Cupressaceae (Cupressaceae) is there Botany The door is the maximum number of 1 families. Evergreen trees or shrubs. A resin. Leaves opposite or whorled, usually scaly and decurrent, sparse linear; small flowers unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, terminal or axillary; male flowers have 3 to 8 pairs of interactive students each have 2 stamens, stamens 6 anther, pollen bag; female flowers 3 - 16 on the cross 3 or 4 whorls of the ovuliferous scale (megasporophyll), each with 1 to several ovuliferous scale ovules, bracts and cone scales connate; cone spherical, ovoid or oblong, ripe for development of Pearl scale scales, woody or leathery, dehiscent when mature, or sometimes berrylike, no crack, each scale inside the base of the seeds of 1 or more; seeds winged or not; cotyledons of 2 pieces, a few pieces of thin. About 22 genera Cupressaceae, each hemisphere produced half species; after the Pinaceae, nearly 150 species, the distribution of all over the world, some species of main tree species in the forest or important tree species, or landscape trees. Representative plants: Platycladus orientalis, throwing one thousand cypress, cypress, juniper.

Cupressaceae Morphological character

Evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite or verticillate cross 3-4, thin spiral, scale shaped or chaetica, or the same tree with the two leaf type. Flowers unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, single Acremonium or leaf axils; male cones with 3-8 on the cross of the stamens, each stamen 2-6 anther, pollen bag; female flowers 3-16 gold cross opposite or verticillate 3-4 pearl scales, ventral base of all or part of the ovuliferous scale 1 to the majority of erect ovule, single ovule was born in two between dilute heart cone scales, bracts and Pearl scales completely connate. A spherical, oval or cylindrical; scales of thin or thick, flat or peltate, wood or subleathery, cooked meat is open, or connate baccate, indehiscent or cooked when only the top micro cracking, 1 to seed scales; around the seeds with narrow winged or wingless, or on the end of a wing.
Cupressaceae consists of 22 genera and about 150 species, distributed in the north and South Hemisphere two. I made 8 genera and 29 species and 7 varieties, distribution throughout the country, many excellent timber species and landscape trees. The other 1 genera and 15 species of introduced cultivation.
The resin wood cell, resin free, straight or oblique texture, fine structure, material is light to heavy, tough and durable, with fragrance. For buildings, bridges, stationery, furniture, utensils, zhouche timber; leaf can carry fragrant oil, can bark tannin. Most of the species in afforestation, sand and water and soil conservation plays an important role, many kinds of beautiful tree, leaf color green or dark green, often cultivated as garden trees.
Microbiota decussata Kom. is a V. L.Komarov in 1923, according to the collected from Vladivostok (Vladivostok) were established (see Kom. in Not. Syst. Hert. Bot. Petrop. 4: 180 F. 1923, et Fl. URSS 1: 193 T. 7 F. 22 T. 8 F. 3, 1934) to the specimen, it is not included in the.
Wood with resin cells, no resin, straight or oblique texture, fine structure, good quality, durable, aroma, for buildings, bridges, vehicle, equipment, stationery, furniture and other timber; leaf extract aromatic oil, bark extract tannin extract. Most of the species in afforestation, sand and soil and water conservation plays an important role. The family is usually divided into 3 subfamilies. Cone scales: subfamily of Platycladus orientalis wood, when mature, cracking, scale is not peltate, mainly in genera, genera, Thuja orientalis and Luo Hanbai genus Chamaecyparis; cypress subfamily: cone scales, the mature wood, cracking, peltate, mainly of cypress, Chamaecyparis and Thuja juniper in Fujian; subfamily: cone fleshy globose, mature not only Sabina and cracking. Juniperus . Cypress , Red cypress , Cupressus chengiana , cupressus gigantea , fokienia hodginsii , Korean Arborvitae , arborvitae As China's first batch of rare and endangered plants.
Cupressaceae plants are evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves on the branches of small, cross or 3 to 4 whorls, squanous tight cover on how much or chaetica branchlets, carry out, base decurrent or joint, or the same tree with two leaf. Spring scales flat and round or four prism. Flowers unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, single Acremonium or leaf axils; composition of male cones from 3 to 8 on the cross opposite or whorled stamens, stamens with short and thin filaments and broad peltate anthers, 2 ~ 6 Anther Pollen, spherical, non air, wall thickness, wall thin or thick (sweet Cupressaceae), the surface is not uniformly distributed particles, in addition to Sabina with a small circular aperture is not obvious, the other is no germination hole; female flowers have 3 ~ 16 to 3 ~ 4 cross or verticillate the Cone scales And the ventral base of all or part of the 1 or more pieces of Pearl scale Straight ovules Dilute, ovule ovuliferous scale between (Ci Baishu), ovuliferous scale in whole or in part (Australia Bai Pinus) development Seed scales Bracts; and the Pearl scales completely connate, only the top number of separated. A spherical, oval or cylindrical, or in the next year; a flat or scaly shield each other, imbricate or valvate leaning like connivent, wood or subleathery, mature cracking, or away from each other, or fleshy, mature each other do not leave or leave only the top micro, connate into berries like. There are at least 1 seed scales; seeds with 2 or 3 narrow winged or wingless, or the upper end of a membranous wing; embryo with 2 (5 ~ 6 cotyledons thin). Chromosome number x=11, rare 12.

