The Quaternary Period

The Quaternary is the latest generation of a Ji Including. The Pleistocene and The Holocene .
The Quaternary Period
The lower limit of age by 2 million 580 thousand years ago . During the Quaternary period organisms have evolved to the modern landscape. Primates Completed from ape To man. Before the Quaternary Neogene . From about 2 million 600 thousand years ago, continues today.
This is the first name of the Quaternary Italy Geologist Giovanni Arduino (Giovanni Arduino) in 1759 Po When the deposition of the valley. In 1829, French geologist Jules Disnoye (Jules Desnoyers) quoted this definition. In his study Seine River When the low deposition layer found a layer of Neogene strata than update. This rock has been extended to the surface.
The Quaternary period basically with recent The ice age ( glacier Backoff period). Another method is to be 3 million years ago arctic The ice began as a quaternary beginning, so Pliocene The latest part as the quaternary. Some people do not recognize the existence of Quaternary, but will it as part of the third century.
There has been 2 million 600 thousand years in human. During this period of time Plate movement Less than 100 kilometers, so can be ignored. During this period of time climate Changing the ice age and Interglacial Exchange. In the ice age glaciers can extend to latitude 40 place. Only a few new animal species in this period of time (probably because this time is relatively short), at the end of the Pleistocene epoch in the northern hemisphere, there are many Mammal ( Sabre Wulf , Mammoth , Mastodon , Glyptodon Extinct). Ma ke , Camels stay North America Extinction.
Geographer Chinese Zhu Kezhen Pointed out that the Quaternary Europe and northern North America experienced four The ice age And four Interglacial Ice age: the first 300 thousand years to 270 thousand years; second ice age from 200 thousand years to 180 thousand years; third ice age dating back 130 thousand years to 100 thousand years; Fourth Ice Age 65 thousand years ago to 15 thousand years.

The Quaternary Period Geologic Age

65 million years ago that Mass extinction After entering the earth Cenozoic era . newborn
 The Quaternary Period The Quaternary Period
Generation is the latest stage in the history of the earth, and the Quaternary Cenozoic last period. The Quaternary can also be divided into The Pleistocene , The Holocene Etc.. On the lower limit has been controversial, more support 1.8Ma and 2.6Ma. although The International Commission on Stratigraphy The age of the lower bound of recommended quaternary 1.80Ma, but since 2.6 (beginning to think 2.48) Ma is the loess deposition age, thus Chinese geologists, especially Quaternary Geology A basic use of the latter. At present, the International Commission on Stratigraphy published international chronostratigraphic table (International Chronostratigraphic Chart) in the lower limit of Quaternary use is 2.58Ma . During this period the formation of the stratum is known Quaternary . This is a quaternary French scholar J. in 1829 (see denoyer Cenozoic era ).
From the article
 Quaternary geological map Quaternary geological map
The four century, global climate There is an obvious glacial and Interglacial Alternate mode. The Quaternary biology has taken very close to the modern. At this stage of mammalian evolution is most obvious, and the emergence of human evolution and is one of the most important events in the quaternary.
During the Quaternary evolution of mammals mainly in the genus instead of large categories update. In the previous stage, the early Pleistocene mammals still Artiodactyla , Proboscidian With the new fresh meat prosperity and development characteristics, and The third century The difference is that the truth, really, really cow horse. The Pleistocene Some categories of advanced mammals and many species have decline or extinction. At a later stage of the Quaternary The Holocene Look, mammals and modern have been basically the same.
A large number of Fossil Data show that humans evolved from apes. The fundamental difference between Australopithecus and the first person that people can make tools, especially making stone. From the beginning of tool making the human and fundamentally different from all the other animal, labor creates human. Another key feature is that people can walk upright. To begin the development direction of the people from Australopithecus time, generally at least 10 million years ago.
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 The Quaternary history version The Quaternary history version
Ji marine Invertebrate Still Bivalve , Gastropods Small, Foraminifera , Six shoot coral As the dominant. Terrestrial In invertebrates, bivalves, gastropods, Ostracoda The main. Other vertebrate in Teleost fish And the birds continue to flourish, Amphibian Reptiles and little change.
In the face of higher terrestrial plants after the mid Quaternary has been basically identical with the modern. The alternation of glacial and interglacial, gradually formed today Cold , temperate, subtropical and tropical flora. Planktonic algae on bodies and ultrafine calcium Marine strata The classification and comparison is still very important. Including the Quaternary The Pleistocene And the corresponding formation called the Holocene, Pleistocene and holocene. The lower limit of the Quaternary, large differences of opinion. 1948 eighteenth International Geological Congress Sure, by the appearance of a real horse, really like the cattle, as a symbol of division of pleistocene. Continental strata In northern Italy Vera Furlong marine layer.
 In 2015 the international quaternary classification scheme In 2015 the international quaternary classification scheme
Pleistocene beginning with a bottom layer of Cara bridge in southern Italy. China equivalent to Vera Fran layer Nihewan Standard stratigraphic layer as early pleistocene. Then, the application of potassium hydrogen determination of French and African equivalent to Vera Fran strata bottom age is about 1 million 800 thousand years. Therefore, many scholars believe that the lower boundary of the Quaternary should be 1 million 800 thousand years ago. The 1977 International Conference on Italy Quaternary, Flicka. profile As Pliocene With the pleistocene boundary, its geological age is about 1 million 700 thousand years. Yes China loess The research shows that about 2 million 480 thousand years ago began to reflect the loess deposition, significant changes in climate and the geological environment of the Quaternary that began about 2 million 480 thousand years ago. Some scholars believe that the Quaternary floor should be set for 330 to 3 million 500 thousand years ago.

