The city governing county system
The city governing county system (also known as municipal leaders of the county system), also known as the "city governing county municipal leaders of the county", refers to the center of the city developed as a part of the jurisdiction of regime to the surrounding counties, county-level city system. The formation of this system is the important result of China integration of urban and rural economy and government management integration of the two process synchronization, is Chinese from a typical agricultural country gradually turned to an important symbol of the industrial countries.
The city governing county system
After the founding of the PRC, administrative division system of our country city leaders county. The founding of new China, our country has implemented a few city municipal leaders of the county system. Since then, the city gradually increased the leadership system of the city, at the end of 50s to the first climax in early 60s and began to fall into the low tide, and the gradual recovery in 70s. From the beginning of 1982, China has set off a new round of city governing county system reform tide. At present, the city governing county system has become the administrative division system of most areas in our country.
The city governing county system History
The city governing county system Before the reform and opening up
By the end of 1949, China Wuxi (leading Wuxi county), Xuzhou (Copper Mt. County, Lanzhou city leaders) (leading Gaolan county) the implementation of shiguanxiantizhi. Since then, Beijing, Tianjin, Luda (now Dalian), Benxi, Hangzhou, Chongqing, Guiyang, Kunming city has carried out the municipal leaders of the county system. At that time the starting point of municipal leaders of the county system is mainly to ensure the city of vegetables, non-staple food supply. The leaders of the county city only in some municipalities, provincial capitals and some big city. In addition, the 2 brigade led the county, a city of a county leadership. From the beginning of 1958, the scope of the implementation of municipal leaders of the county system is expanding rapidly, to the end of 1958, 29, the leadership has 118 counties, 2 counties, 2 county-level city hosting, almost all of the municipalities, provincial capital city, implement the city governing county system. In September 17, 1959, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress passed the "on the municipalities and large cities can lead the county or autonomous county", in the form of law affirmed the municipal leaders of the county system, and pointed out that the implementation of shiguanxiantizhi "in order to adapt to the rapid development of China's socialist construction, especially the great leap forward and the rural people commune of industrial and agricultural production since last year, the close relationship between city and countryside, promote the mutual support of industry and agriculture, to facilitate the deployment of labor force". By the end of 1960, the national total of 48 city leaders 234 counties, autonomous counties, 6 county-level city hosting. At the beginning of the 60s economic difficulties, municipal leaders of the county system into the low tide. At the end of 1965, only 25 city leaders in 78 counties and 1 autonomous counties. After 70s, municipal leaders of the county system and gradual recovery. To the end of 1981, a total of 57 city leaders 147 counties, autonomous county.
The city governing county system After the reform and opening up
In 1982, the CPC Central Committee (1982) No. 51 document issued to the national reform area system, the implementation of shiguanxiantizhi instructions. The first pilot in Jiangsu, began in 1983 at the national trial. By the end of 1994, with the exception of Hainan Province, the mainland provinces and autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government are on the city governing county system, a total of 196 city leaders in 741 counties and 31 autonomous counties and 9 banners, 2 District, 240 county-level city hosting.
This reform has the following characteristics: first, the purpose of the reform is the medium and large rural areas surrounding the city under the unified leadership of the city, in order to give full play to the role of the city center, to speed up the integration of urban and rural areas, and gradually form a large and medium City Based on the economic zone, and the scope of economic area and administrative area are basically the same. Second, system reform and the reform of system of combining area. China is a big country in the world, the number of provincial administrative region was less, the number of land area and population of provincial administrative regions all over the world on the medium scale national land area and the total population of the province, more than Britain, France and Germany, Italy and other countries. Due to the jurisdiction of the provincial government is too large, the partition of our country region in the province, each region comprises a plurality of county-level administrative region, set up regional administrative office, as the agency of the provincial government, on behalf of the provincial government management of public affairs in the region. In the process of actual operation, the regional administrative office essentially play a role of government agencies. But due to the regional level is not a formal administrative division, regional leadership is not a level of government agencies, no regional people's Congress system, is not conducive to the development of local public affairs management and local democracy. Increase the number of provincial administrative regions in failed to substantially reduce the scale of the situation, and by the city leaders of the original area administrative office under the jurisdiction of the county, is to solve the above problems a feasible way. Third, the reform is mainly in the form of "merger" or "removed to build the city". "The combined city" is the original area and the original city merged by the newly formed municipal government leadership and the original urban area administrative office of the county. "Removed to build the city" refers to the revocation of the regional administrative office, a county-level city will be upgraded to a prefecture level city, by the municipal government and the district administrative office building under the jurisdiction of the county.
The city governing county system problem
The city governing county system in the implementation process there have been some problems:
1 in addition to a small number of big city, prefecture level city in the implementation of shiguanxiantizhi often do not have the strength and function of central city, radiation to the surrounding area and driving ability is insufficient, can not really play to organize and promote the development of regional economic integration effect. People called this the "small horse cart".
County area of 2 city tube division is not reasonable. The scope of the city Governing County, some of the original administrative office of the area under the jurisdiction of the county, some is the municipal government and the provincial government bargaining results, did not fully take into account the extent of close range of radiation center of the city and county economic ties. The strong center city some strength under the jurisdiction of the county is less or not under the jurisdiction of the county, but do not have the strength of the city center of the city under the jurisdiction of many county; economic rarely contact counties are incorporated into one administrative region, close economic relations and counties is administratively separated, the scope of economic zone and administrative the area is very inconsistent, is not conducive to the development of regional economy.
Some 3 cities in urban areas or small cities and counties in the city (prefecture level cities and counties under the jurisdiction of the same in a continuous built-up area in the city). This not only limits the development space of the central city, but also easily lead to duplication and contradictions caused by cities and counties.
4 city tube county system reform is not synchronized, the government functions without a fundamental change, and relationship and some municipal government is still under the jurisdiction of counties under traditional administrative management mode under the planned economy system, affecting the normal development of the county economy.
5 prefecture level cities, county-level city leaders lack of legal basis. The provisions of our constitution to municipalities and large municipal leaders of the county, but no provisions on municipalities and large cities can lead the county-level city.