Cupressaceae Distribution range

About 22 genera Cupressaceae, southern and northern hemisphere of each species in half; Pinaceae (Pinaceae), nearly 150 times the whole distribution,
 Cypress Cypress
The ball, some species of main tree species in the forest or important tree species for greening tree species. One of the most species Sabina (Sabina), mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere; single species are nearly 1/2. Thujopsis (Thujopsis, made in Japan), Platycladus (Platycladus, made in China and North Korea), Fokienia (Fokienia, made in China), Small genus of Platycladus orientalis (Microbiota, produced in the Russian Far East (Arceuthos), southern Europe and Asia), four oblique Cupressaceae (Tetraclinis, Malta, Spain and the Mediterranean northwest Africa Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), Chile (Cupressus Fitzroya, produced in Chile), cypress (Pilgerodendron, southern Chile belongs to production in Chile, South America), Cedrus (Austrocedrus, produced in Chile and Argentina), Octoclinis (in Australia), New Caledonia cypress pine (Neocallitropsis, made in New Caledonia) and Tasman Cupressaceae (Diselma, made in Tasmania). 8 genus China, about 30 times the national distribution, among them. fokienia hodginsii A monotypic genus endemic and monotypic genus Platycladus orientalis The main Chinese also introduced another; 1 genera and 15 species. Fossil cupressaceaeplants early Jurassic strata found in Burma, Japan and Egypt and other places, and more fossils almost always occur in the northern hemisphere in third century sediments. 11 genera distributed in the southern hemisphere except Bai Pinus (Callitris in eastern Australia, Cretaceous and Miocene), sweet Cupressaceae (Libocedrus in New Zealand, Miocene), South Africa (Cupressus Widdringtonia, South Africa's third century) 3 genera found fossils, all other genera were not found.
Cupressaceaeplants gymnosperms is widely distributed in North and south hemisphere only two families, in addition to Juniperus (Juniperus) and Sabina Widely distributed in the northern hemisphere (latitude 17 degrees to 70 degrees north latitude in East Africa, the latter 14 degrees to 12 degrees south latitude also distribution), Cypress (Cupressus) located in southern North America, Eastern Asia, Himalaya Range and Asia Minor, all the other genera showed spatial distribution, genera are endemic across. Located in the northern hemisphere is in addition to the above each genus, and thuja (Thuja, about 6 species, distributed in the north and East Asia), Calocedrus (Calocedrus, 2 1, from North America, 1 from East Asia), Chamaecyparis (Chamaecyparis, about 6 species, distributed in North America and Japan and Taiwan China).
Located in the southern hemisphere is in addition to the single species, there are sweet Cupressaceae (about 6 species, distributed in New Zealand and New Caledonia), Papua cypress pine (Papuacedrus, 3, found in New Guinea and the Molucca Islands), Australia Bai Pinus (Actinostrobus, 2, production in southeastern Australia) Bai Songshu, (about 20 species, distributed in Australia, Tasmania and New Caledonia) and South Africa (Cupressaceae about 5 species, distributed in South Africa and Southeast).
In the world, Cupressaceae is the 3 distribution center is: (1) with East Asia, cypress, Sabina, Chamaecyparis and Thuja genus, Chamaecyparis, Cupressaceae, Fujian sea cucumber belongs to Luo Hanbai, belongs to Huster and Platycladus orientalis are 9 genera; (2) of southwestern North America, a cypress, Sabina, Chamaecyparis and Thuja genus Chamaecyparis and 5 genera; (3) Australia and its surrounding islands (New Zealand, Tasmania, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea), WA Cupressaceae, Australia, Papua, Cupressaceae Cupressaceae Cupressaceae Cupressaceae, sweet leaves and Tasmania Manbai belonging to 6 genera. In addition, a Mediterranean cypress, Sabina and fragrant paint 3 genera Cupressaceae, southern Chile and Argentina, South America Chile Cupressaceae Cupressaceae Cupressaceae species such as white and 3 genera.
Cupressaceae plants in China more scattered, forest plants usually Sabina species and some Cypress (Cupressus funebris), Taiwan cypress and Fujian bai. Sabina usually light, cold and drought, wind resistance, alkali resistance of soil, subalpine coniferous forests to alpine shrub meadow or high transitional woodland, often distributed in the upper zone of spruce, fir, larch forest or they could not grow in the poor areas, these species are often sunny alternative. Located in the south of Tailing cypress, to the broad area of north of the five ridges, natural forest, and artificial forest, warm, humid climate and limestone calcareous soil. Taiwan cypress like mild humid, rainfall, humidity of the ecological environment in Taiwan, the central mountain elevation 1300 ~ 2800 meters to Zhongshan sub Alpine formation of pure forest or mixed forest. Fujian Bai for the warm and humid climate and Acidic Yellow Soil and red soil, distributed in East and central China to the southwest, multi star growth in local areas (such as Guangxi Dupangling Dongpo) has a larger area of the forest, mainly distributed in the altitude of 700 ~ 1800 meters of evergreen broad-leaved forest or coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest.

Cupressaceae Population classification

The former was according to the scales of the arrangement, shape, texture and maturity are separated from each other or a combination of characters, the Cupressaceae is divided into 3 to 5 subfamilies (or family), or divided into two subfamilies, and then subdivided into 6 or 4 families. The difference is also reflected in some genera of destination, which may be related to their mastery of the material and research depth, such as the China specialty of Fujian Bai is that there are two kinds of views, some scholars put it in the subfamily of Platycladus orientalis (or family) (Thujoideae), while others believed that the Fujian Bai with the genus Chamaecyparis and cypress genera are closely related, should be placed in the subfamily cypress (or family) (Cupressoideae). Li Huilin and early embryonic development of Cupressaceae plants in North and South Hemisphere to Cupressaceae plants into two subfamilies (Callitroideae) and Australian cypress cypress subfamily agreed. Cupressaceaeplants proembryo development, there are two obviously different in the free nuclear stage, showed a different hemisphere cupressaceaeplants north and south is larger, namely the southern hemisphere Australia Bai subfamily plants, such as Chile, Australia, Cupressus Pinus, cypress pine and cypress cypress species such as South Africa, the original embryo development basic is a fertilized egg through 2 consecutive Mitosis 4, the free nuclear proembryo, then the formation of primary germ cells; northern hemisphere cypress plants in the subfamily, such as Thuja genus, Luo Hanbai genus, Platycladus orientalis genera, Chamaecyparis, cypress, Chamaecyparis, Fujian, Cupressaceae Sabina and Juniperus, their proembryo to go through 3 continuous mitosis, 8 nuclei stage before the formation of primary germ cells.
Polyembryony Is a common feature of Cupressaceae plants, according to the northern hemisphere three polyembryonic types (family or subfamily) is the evolution direction of Cupressaceae, cypress, juniper class class of Platycladus orientalis, the Fu Liguo and Zheng Wanjun, agree on the flora of the southern hemisphere Chinese; Bai Pinus, cypress pine and cypress in South Africa Australia genus The archegonium No film or surrounded by film is not obvious, the crack is more specialized, is probably the most evolved Cupressaceae group.
According to the system principle of Taxodiaceae Genus of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia R. Br.), Taiwan Taxodiaceae (Taiwania Hayata), Cryptomeria Cryptomeria D. Don), Glyptostrobus (Glyptostrobus Endl.), taxodium (aka Taxodium, Taxodium Rich.), sequoiadendron (Sequoiadendron Buchholz), Sequoia (Sequoia Endl.), Metasequoia (Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng), athrotaxis (Athrotaxis) shall be incorporated into the Cupressaceae . A * representative into the original Cupressaceae Taxodiaceae figure.