The Quaternary Period Stratigraphic division

Rock quality classification is mainly based on the Quaternary stratigraphy and sediment The geological age . The Quaternary sediments The distribution is very wide, in addition to the steep slopes of bare rock, global almost everywhere are covered byquaternary sediments. The formation of Late Quaternary sediments, mostly unconsolidated, relatively intact. The main glacial deposits of Quaternary deposits, River sediment , Lake facies , Eolian deposition Cave, deposit and marine deposit. Followed by Outwash And the residual slope deposits, diluvial, Biological deposition and Volcano Deposition.

The Quaternary Period Features

The Quaternary Period The birth of mankind

The human is born and the rapid development of Quaternary age, human development has experienced the following stages:
1 early stage man (2 million years -1 750 thousand years ago): Genius (Homo habilis) in Tanzania in East Africa, this is probably the early Homo erectus (Homo erectus)
2 late stage man (1 million years ago): Homo erectus (Homo erectus) from Africa, Chinese spread to Java, the most famous representative is Beijing man and Java man
3 early Homo sapiens stage (500 thousand years ago): Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens) and moved to Europe in africa.
4 late Homo sapiens (New) stage (250 thousand years -3 million 5 thousand years ago): modern people (Homo sapiens sapiens) in South Africa There, about 50 thousand years ago, modern humans to distribution In the Middle East 35 thousand years ago, modern humans arrived in Europe - Crowley distribution Maiang people (Cro-Magnon)
5 in the late Pleistocene, about 30 thousand -2 million years ago, modern humans through The Bering land bridge Get into North America And southward migration. Since holocene, Modern The distribution to every continent except Antarctica, and become the only living today Department Animal (hominids).

The Quaternary Period Biological evolution

Biological and Quaternary The third century Compared to changes in the distribution and composition of. And mammals Pliocene Have a great evolution compared as Europe and adjacent Asia part of 119 species living in only 6 survive in the pliocene. The plant kingdom The evolution of relatively slow Slowly, about 80% of northwest European plants have existed in the beginning of the quaternary. Quaternary glaciation When, continental ice sheet Extended southward, animals and plants also migrated southward. The interglacial period, northward migration of animals and plants. Glacial and moving range between glacial vegetation zones maximum latitude in 30 degrees. Stratigraphic section Can clearly see hi cold and warm dynamic alternation flora. Late Quaternary, large terrestrial mammals had mass extinction. In North America, which had 70% large mammals extinction, Europe and Africa, a much smaller proportion. This mass extinction occurred in 15000 ~ 9000 years ago. The main cause of mass extinction of human hunting activities, followed by the change of natural environment. In different periods of different Fauna . The representative of the early Pleistocene Villafranchian fauna Really, really, the horse cattle And the truth; In the Middle Pleistocene With Crome M as the representative of the animal group; Late Pleistocene When there are many Polar animal . North America early Pleistocene Middle Pleistocene is Planck's animal group, Yierwendun animal group, late Pleistocene Aram tired animal group "wrong. Chinese north is early Pleistocene Nihewan animal group In the Middle Pleistocene, Zhoukoudian Animal group, late Pleistocene Sara Wusu animal group .

The Quaternary Period Earthquake active volcano

The Quaternary tectonic movement belongs to The new tectonic movement . In the ocean bottom along the central ridge to both sides of the expansion. To show that the Pacific plate is moving velocity measurement, the average annual maximum westward drift up to 11 cm, 6.6 cm eastward drift. The land of new orogenic belt is a New Quaternary tectonic movement the most intense areas, such as The Alps , The Himalayas Etc.. The earthquake and volcano is a form of new tectonic movement. The earthquake occurred in the plate boundary and Active fault Take, such as the Pacific Rim Seismic belt , California The fault zone, China The Tanlu fault zone Etc.. Volcano Active faults are mainly distributed in the interior of a plate or plate boundary zone. Chinese Wudalianchi , Da Tong Basin, Leizhou Peninsula Hainan, Tengchong Taiwan and other places have quaternary volcano.

