Growth and development

Growth refers to the body organs and systems of the growth and morphological changes, is the amount of change; growth differentiation refers to the cell, tissue and organ function improvement and maturity, yield and quality change. The two are closely related to the growth and development of material basis, and mature situation reflects changes in the growth amount. The growth refers to the maturation process from fertilized egg to adult. The growth and development of children is an important characteristic different from adults. Growth refers to the grow up of different organs and systems of the body of a child, can have the corresponding measurements to show a change in the amount of development; refers to the differentiation and function of cells, tissues and organs of the mature. Growth and development are closely related, the growth is the material basis for development, change of growth quantity can reflect the maturity of body organs and systems to a certain extent.
Growth and development

Growth and development Reason

Beardless parent Often ask this question: "our children and the children in the neighbourhood with the same age, but their child is not tall, not fat people, what is not a lack of nutrition?"
The growth and development of children although there are some rules, but is affected by many factors in a certain range, there are considerable individual differences. The so-called normal values are not absolute, should consider the factors of individual difference, we can judge correctly is normal or abnormal . At the same time, the system continuously observed, in order to understand the real situation of the growth and development of children.
What factors can influence children's growth? Is the first genetic factors. The characteristics, trend of child growth potential, limit Both parents were influenced by genetic factors. Generally speaking, tall parents Give birth to a child The taller than shorter parents born age children height is higher, and the boy's height depends mainly on the father's height, and the girl's height depends on the height of the mother.
One of the important factors affecting the growth and development of children's nutrition is also. Proper nutrition is the material basis for the growth and development of children, such as nutritional deficiencies first cause weight gain or even decline, will eventually affect the height of growth and body other system functions, such as immune function, endocrine function, Neural regulation Function. And the younger, the greater the impact by nutrition.
Effect of disease on children's growth and development is also very obvious, acute infection often cause weight gain or loss, chronic infection affects both weight and height growth. Endocrine disease (such as hypothyroidism) effects on the growth and development is more prominent, often caused by the slow growth of skeletal and nervous system. Congenital disease (such as mongolism) can have a significant impact on children's physical growth and mental development.
In addition, a good living environment and health conditions such as sunshine, fresh air, clean water is conducive to the growth and development of children, and has brought adverse effects. Reasonable The system of life Nursing, Education And exercise on children's physical growth and mental development also plays an important role in promoting. The warmth of the family, parents and role models, good school education and social education, the formation of children's personality and character, emotion Have a profound impact on the stability and development of the spirit of the nerve.

Growth and development Growth

Nutrition is to ensure the normal growth and development of children, the material basis for the physical and mental health. Childhood The need for nutrients is higher than that of adults, this is because must meet two requirements, namely, growth and development needs and activities, especially the infant growth and development is most rapid, requires a lot of protein and other nutrients, so we must pay attention to.
From the children after weaning, you need to do A balanced diet And try to eat all kinds of food, in order to ensure energy and Nutrient The need to balance between nutrients and maintain, not due to the lack of nutrients caused by malnutrition or excess nutrients caused by obesity, affect the normal growth of children, so young children good Eating habits Don't eat snacks and food preference is very important.
In addition to the child to maintain a good appetite, but also cultivate the children have a regular life, get adequate sleep, should often take part in outdoor activities, so it can help to prevent disease, promote digestion absorption and nutritional intake of children's healthy growth.
Effect of selenium on the growth and development of children
China is a Selenium deficiency Country, 72% regions are lack of selenium area. Selenium is an essential trace element, is absolutely indispensable. Especially this special group of children, is in a critical period of growth and development, the trace element selenium demand is relatively strong. Once the lack of selenium will cause irreparable effect to the growth and development of children.