Cupressaceae economic value

Cupressaceae, wood aroma, fine structure, uniform, straight texture, heavy texture and tough; easy processing, planing surface smooth, corrosion resistance is strong; heartwood clear heartwood, deep color, architecture, furniture, doors and windows, zhouche, column, mahogany, bridges, joinery and art process for. The cypress, juniper, arborvitae, cypress, etc. of the genus Thuja wood, are the world advanced commercial material. Some species for afforestation, sand and soil and water conservation excellent tree species. Many kinds of beautiful tree, leaf color green or dark green, often cultivated as a landscape or garden ornamental tree. Cupressaceae wood has no resin cells. Resin canal , Tracheid No single spiral thickening and pits, but some species in the southern hemisphere with special pine cypress wood parenchyma is usually thickened, and very large quantity, cross field pit for cypress, wood ray tracheids usually exist, but the most difficult to identify, ray high in coniferous forests is a science the lowest, tracheid length is short. Cupressaceae plants contain hinokiflavone, Torreya emodin, sciadopitysin, emodin and emodin in Cycas Bai; yellow alcohol and two hydrogen quercetinic widely distributed in Cupressaceae leaves.
Some varieties were planted as a Christmas tree.
Japanese cedar Is a Japanese tree;
Taxodium mucronatum Is the national tree of Mexico;
Sequoia Sequoia is tied to the tree and the state of California;
Taxodium distichum Luis Anna S is the state tree;
Eastern White Pine Mothproof wood can be used to make furniture;
Chinese juniper Berry is made of gin (GIN) raw materials;
North American cypress wood is the main timber manufacturing pencil;
fokienia hodginsii The root can be extracted aromatic oil, used in medicine and cosmetics production.
Cupressaceae plants pollen easy to let some people have allergic disease, Cryptomeria japonica has caused the problem.
Juniper is Gymnosporangium fungal host, the bacteria can cause the occurrence of fruit rust of apple and pear.