The Quaternary Period Glacial movement

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 Quaternary Red Soil Quaternary Red Soil
Older Glacial period About 2 million years ago. The history of the Earth last glacial period. The glacier is huge ice along the ground motion of the body or polar mountain area. By landing on the Snow A lot of snow above, formed in the gravity and under great pressure, get a lot of ice glacier supplies from the source, and the ice melts slowly, the glacier itself development and wide and deep, flowing down to high temperature, ice supply less, more and more small glaciers are melting, and the upper reaches of the recharge until ice offset each other. General glacier tongue, the glacier surface often uneven, some places have deep cracks, namely the crevasse. The glacier can be divided into Continental glacier And the mountain glaciers in two categories. The Quaternary European the Alps mountain glaciers there are at least 5 times expansion. In our country, according to minister of geology The research, accordingly appeared in Poyang, aunt, Mount Lu and Dali 4 glacial epoch. The modern glaciers covered a total area of about 16 million 300 thousand square kilometers, accounting for 11% of the total land area of the earth. The modern glaciers in China mainly distributed in The Himalayas (North), Kunlun Mountains Tianshan, Qilian Mountains and mountain range running east-west Some of the Peak District, a total area of about 57069 square kilometers.

The Quaternary Period Eustatism

Sea level changes during the Quaternary period due to climate change, the crustal movement. Including the absolute change and the relative change of two aspects of meaning. Now.
 Quaternary red soil landscape Quaternary red soil landscape
The relative change from the start to the land as the base, according to the sea level and land datum in different periods to determine the relationship between the relative height of sea level changes. The change for many reasons. 1841 Mcclaren (C.Maclaren) first proposed the oscillation of the Pleistocene sea level, sea level changes that are the result of climate change, which is called the glacier type sea level change. 1865 Jemison (T.Jamieson) of glacier Balanced movement In theory, that ice induced climate change, the crustal deformation. He will be the sea level change curve is mainly due to the region tectonic movement The nature and magnitude of sediment and compressibility etc.. 1906, Hughes (E.Suess) the (global) eustatism (eustasy) theory, that global sea level rise will cause increased sediment formation of crustal subsidence; Ocean When is caused by the fall of the sea. That is, the volume change of ocean marine transgression and regression results, global sea level change does not include changes in the amount of water. At the end of 1950s to early 70s, sea level change study rapidly developed from qualitative stage to quantitative stage. Of large number
 Quaternary oxygen isotope stages Quaternary oxygen isotope stages
14C data show that the last time Glaciation Began 70000 years ago, about 18000 years ago to reach the peak, about 10000 years ago to stop. The glacier peak position lowest sea level, with the thickness of the ice sheet is deep and has great progress before 1950 estimate for -100 meters; 1969 Flint (R.F. Flint) on 1953 after the Antarctic ice sheet thickness correction is 132 meters
Chinese Yellow Sea and the East China Sea continental shelf, dating back 15000 years ago, the lowest sea level is -150 ~ -160 meters. The rapid rise of the early Holocene sea-level movement, has obtained a more consistent view; change of nearly 6000 years of the sea, there are 3 different viewpoints: 1. The Atlantic period At the end of the sea level is now about 3 meters high; the Holocene high sea level does not exist; the 3600 years sea level is stable. From the point of view of some people that the earth is earth rheology, visco elastic effect caused by the fluctuation of glacial isostatic ice (glacio-isostasy) is important for remote areas; ocean water volume change caused by the fluctuation of the ice sheet, hydraulic balance movement (hydro- isostasy), also has an effect on the seabed; re distribution of the earth's interior and surface quality the resulting geoid deformation: the geoid, sea level change (Geoided eustasy). Clarke (J.A. Clark, 1980) proposed viscoelastic The earth body Sea level changes in the numerical model, the world ocean is divided into 6 parts with different sea level change curve, that there is no uniform global sea level curve, which is the study of Holocene sea-level change puts forward new ideas.

The Quaternary Period Climatic conditions

The earth's climate, there have been several changes, 2 million 400 thousand years experience at least 24 climatic cycles. Late Cenozoic glaciation in the period of 1400 to 11 million years ago, but did not appear obvious alternation in the Quaternary glacial and interglacial periods. LGM, northern latitudes formed the continental ice sheet, the Greenland ice sheet covering Greenland and Iceland Lauren, the ice sheet buried across Canada, and extending southward to New York, Cincinnati area. Almost half of Europe was Scandinavia ice Cover. Siberia The ice will occupy the northern region of Siberia.

The Quaternary Period Mineral deposit

The Quaternary sedimentary enrichment of various placer, Saline Lake chemical Deposition, and a small amount of peat lignite . Some of the world's important rare metal from Quaternary Placer in river and coastal sediments such as sand, gold, cobalt, tungsten, nickel chromium tin placer placer diamond placer etc.. Reserves of lithium and boron China in Saline Lake ranked first in the world.