The plant is one of the main forms of life, including tree , Shrub Rattan, Green grass , Fern And Green algae , Lichens So familiar Biology . Seed plant , Bryophyte , Fern And the fern plants, it is estimated there are about 350000 species of extant. Green plants Most of the energy is through Photosynthesis Get from the sun light, temperature, humidity, light is the basic survival needs of plants. A total of six plant organs: roots, stems and leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Capable of photosynthesis by plants Light And the use of chlorophyll. water Inorganic salts and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis, release oxygen Produce, Glucose etc. Organic compound For plant use.

Botany Definition

In nature, every living organism, belong to biological. Life should be divided into several circles, and the living creatures called for autotrophic fixation This classification.

Botany The classification of plants

The origin of life is composed of DNA and native chemical slurry. At the beginning of the plant two billion and five hundred million years ago ( Proterozoic ), the earliest history of the earth belongs to the plant Fungus And algae, followed by algae Once very prosperous. Until four hundred and thirty-eight million years ago ( Silurian ), Green algae Get rid of the shackles of the water environment, for the first time on the earth,
Evolution Psilophyton Plants and ferns. For the first Tim Green earth. Three hundred and sixty million years ago ( Carboniferous Psilophyton), extinction, Fern The decline of plants. Is replaced Lycophyta Class, Wedge leaves Class, ferns and Seed ferns Class, form Swamp Forest。 The Paleozoic Era Rich The main plant in two hundred and forty-eight million years ago ( The Triassic Period Almost all extinct, but) Gymnosperms Began to rise, the evolution of pollen tube, and completely get rid of dependence on water, the formation of a dense forest. In 140 million years ago Cretaceous At the beginning of the update, more progress Angiosperm Already in some gymnosperms. differentiation Out. Get into Cenozoic era Later, because of The earth's environment from mesozoic The homogeneity of the global tropical, Subtropical climate Become in, High latitude The diversification of climate four seasons, Fern Because of the lack of further decline of plant adaptability, Gymnosperms And also embarked on because of limitation of adaptability Downhill . At this time, angiosperms in genetic, development process and many stem structure on the progress, especially in the reproductive organs of the flower showing great progress played a role, so that they can by itself genetic variation To adapt to the harsh environmental conditions but those who become faster, more modern differentiation types, to have more than and 80 orders and more than and 200 families. It is of angiosperms The flowers bloom Only then, Four seasons The new generation of earth clear exceptionally beautiful decorate.
It is estimated that about 350000 of the existing plant species, are classified as Seed plant , Bryophyte , Fern And fern. Until 2004, 287655 species of which have been confirmed, there are 258650 kinds of Flowering plants And 16000 species of bryophytes, 11000 Fern And 8000 Green algae .
Informal groups door The number of species
Green algae Chlorophyta Three thousand and eight hundred
CHAROPHYTES 4000 - 6000
Bryophyte Marchantiophyta 6000 - 8000
Anthocerophyta 100 - 200
Bryophyta Ten thousand
Fern Lycopodiophyta One thousand and two hundred
Pteridophyta Eleven thousand
Seed plant Cycadophyta One hundred and sixty
The door of Ginkgo One
Pinophyta Six hundred and thirty
Gnetophyta Seventy
Anthophyta Two hundred and fifty thousand

Botany Composition of organs

A total of six plant organs: root Stems, leaves and flowers, fruit Seed. The stem is part of the plant body axis. Erect or creeping in the water, the stem bears branched, branching apical meristematic cells with apical growth of. Stems generally differentiated into two parts of short day and long internodes. Transporting nutrients and water and support leaves, flowers and fruits in a certain space of the stem is. Some stem has the photosynthesis, nutrients storage and reproduction function. One of the Shiwei nutritional organs of plant leaf. The function for organic synthesis and photosynthesis, transpiration of root to absorb water from the outside to provide power and mineral nutrition. Flower is the reproductive function with abnormal short branch. The fruit is mainly used as the medium of seed dispersal. With seed reproduction and propagation effect, structure of the seed and all sorts of communication or for resistance to adverse conditions, for plant species to survive to create good conditions.

Botany root

root Is the vegetative organs of plants, usually located below the earth's surface, is responsible for the uptake of water inside the soil
Ion and dissolved, and has supported the role of organic matter synthesis and storage. Cause Parenchyma , Vascular tissue , Protection organization , Mechanical organization and meristem Cells.
The root can be divided into four regions, the top of the cap structure is: Root cap The above is, the meristematic zone and elongation zone, and is the root hair root hair zone.
The root cap is located in the root apical meristem outside. The outer cell wall height mucification can reduce friction root soil contact down in the growth process, play a protective role. At the same time amyloplasts in cells can also ensure that the root to growth, to ensure that the agravitropic (Gravitropism).
Meristematic zone Is located in the inner side of the shoot apical meristem. Meristematic cells can divide continuously, a small part is used to form the root cap cells, and most of it back through the growth and differentiation of cells, the formation of various structure of root; on the other hand to keep its original volume.
The elongation zone cell from meristematic zone cell development, splitting ability has decreased, cell elongation of axial elongation. Elongation activity can lead to primary phloem and xylem damage, the lack of layer (Lacuna).
The root hair zone is a mature cell cell. Hair by hair cells in the epidermis (Trichoblast) generation, can effectively increase the absorption region of the roots of the plants. The absorption area of 400M - tree root.