Cupressaceae The main species

Calocedrus Kurz Calocedrus , Cupressaceae, 2 species, 1 varieties, production of North America and South Asia, with C. macrolepis and Kurz Chinese Calocedrus Cuibai Taiwan C. macrolepis var. formosana (Florin) Cheng et L.K. Fu of 1 species and 1 varieties of production, Southern China and Taiwan, southwest. Evergreen trees; branchlets densely scaly leaves decussate, flat, flat, ridged abaxially scaly leaf branches and white stomatal lines, the side of a half scale leaves; flowers monoecious, single Acremonium; male flowers have 6 - 8 of the interaction of each stamen with 2 stamens, anthers 5 drooping of the connective subpeltate; female flowers have 3 pairs decussate ovuliferous scale, only 1 of the middle inner surface of Pearl scale 2 ovules; cone oblong, mature Cone scales For the development of seed scales, woody, flat, short pointed, under the external top cracking, 1 kinds of scales connate, basal 1 of small seeds; upper with 1 long and 1 short wings; 2 cotyledons.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 2; Chinese: 1
Chamaecyparis Spach Chamaecyparis , Cupressaceae, 6 species distributed in North America, Japan and Taiwan China, Chinese Taiwan C. formosensis Matsum. and Taiwan red cypress C. obtusa var. formosana (Hayata) Behd. 2, as an important species, the other 4 introduced. Evergreen tree; bark scaly or fluted; flat branchlets; leaves scaly, decussate, densely covered side branchlets, scaly leaf folded, the seedling needle interaction with male and female cones; small beads, single Acremonium; male flowers oblong, 3 - 4 of decussate stamens every 3 - 5 stamens, anthers; female cones globose, 3 - 6 of the ovuliferous scale, decussate, in each ovuliferous scale with erect ovule 2, dilute 5; seed cones erect, when mature, with 3 peltate scales of wood; 6, winged seed. The genus and genus Cupressus are very similar, but in the same year branchlets flat, fruit maturity, seed and 1 - 5 for each scales (usually 3) particle.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 6; Chinese: 6
Cupressus L. Cypress ,柏科,20种以上,分布于北美、东南欧及东亚与南亚,中国有柏木C. funebris Endl,干香柏C. duclouxiana Hickel,西藏柏木C. torulosa D. Don和巨柏C. gigantea Cheng et L. K. Fu等5种,产秦岭以南及长江流域以南各省,其中柏木分布最广,材质好,为优良用材树,枝、叶提取芳香油,各地多有栽培,供庭园观赏用;另引入栽培4种,常绿乔木;小枝上着生鳞叶而成四棱形或圆柱形,稀扁平,叶鳞形,交互对生,或生于幼苗上或老树壮枝上的叶刺形;球花雌雄同株,单生枝顶,雄球花长椭圆形,黄色,有雄蕊6-12,每雄蕊有花药2-6枚,药隔显著,鳞片状;球果球形,第2年成熟,熟时种鳞木质,开裂;种子有翅;子叶2-5枚.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 20; Chinese: 5
Juniperus L. Juniperus Cupressaceae, about 10 species, distributed in the north temperate zone, producing J. formosana Hayata China juniper 3, introduced 1 kinds of distribution, very wide, very good ornamental tree material; light red, fragrant and resistant, can make furniture and small toys, but slow growth, high material rare. Evergreen trees or shrubs; branchlets cylindrical or prismatic shape were four; 3, verticillate, the base of the joint, not decurrent growth, above the flat or concave, with 1 to 2 holes, with longitudinal ridges on the back; flowers monoecious or dioecious, solitary axil; male flowers yellow, oblong stamens 5, decussate, ovate; female flowers, light green, small, composed of 3 whorls of Pearl scales; all or part of the ovuliferous scale with erect ovules 1 - 3; fruit a berry cones, 2 - 3 years of mature, mature pearl scale development a scaly, fleshy, usually 3 seed grain, unwinged.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 10; Chinese: 3
Fokienia Henry et Thomas Fokienia Only Fujian, Cupressaceae, F. hodginsii Henry et Thomas Bo 1, production of Vietnam and the southwest, southern and eastern China, rapid growth, good quality, is the main species. Evergreen trees; branchlets three pinnate, and into a plane; leaves small, scaly, decussate, 4 columns, side is folded, back was pink and white stomatal bands; flowers monoecious, single Acremonium; male cones ovoid to oblong, 5 - 6 of the interaction the stamens, each with its 2 - 4 stamens, connective scaly; female flowers at the top, from 6 - 8 of the ovuliferous scale, each ovuliferous scale in ovules 2; spherical cones, peltate scales; winged seed cotyledon; 2.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 1; Chinese: 1
Platycladus Spach Platycladus Only P., Cupressaceae, Platycladus orientalis orientalis (L.) Franco 1, North Korea and South China producing provinces, now all cultivated for ornament to the north of Huaihe and North China for optional afforestation. Excellent material, for construction, furniture, stationery and other appliances, seed can be oil, leaf and fruit of medicine, there are many cultivated varieties. This is used to be subsumed in the genus Thuja when a subgenus, but many scholars claim it out into a separate genus, the different twig scales on leaves in dense, decussate, flat, both sides of the green, scales for cone thickness, usually 4 to 1 of the most. With without education, most of the next 1 short, not significant, the middle of 2 seed; seeds wingless, cotyledons 2.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 1; Chinese: 1
Sabina Mill. Sabina Cupressaceae, about 50 species, distributed in the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic to subtropical and tropical regions near the mountains, Chinese from 15, northwest, West and southwest of the main alpine regions, a few species producing northeast, Eastern and central and southern, strong adaptability, resistance to drought and cold, the other 2 are introduced a common; such as Sabina S. chinensis (L.) Ant., saltuaria (Rehd et Wils. S. Zhibai) Cheng et W. T. Wang S. tibetica, Sabina Kom. and Xinjiang Zhibai S. pseudosabina (Fisch. et Mey.) Cheng et W. T. Wang, is an important timber and ornamental plant, soil and water conservation sand windbreak tree for the Northwest region. Evergreen trees or shrubs; leaves of saplings all chaetica, trees of leaf shape or shape or a combination of the two scales; thorn shaped leaves usually 3 verticillate, rare decussate, base decurrent, no joint, upper concave, stomatal band; scale leaves decussate, dilute three Sheng, diamond female flowers; dioecious or monoecious, solitary short branches; male flowers oblong or ovoid; stamens 4 to 8; decussate; female flowers have 4 - 8 of the interaction of Pearl scales, or 3 whorls of Pearl scales; ovules 1 - 6, was born in the inner surface of the cone scales then, the cone base; or three years as well as the development of Pearl scale scales, fleshy, indehiscent; seeds 1 to 6 grains, wingless; cotyledons 2 - 6.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 50; Chinese: 15
Thuja L. thuja Cupressaceae, about 6 species, distributed in the north and East Asia, including T. sutchuenensis Franch. and Korean arborvitae Thuja T.koraiensis Nakai 2, China Sichuan production and southern Jilin, around the widely cultivated ornamental, but also other medicine, introduction and cultivation of 3 species of ornamental. Evergreen trees, resin; flat branchlets; leaves scalelike leaves, needles, cones, solitary and terminal; male flowers yellow, 6 - 12 decussate stamens, each 4 stamens with anthers; female flowers with cone scales 8 - 12 pairs, ovuliferous scale opposite, 2 3 on the inner surface of the ovuliferous scale only ovules 2; cone ovate oblong, erect; development of Pearl scale scales, thinly leathery, abaxially flattened; a thick ridge or the top seed umbilical convex; thin and thick winged or wingless.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 6; Chinese: 2
Thujopsis Sieb. et Zucc. Thujopsis Opzoon, Cupressaceae, only T. dolabrata (L. F., 1), Sieb. et Zucc. from Japan, China East and central city introduction, as a garden tree. Evergreen trees; branchlets with scaly leaf part is flat; scale leaves decussate, side lobe fold a boat shaped; flowers monoecious, single Acremonium; male cones oval, stamens 6 - 8, decussate; female flowers 3 - 4 of the Pearl scales, two middle of Pearl scales only 3 - 5 ovules; cones subglobose, ripe for development of Pearl scale scale, wooden, flat top, back with a mucro, cracking, middle 2 kinds of scales within the seeds 3 to 5 grains; seeds suborbicular, narrowly winged; cotyledons 2.
The genera Cupressaceae
The distribution of the world: 1; Chinese: 1

