysentery and urine dripping barrier, have a certain effect;
Bracken is especially suitable for bowel detoxification function of menstruating women eat, because menstrual women often have constipation, and menstruation is a detoxification period, so in the menstrual period bracken on women's physical health is very good. But some people eat bracken will have adverse reactions, so women or according to individual Constitution Would you like to eat bracken decided to menstruation.
Grams of food and bracken
Soy beans are rich in vitamin B1 and bracken fern, it contains vitamin B1 decomposition enzyme, so two is not the same food.
The food collocation and bracken
Chicken fern two collocation busui Tim refined, with the functions of kidney yang.
Letinous edodes bracken two have the efficacy of Qi appetizers with food.
pharmacological action
The quality of the seed plant P.Aquilinum, cattle, sheep and horse food poisoning, poison of harmless. Toxic substances may be sulfur. Enzymes, vitamin B, therapeutic effect. Some people think that toxic substances is not only thiamine enzymes, and other components. It will do harm to the whole bone marrow hematopoietic system, especially inhibit the formation of red blood cells, inhibit the uptake of 59Fe red blood cell. In addition there is also reduced platelet and white blood cells, have extensive petechial hemorrhage. A large number of cattle fed the herbaceous, with small bowel injury, ulcer, hematuria and bladder cancer, feeding, also may cause cancer, especially in small intestine.
The latest research: ptaquiloside
In 80s the Japanese scientists from bracken took a call" Ptaquiloside Carcinogenic substance ". Ptaquiloside are in various parts of the fern, and young some people eat bracken fern - in higher content! Ptaquiloside eating will cause bovine bone marrow damage, the sheep will eat the blind, and what is the impact on people?
In 1970s, investigated the relationship between eating bracken and esophageal cancer in central Japan in mountainous areas. Found in the residents there, eat bracken makes the men's esophageal cancer incidence increased by 2.1 times, while women increased by 3.7 times. In the northern Welsh region of Britain, has been a very high incidence rate of gastric cancer.
For most people, these results only appear in academic journals. Some propaganda "wild vegetables", keen to refer to "scientific research" to support the "natural" and "nutrition" and "security", but these studies ignore. What is more, including some of the encyclopedia, also claimed that "scientific research shows that bracken also has certain anti-cancer effect." Have a role in cancer prevention for eating a small amount of bracken versions in academic circles is "surprising for such evaluation".
How can we reduce?
Generally the ash or salt water treatment with fresh fern. This treatment will greatly reduce the content of the original fern glycoside. This treatment is to reduce, but not eliminate, and the dose limiting toxicity for ptaquiloside, there is no clear standard. So we must be careful to eat.