Growth and development Table

4 ~ 6 months this period of physical growth compared with the first three months of life is slow down . The weight average monthly average growth of 500-600 g, the average monthly increase of about 2.02.4 cm in length. Some children in about 6 months to start out first adorable Deciduous tooth Generally, the lower incisors.
4-6 months boy
Month weight (kg) Length (CM) and head circumference (CM) circumference (CM)
4 months 7.5865.0642.1442.51
5 months 8.2467.4643.2443.52
 The growth of the baby table The growth of the baby table
6 months 8.7769.6644.4444.35
4-6 months of girls
Months of age Weight (kg) length (CM) Head circumference (CM) chest circumference (CM)
4 months 7.1463.9841.3941.58
5 months 7.6265.8942.1842.59
6 months 8.2768.1743.3143.57
7 to 9 months during this period Children The physical growth rate relative to the previous 6 months, the average monthly increase continued to slow, weight 300-400 grams, the average monthly increase of about 1.5 cm in length.
7-9 months boy
Months of age Weight (kg) length (CM) and head circumference (CM) circumference (CM)
7 months 9.1271.244.944.9
8 months 8.5272.945.445.5
9 months 9.7274.245.945.7
7-9 month old girl
Month weight (kg) length (CM) and head circumference (CM) circumference (CM)
7 months 8.5869.243.844.1
8 months 8.9071.244.444.5
9 months 9.1572.644.844.8
10 to 12 months of growth slowed further. The weight average monthly increase of 150-250 grams, 1-1.5 cm in height growth. Adorable about 4-6 teeth teeth.
10-12 months boy
Month weight (kg) length (CM) and head circumference (CM) circumference (CM)
10 months 9.9075.446.346.0
11 months 10.1776.746.646.4
12 months 10.4278.046.946.8
10-12 month old girl
Month weight (kg) Length (CM) and head circumference (CM) circumference (CM)
10 months 9.4074.045.245.2
11 months 9.5275.245.445.3
12 months 9.6476.445.645.4
13 to 18 months from the beginning was born second years growth was significantly higher than before slow down . The weight average monthly average growth of about 200 grams, the average monthly growth height of about 1 centimeters. From second onwards, the baby bust began to exceed the head circumference, the anterior fontanelle closed in general 18 months ago.
13-18 Months Boy
Month weight (kg) length (CM) and head circumference (CM) circumference (CM)
13 months 10.4278.046.946.8
15 months 10.8480.747.547.6
18 months 11.5583.548.048.4
13-18 month old girl
Month weight (kg) length (CM) and head circumference (CM) circumference (CM)
13 months 9.6476.445.645.4
15 months 10.4279.946.246.5
18 months 11.0182.546.847.2

Growth and development influence factor

Factors affecting the growth and development of children are as follows:
A genetic: genetic factors have a certain influence on children's growth. Such as parental height, skin color, hair number and shape, have a certain degree of influence on children.
Two, mental factors: experts say not to caress children because of secretion in vivo growth hormone Less, so they may be lower than the average height of children of the same age.
Three, nutrition: nutrition is essential for growth and development. Children need a reasonable diet, otherwise not only affect the normal development, but will affect the intelligent day after.
Four, children sleep: sleep, the pituitary anterior lobe can secrete a growth hormone. Such as lack of sleep, growth hormone may be blocked, the formation of the spirit of dwarfism.
Five, exercise: physical exercise to enhance children's physique by natural conditions, improve the level of development and reduce the incidence of a great role. Sunlight, air and water can promote digestion and absorption, The new supersedes the old. and blood circulation, favorable growth.
Six, long-term disease: digestive disorders, Recurrent respiratory tract infection Endocrine system disease and brain dysplasia, had a direct impact on the growth and development of children.
Seven, the environment and climate: studies have shown that human, autumn, spring Grow taller . From a regional perspective, tropical development earlier, boreal rapid growth. In addition, a reasonable system of life, fresh air, no noise and pollution of the environment, are conducive to the physical and mental development of children.

Growth and development trace element

Fat, protein and carbohydrate and other nutrients into the body to eat, must be made by all digestive enzyme Absorption can make use of decomposition, which is a large part of selenium containing enzyme. If the human long-term selenium deficiency, will lead to human digestion and absorption of gastrointestinal function obstacle That leads to human growth retardation or stagnation, low immunity etc..
Trace elements are relatively The main elements ( A large number of elements ) to divide, according to the storage of different objects can be divided into several types, the more concern is mainly two kinds, one is the trace elements in the organism, another non organisms (such as trace elements in rocks).