Cupressaceae Endangered species

 Cypress Cypress
Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz
Status: Endangered species.
Cypress Mainly distributed in the middle part of Yunnan and the southwest, discontinuous individual areas located in Guizhou, Guangxi and Hainan. Born in the village near the foothills of the hillside, Calocedrus, often cut for timber or firewood, forest area has been gradually reduced.
Morphological characteristics: evergreen trees, 15-30 m tall, diameter up to 1 meters; bark gray brown, irregularly dehiscent; branchlets alternate, green when young, flat, a flat, straight, leaf scale form, type two, decussate, 4 tablets a day, 3-4 mm long, one of the central close to the side, apex acute, and the lower side of a folding central leaf apex acute, micro (young Ye Cheng caudate acuminate); branchlets above leaves dark green, the leaves with stomata, is white or light green. Monoecious flowers, single Acremonium, a small round of female cones or four prism, 3-17 mm long, curved or straight. When mature cones, oblong or elliptic cylindric, 1-2 cm long, a diameter of about 5 mm, reddish brown when mature, with 3-4 on the interaction of the seed scales scales, woody, flat, apex convex tip, below 1 of small and micro inflection, above 1 live with scales only, in the middle of the 2 (1 dilute seed; seed) 1 short wings and 1 kinds of scales and nearly as large wing, a wing membranous.
Distribution: distribution in central Yunnan and southwestern Wuding, Lu Feng, Kunming, Anning, Yimen, Shiping, Yuanjiang, Mojiang, Simao, Pu'er, Lancang, Longling, southern Guizhou, Danzhai, Libo, Sandu, Guangxi Pingtang Congjiang, southwest of Jingxi, Hainan Changjiang, Le Dong, Qiongzhong, Five Fingers Group and other places.
The ecological and biological characteristics, distribution area of central and southern subtropical and tropical mountain climate. The annual average temperature of 13-17 DEG C, annual precipitation is 800-1200 mm. The soil is red soil, pH value of 4.5-5.5. Cypress is scattered in a small area of Yunnan, in the Central South of Yunnan Dry Valley on the edge of the mountain, but also occasionally in low altitude area in Yunnan plateau. Neutral Yang tree juvenile shade, then gradually light. Drought resistance, barren tolerance were strong. Stand high in cypress advantage, and Du Ying, head of tea, yellow flowers and trees, Yunnan mixed Keteleeria etc.. When the forest is destroyed, often with Yunnan pine, white Ke, Lithocarpus mairei invaded, the formation of coniferous forest. The update is good, the mother trees seedlings with light up sapling stage comes, decreased shade tolerance and gradually die. Florescence 3-4 month, 9-10 month fructescence.
Protection value: Calocedrus only two relict species discontinuously distributed in North America and China, China Taiwan and its variants -- Taiwan cypress, has important value for the study of flora. Forest of excellent quality, fast growth, and can be used as a leafy green, barren mountain afforestation and urban greening and garden ornamental tree species distribution area.
Protection measures: protection measures are temporary. Recommended tea in Yunnan Yimen village and the stability of Lufeng County forest Cuibai zoned for timber or mother trees, or the establishment of nature reserves. Hainan Island Five Fingers Group, Guangxi Jingxi, Guizhou three should take protective measures to expand the planting, lest the cypress disappeared.
Cultivation: by seed propagation, there is the possibility of characteristics of ripe cone scales, cracking, scattered seed, timely harvest, dry sieve out the seeds, dry storage and spring sowing in March, about 20-30 days to germination, scaffolding shade after emergence, the seedlings grow slowly. With the cutting method can also reproduce.
Red cypress
 Red cypress Red cypress
Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum.
Status: rare species.
Red cypress Only distributed in central Taiwan province in the mountains of central and Northern mountain. Because of excellent material, repeated cutting, distribution area reduced year by year, the dwindling number of.
Morphological characteristics of large evergreen trees up to 57 meters high, 6.5 meters in diameter on the ground; bark reddish brown, patchy fracture; students scalelike flat branchlets arranged in a plane. Leaves decussate, 1-2 mm long, apex acute; central to a close, the exposed parts of subrhombic, with 1 glands, apex acute; on the side of the boat, the side and the lower folded cover central leaf, abaxially longitudinal ridges, green leaf branchlets above, slightly the leaves are shiny, white. Monoecious, flowers solitary top branches; male cones ovoid or oblong, stamens 6-8, decussate, anthers 3-5; female flowers with 5-7 scales on the ball. In mature cones, oblong or oblong ovate, 10-12 mm long, 6-9 mm in diameter; scales decussate, woody, cross shaped, with a few at the top of the central groove, slightly concave, with a sharp point; seeds flat, ripe red brown, slightly shiny, with narrow wings on both sides.
Distribution: distribution in the central China mountains in Taiwan Province, North Tianshan Mountain, Samsung mountain, mountain, Baxianshan, snowy mountains, snow, mountains, mountains, horse deer farm Xiangshan Mountain, Luoshan, Wang Pu Keng Shan, Luan county, mountainous mountains, Ali Mountain, too, Geshan Lu Yunwu, Anton in the mountains, close mountains, Hayashida Yama and other places at the altitude of 1050-2400 meters coniferous forest.
The ecological and biological characteristics: red like a mild and humid climate. The average annual temperature distribution of 10.6 degrees, the average temperature in January 5.8 degrees, the average temperature in July of 14.1 degrees, annual rainfall of 4165 mm, 85% relative humidity. For the development of good or grey brown podzol soil, or soil parent material for the gray sandstone soil base biological cycle of strong, loose topsoil, aggregate structure, acid reaction, pH5.5-6. These generally 10-20 degrees in the southeast slope, weak wind area, surrounded by mountains or valleys. With Taiwan Cypress Mixed, or the formation of pure forest. As the Xiyang tree roots, good natural regeneration seedlings need a certain luminosity, rapid growth. Florescence 4-5 month, 9-10 month.
To protect the value of Chamaecyparis is a rare species China unique, it is di Chamaecyparis discontinuously distributed in Taiwan, Japan and North America, East Asia and North America to study the flora and plant geography has certain scientific significance. As the largest cypress trees, Taiwan Ali kept a line called "Shenmu" trees, up to 57 meters to 6.5 meters in diameter, the volume of about 504 cubic meters, about 3000 years old, the world is rare, excellent material, is a valuable economic materials in Taiwan. Protection measures: should establish a centralized distribution in cypress Chamaecyparis Ali Mountain Nature Reserve, key protection. In the future should be prohibited a lot of deforestation and promote natural regeneration, carry out reproduction test, expand the planting area, the suitable area can be cultivated in the mainland.
Cultivation: seed breeding. Can choose and Chamaecyparis site conditions similar slope or nursery, in direct seeding or transplanting seedling after March, cutting method is also easy to survive, time in the 3-4 month, 6-7 and 9-10 in mid mid, three years after the root is good, can be transplanted in the 2-3 month.
Cupressus chengiana
 Cupressus chengiana Cupressus chengiana
Cupressus chengiana S.Y. Hu
Status: Endangered species.
Cupressus chengiana Originally the Minjiang River, Dadu River and Gansu Bai Longjiang Valley alpine gorge area of Zhongshan zone coniferous forest species. Due to long-term excessive deforestation, forest plots are extremely rare, many survivors in the traffic inconvenience, human activities are scattered in many places, the bald mountains and bare rock cliffs on both sides of the canyon and rock edge. If you do not take protective measures, may be the replacement of valley shrub.
Morphological characteristics: evergreen trees, up to 30 meters, diameter of 1 meters; bark strip slit; branchlets cylindrical, green leaf scale, at the end of branchlets 1-1.5 mm thick, 3-4 year old branches purple brown or reddish brown. Leaves scale cross shaped, opposite, arranged in a close four, ca. 1 mm long, green, the back arch circle, Central has 1 obvious or not obvious glandular dots. A single branch tip, subglobose or slightly long, 1.2-2 cm in diameter, mature red brown or brown scales, decussate, 4-5, woody, peltate, exposed part of the irregular quadrilateral or pentagon, the central has short pointed; seeds flat, broadly rounded or obovate rounded, 3-4 mm long, with wings on both sides.
Distribution: distribution in Sichuan Minjiang River Basin, Wenchuan Maowen, Lixian, Dadu River Basin Barkam, Jinchuan, Danba and Gansu, small gold white Longjiang basin Zhouqu, Wudu, Wenxian and Sichuan Nanping etc.. On both sides of the valley or Canyon drought in an altitude of 980-2900 meters.
The ecological and biological characteristics, climatic characteristics of Cupressus growth area is long and cold winter, summer cool, dry winter and spring drought, dry and wet season, the annual average temperature 8-14 degrees Celsius, the coldest month (January) the average temperature of -20-6 DEG C; annual precipitation of 500-750 (-1000) mm, annual evaporation is about two times of precipitation the relative humidity of 50-70%. The soil is neutral to alkaline granite, quartzite and limestone formed by slope hill or mountain cinnamon or cinnamon brown, was born in the parent material or knot free pieces of mica schist, phyllite, weathered granite soil on crystalline rocks etc.. Cupressus light, deep roots, drought tolerant tree species, the slope selection is not strict, in site conditions of poor cliff, a valley with a small piece of stand only in YISHION, often appear under the state forest, forest tree species are Koelreuteria paniculata, Monsan; shrubs in southwest campylotropis Bunge, Bauhinia saddle and Mizuki Shunko, and the main sub twig larvae. Cupressus can grow up to 40 meters, 2 meters diameter trees, generally slow growth, but in the thick soil, water and fertilizer conditions better gully growth. Florescence 4-5 month, mature cones next summer.
Protection value: Cupressus Chinese is endemic, for soil and water conservation in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the important tree species in the alpine gorge area of Zhongshan Valley Drought Afforestation pioneer tree. Hard material, dense, aroma, architecture, furniture, appliances and other excellent timber.
Protection measures: the remaining forest designated as forbidden zones, for individual students as sporadic trees, strict protection, provide a source for breeding.
Cultivation: reproduction by seeds. Spring, with 12-15 grams per square meter. About January emergence after sowing. The seedling height of 20 cm in rainy season afforestation. Should choose warm dry valley area for afforestation.
cupressus gigantea
 cupressus gigantea cupressus gigantea
Cupressus gigantea Cheng et L. K. Fu
Status: Endangered species.
Jubo is a 1974 found in eastern Tibet endemic plants, narrow distribution area. The existing forest over the age of 100 years, some of which is a thousand years old. It is on the hillside natural regeneration is difficult, but the seedlings along the Yarlung Zangbo river.
Morphological characteristics of large evergreen trees, 25-45 m tall, diameter of 1-3 meters, diluted up to 6 meters; bark strips fracture; scale leaves branches arranged closely, often Chengsi prismatic, often wax powder, at the end of branchlets 1.5-2 mm thick, 3-4 year old branches purplish brown or grayish purplish brown, leaf scale form, on the cross, close four rows back, with longitudinal ridges or subobtuse, base nearly 1 circular dots. The single cone was born in the top branches, mature, oblong globose, often glaucous, 1.6-2 cm long, 1.3-1.6 cm in diameter; a scale of 6, decussate, woody, peltate, exposed flat, polygonal, Central has obvious convex tip, can have multiple number of seed breeding scales; seeds near shallow brown, with narrow wings on both sides.
Distribution: Tibet is mainly distributed in the lower slopes of the Yarlung Zangbo River swim long county to Milin area east of river valley, west of a lattice distribution of more lordkipanidze River in Linzhi and other places also have bomi. At an altitude of 3 meters in 000-3400 area.
The ecological and biological characteristics: path distribution area is located in the India Ocean monsoon humid along the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley westward, but the intensity has weakened, and the influence of the western plateau arid is gradually dominant. The annual average temperature of 8.4 degrees Celsius, the extremely low temperature of -15.3 DEG C, annual precipitation less than 500 mm, concentrated in 6-9 months, the relative humidity below 65%. The sandy soil is neutral to alkali. The tree species adapted to arid and windy plateau valley slope environment, often in the river beach and warm arid area along the Yangtze River consists of sparse forests. With cold resistance, drought resistance, strong wind characteristics. Cone 9-10 month.
Protection value: c.gigantea is the endemic species of China, DBH generally above 1 meters, some of them for the millennium old trees, DBH is 3-6 meters. The occurrence and development and its relationship with the environment of Cupressaceae, phylogeny and vegetation in Tibet, there are more important.
Protection measures: any protective measures have not yet taken at present. That prohibited deforestation centralized distribution, growth, choose good stand as a natural protection, the Millennium trees will set a license key protection, the absolute prohibition of felling. And to seed collection plantation.
Cultivation: c.gigantea every year the fruit, seed is easy, the availability of seed sowing and seedling and transplantation. Cultivation method with reference to the other plants of genus.
fokienia hodginsii
 fokienia hodginsii fokienia hodginsii
Fokienia hodginsii (Dunn) Henry et Thomas
Status: Endangered species.
The ancient relic plants, but also excellent timber species, distributed in the middle subtropical zone. Due to excessive logging, serious damage, natural forests are shrinking, many scattered in the broad-leaved forest or coniferous forest, the amount is not much, and the natural regeneration ability is weak, urgent need to take effective protective measures.
Morphological characteristics: evergreen trees, up to 30 meters or more, up to 1 meters in diameter, bark purplish brown, nearly smooth or irregular strip cracking; scale shape, type two, decussate, 4 tablets a day, 2-9 mm long, central to close to the apex, triangle, side of therefore the central leaf margin, apex obtuse or acuminate, slightly curved or straight; branchlets above leaves slightly convex, dark green leaves, under the mask of sag white stomatal bands. Monoecious, solitary flowers clustered on the top. The cones mature, subglobose, 1.7-2.5 cm in diameter, mature brown scales; decussate, 6-8, wood, peltate, top of the polygon, the central depression has 1 convex mucronate; each of the 2 scales to breeding seed; seed ovoid, top two sizes of the membranous wing.
Geographical analysis: distributed in the south of Zhejiang, Longquan Qing Yuan, Fujian northeast to West Zhou Ning, Nanping, Luoyuan, Lianjiang, Minhou, Minqing, Yongtai, Xianyou, Dehua, Anxi, Huaan, Yongan, Zhangping, Longyan, Shanghang, Changting, Jiangxi, Dexing, Zixi and Eastern Qianshan in southwestern Suichuan, Shangyou, Guangdong in northern Lechang, Ruyuan, linghsien, southern Hunan, Yizhang, Jiang Hua, Guangxi, Daoxian County, Dongan, Ning Ning, Chengbu, Longsheng, northern Guangxi, resources supervision Guangxi, Mengshan, Ho County, Jinxiu and the southern Wuming, one hundred thousand mountains, Southeast of Guizhou, Rongjiang, Congjiang, Libo Leishan, Dushan, Pingtang Luodian, and northwest Chishui, Xi wood, Jen cup, generous, Hezhang, southeastern Sichuan, Qijiang, Luzhou, Jiangjin, Gulin, Hejiang, Leibo, southeastern Yunnan, Pingbian, Shimonoseki, Xichou Jin Ping, Wenshan and the middle peace etc.. North Vietnam distribution.
The ecological and biological characteristics: the distribution areas are mainly located in the tropical subtropical to South Asia, local areas can be extended into the North tropical, was born in Zhongshan in the following. Warm and humid climate, the annual average temperature of 15-20 DEG C, the average temperature in January more than 5 DEG C, the extremely low temperature of not less than -12 degrees, annual rainfall of 1200 mm or more. Soil, sand shale, granite rhyolite development acidic mountain yellow with yellow brown, pH 5-6. For the shallow rooted positive species, obvious main root, lateral roots developed; juvenile can tolerate a certain shade, can natural regeneration under the canopy, but grow trees, to gradually increase the amount of light. Some tolerance to drought. Many scattered in mixed conifer forest, in some places occasional small piece of pure forest. The main associated tree species are pine, fir, Castanopsis, Schima superba had at low altitude; a Tsuga and Jin Maoke, Castanopsis eyrei, Schima superba and silver in high altitude. Flowering in mid March to April, October in mature cones.
Protection value: Fujian Bai is a monotypic genus China endemic, has scientific significance in the development of the system of Cupressaceae plants. The material is elastic, soft, straight texture, fine structure, strong corrosion resistance, excellent construction, furniture, equipment, carpentry timber. Optional for subtropical low mountain to Zhongshan afforestation.
Protective measures: set up in more centralized the distribution of Hunan Dupangling nature reserve etc.. The rest should protect the existing trees, carry out seed breeding, plantation greatly. Fujian Anxi semi forest is a larger area of the Fujian cypress plantation.
Cultivation: 15-40 year old tree seed, planted by 0.1% formalin or 0.1% Potassium Permanganate disinfection, then covered with straw by sowing, the germination rate can reach 80% above. In high temperature season should be timely scaffolding shade. When the biennial seedling height of 5 0-60 cm, lateral root developed can be used in afforestation.
Korean Arborvitae
 Korean Arborvitae Korean Arborvitae
Thuja koraiensis Nakai Korean Arborvitae
Status: Endangered species.
Korean arborvitae not only the distribution area of limited area is small, scattered or small is located in the southwest side of Changbai Mountain Chinese, due to deforestation, habitat destruction, resulting in increasingly narrow distribution range.
Morphological characteristics: small evergreen trees, up to 10 meters, diameter 10-30 cm; tree bark red brown, smooth, tree bark brown, patchy fracture; branches spreading or slightly drooping; branchlets alternate, green when young, flat, line side, 3-4 branches red brown sand row red queen. Leaves scale shape, type two, decussate, 4 rows, 4 pieces on the following day, leaves the flat and close to the apex, slightly pointed or blunt, with 1 obvious or not obvious glandular dots, leaf boat shaped side fold, covered with side and bottom, middle lobe the apex is cupped, back on the green leaves; branchlets, leaves glaucous below. Monoecious, flowers solitary top branches; male cones ovoid, stamens decussate, each with 4 anthers; female cones of 4-5 cone scales, 2-3 in the middle of the ovule ovuliferous scale 1-2. When the cones mature, long elliptic, 9-10 mm, 6-7 mm in diam., dark brown when ripe. Scales to alternate, thin wood, flat back near the top of a convex tip; seed oval, flat, narrow wings around the upper and lower ends of a notch.
Distribution: only in Chinese only distributed in the southwest of Changbai Mountain in Jilin province and Fusong Changbai County, alt. 700-1 800 meter needle broad-leaved forest zone. North Korea also has distribution.
The ecological and biological characteristics: the influence of the Korean distribution area by Bai humid climate group from the sea of Japan, because of the warmer climate, with abundant precipitation. The annual average temperature is approximately at 3-6 DEG C, only seasonally frozen, the average temperature in January -15 - -25 degrees, the average temperature in July at 20-60 DEG C, frost free period is 120-150 days, annual precipitation of about 600-1000 mm, concentrated in 6, 7, 8 and three months, accounting for 70-80% of the annual precipitation. Korean arborvitae negative shallow rooted species, like in humid air, many living in the soil humus fertilizer, in the valley, hill or ridge, bare rock also has the growth gap. The associated tree species are Abies, Yue Hua, Hua Kai machinery and Rowan Tree etc.. Flowering in May. Cone is mature in September.
Protection value: Korean arborvitae China only distributed in Changbai Mountain and North Korea, have scientific value for the study of plant geography and flora. The wood is hard and durable, for the construction, furniture etc..
Protection measures: in Changbai Mountain nature reserve, there are scattered. Take effective measures to protect wildlife resources. The introduction and Cultivation in Changbai Mountain area.
Cultivation: Korean arborvitae by seeding or cuttage can breed cultivation method similar to belong to other plants.
Note: arborvitae (Yabai) Thuja sutchuenensis Franch. endangered species, may be extinct. This is 1892 in Sichuan city county a distribution point on the collected specimens. The forest has been cut down, after visits to the origin of the investigation, did not find. This kind of difference is that the Korean arborvitae and below scale ground without pigment, the central scale leaves without glands.

Cupressaceae On behalf of the plant

Thuja occidentalis
 Thuja occidentalis Thuja occidentalis
Name: Thuja occidentalis L.
Alias: American arborvitae, Jin Zhongbai
A: Cupressaceae genus: Thuja genus
Distribution: distribution in eastern North America, in wet limestone soil. Chinese Zhengzhou, Qingdao, Mount Lu, Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuhan and Beijing in the winter cultivation, can.
Morphological characteristics: evergreen trees, up to 20m, diameter 2m. Crown tower. Bark red brown or orange brown incompetence; current year's branchlets, flat; 3-4 year old branches, round. On both sides of the scale leaf apex incurved, middle scale leaves obvious uplift; leaf glands bough.
Growth habit: light, shade, lax to edaphic requirement, can grow in alkaline soil in the moist. Cut resistant, anti dust and toxic gas is strong. Slow growth, long service life.
Landscape utility: Thuja canopy beautiful neat, landscape trees decorating trees often altar garden, planted in a corner of the lawn, also suitable for hedges.
Breed: commonly used Cuttage Propagation, or sowing and grafting.
 Juniper Juniper
Scientific name: Juniperus rigida Sieb, et Zucc
Alias: juniper, Juniperus
A: Cupressaceae genus: Juniperus
Distribution: dry mountain produced in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, China Inner Mongolia, northern Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces; elevation from northeast to Northwest Mountainous area below 500m 2200m alpine. Korea and Japan are also distributed.
Morphological characteristics: evergreen tree, high 12m. Crown cylindrical, old bulletheaded. Stems erect, pendulous branchlets. Thorn shaped leaf strip, rigid, pointed, deep grooves into upper concave groove, there is a narrow white band, with longitudinal ridges on the back of the obvious. When ripe cones pale brown yellow or blue black, white powder. Seeds subovoid pointed top, there are four significant edges. May: in October flowering mature cones.
Growth habit: light shade tree. Likes the cold weather, cold. The soil adaptability, gray soil like limestone formation of chestnut soil or loess formation, can seam or gravel growth in the sea dry rock. Trees with deep roots, taproot length, lateral root development. Strong ability of anti wind tide. Is the intermediate host of pear rust.
Landscape Uses: Du pine leaves densely drooping, tree appearance is beautiful, the north around the planting tree garden, landscape trees, street trees and sea cliff trees. Harbin Changchun, planting more. Suitable for parks, gardens, green, the cemetery cemetery isolated planting, clump planting and planting out, can also be planted orchards, or potted bonsai, for interior decoration.
Breed: seeding, cutting propagation.
The gold of Platycladus orientalis
 The gold of Platycladus orientalis The gold of Platycladus orientalis
Name: Platycladus orientalis (L.)
Alias: one thousand cypress leaf, Golden ball park
Department: Cupressaceae genus Thuja:
Distribution: cultivated throughout the country.
Morphological characteristics: Platycladus orientalis L., Platycladus orientalis cultivated varieties, dwarf shrub canopy to close, spherical, up to 3m. Ye Quannian golden.
Growth habit: light drought, is cold resistant, resistant barren, medium growth rate is slow, extremely long life.
Landscape Uses: leaves golden, lovely shape, decorated in green is very eye-catching appearance.
Breed: cuttage.
 Carmen Carmen
Name: Sabina chinensis Kaizuca
Alias: Dragon juniper around Long Song
A: Cupressaceae genus: Juniperus
Origin: native Chinese distribution in Yangtze River basin.
Morphological characteristics: small evergreen trees, crown triangular cylindrical or conical upper tower, acuminate, rounded and slightly lower fullness to the side oblique. The base branches near the ground and horizontal and inclined slightly above the red, with longitudinal and transverse, the old skin is flake. All scalelike leaves. The dioecious flowers unisexual. Male flowers yellow ball, elliptic, long 2.5-3.5mm; male flowers round ball, diameter 6-8mm, surface
Growth habit: the warm temperate species, cold and strong, mature plants in winter can endure -18 degrees celsius. Not afraid of heat, positive plants, but more shade tolerant saplings. For the neutral soil loose humus rich in strong acidic soil, poor growth, ability of light alkali. Is afraid of waterlogging, drought tolerance.
Landscape Uses: cypress tree natural and plump, green leaves, the seedlings planted into small pots for indoor furnishings desk, because the seedlings of shade tolerant, can not put in the room of long-term rotation. The basin is decorated on both sides of the door were neutral rare foliage plants.
Breed: Breeding by cutting method.
Juniperus sibirica
 Juniperus sibirica Juniperus sibirica
Name: Juniperus sibirica
Alias: Cypress Mountain, dwarf juniper and Du Song of Siberia
A: Cupressaceae genus: Juniperus
Distribution: produced in the northeast of Greater Khingan Range and Xingan China small Ling mountain top.
Morphological characteristics: gray bark, branchlets stout. Leaf shape, leaf whorls, apex acute or acuminate. Cone shaped round or nearly spherical, brown and black when ripe. Seeds oval.
Growth habit: Gravel mountain woodland or altitude growth at an altitude of 1500-2000 meters in Jilin District of Changbai Mountain, Xinjiang's Taishan mountain 1400-1600 meters and 3500-4200 meters above sea level, Tibet Tingri area under the
Landscape utility: juniper tree is beautiful, dense foliage lush trees, old odd posture, gardening many varieties, it has been widely used in garden. Is a good material to make potted bonsai tree. Wood density and tenacity aroma, for the construction, furniture etc.. Leaves can be used for medicine.
Breeding: sow breeding.
Tibet Bai
 Tibet Bai Tibet Bai
Name: Cupressus torulosa
A: Cupressaceae genus: Cypress
Distribution: Southwest, northwest, Southeast tibet.
Morphological characteristics: bark brown, long strip-shaped slit off. Tibet cypress stem straight up, perennial green, soft twigs droop, the wind breeze, like willows, very beautiful.
Growth habit: positive, barren, drought resistant, strong cold resistance, fast growth.
Use: ornamental plants in the gardens landscape.
Breeding: planting and breeding, the low survival rate of cuttings. Indoor pot sowing, the germination rate is high. Tibet Bai vigorous growth, strong adaptability. The determination of 7 years old. The average tree height of 5.2 meters, up to 6.4 meters, diameter of 11.1 cm; the average annual growth of 0.74 meters, the average annual growth of 1.59 cm.

Science China