Botany stem

stem Is one of the nutritional organs of plant. Is the most visible of the main plant. Of course, such as Xian
Palm stem metamorphosis. The stems and roots, the root xylem will absorb water and minerals to transport to different organs, through the Ministry of transportation on the photosynthesis product of phloem. Stems from plant embryonic germ. Hypocotyl part of stems, precisely the cotyledon section.
The first stems for the library's Psilophyton are now extinct and extant is psilotales, they have no real roots and leaves. The vascular plants (vascular plants), the earliest organ is the stem, root and leaf is evolved from the stem.
modification of stem
Some of the plant's stem, its function has not only specialized support and transport function, its form is not only a student leaves, we say modification of stem .
Common cactus onion bulbs, tubers, water chestnut corms, rhizomes of ginger, strawberry, grape stem tendrils (stem tendril), and stem (Branch) specialization in leafy asparagus.

Botany leaf

leaf Is the vegetative organs of higher plants, leaf primordium development side from plant stalk. The leaves contain chlorophyll, is the main place of photosynthesis. At the same time, plant transpiration is achieved through leaf stomata.
Leaves appear only in the real stem, that only vascular plants have leaves. Ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms, all higher plants have leaves. In contrast, mosses, algae, fungi and lichens are no leaf. In the flat body (Thallus) can be found in leaf structure and similar, but only as analogues (Analoga).
Leaf contains three parts: leaves, petioles and stipules.
Leaf refers to the leaf flat body structure. It will be possible to absorb sunlight, and through stomatal regulation of moisture and temperature in plants.
Petiole is connected with leaf and stem segment.
Stipules from petiole or leaf axils on both sides, small, caducous. Different kinds of plants, the different forms of stipules. Such as peas with a big leaf like stipules, and locust and wild jujube is stipules needle, stipules campanulata pinnate. Its role is to protect the young leaves.


FLOWER In the receptacle, the outside is wrapped in the middle petals, the reproductive organs of plants, stamens and female
Rui. Flower of bright colors and attractive aroma, is to attract insects to come. In the insect's help, complete the pollination process, to achieve the purpose of procreation. Most of the trees and grass flowers pale, no fragrance, can not attract insects to pollinate the plants generally rely on wind pollination process. According to the different plants, most plants will open every year hundreds of flowers, a few plants, such as tulips, a year only one flower. The length of florescence is different.
calyx Is located in the outermost layer of a whorl of sepals, usually green, but also some plants like a flower.
Corolla Located in the inner wheel by the calyx, petal, relatively thin and soft, often colors to attract insects to help pollination.
Androecium Is the name in a flower, stamens, anthers inserted filaments top, is the formation of pollen where pollen contain male gametes.
Gynoecium Is the name for a flower in the pistil, may consist of one or more pistils. The composition of the reproductive organs called pistil carpel, including ovary, ovary and ovule (including indoor gametes). A pistil may be composed of multiple carpels, in this case, if each single pistil apocarpy formed distinct, called apocarpous gynoecium, if carpels are called compound pistil. The top is called sticky pistil stigma, pollen receptor. The style is connected the stigma and ovary, pollen germination after pollen tube entry ovary The channel.

Botany fruit

fruit The flower pistil and, most seeds wrapped in fruit inside. Strawberry fruit growth comes from the receptacle, is an exception. A number of fruit seeds vary, there is only one seed, there are many. When the fruit is ripe, some rich in water, some are dry. Water fruit usually bright color, can attract the animal be eaten, and the seeds far away, when the seeds excreted will sprout. Some leguminous plants and other plants, the fruit will burst, the seed to the nearby, waiting to sprout. Some fruit is very light weight, when the wind blows, the wind will be far away, they complete their tasks. Some plants of the fruit, with a burr surface, can stick to the animal, the animal far away. When detached from the animal body, the seeds germinate on the spot.
The fertilized ovary single formation called fruit Zhenguo , such as peach, soybean and so on; usually only the ovary is called real fruit, such as peach, soybean etc..
The other part of the ovary and flower (calyx, perianth, rachis etc.) a fruit called anthocarp , such as apples, pears and so on. Calyx and calyx involved, such as strawberries, fruit is increasing fleshy receptacle.

Botany seed

The seed is the seed plants grown by fertilized ovule structure, generally testa and embryo and endosperm etc.. The embryo is the most important part in the seed germination, grow the new individual. The endosperm contains nutrients.
The seed coat by integument development to protect the embryo and endosperm function. Gymnosperm seed coat consists of an outer layer, inner layer (fleshy layer), middle layer (stone layer). Cycads and Ginkgo biloba, fleshy outer layer thickening, mature with pigment; many outer conifers have not developed. The general trend of the inner layer of paper is shrinking, in the mature seeds, lining in the middle.
Embryos from zygote develops into. Composed of germ, hypocotyl, cotyledon and radicle. Arrangement of gymnosperm embryo along the central axis of seeds, seeds of different species, different number of cotyledons was 1 ~ 18. Two common, such as cycads, ginkgo, yew, Torreya, Sequoia, Gnetum, ephedra etc..
Gymnosperm endosperm is the haploid gametophyte, generally more developed, more storage starch or fat, but also some vague powder. The endosperm is generally pale yellow, a white, gingko seeds in mature endosperm is green.
In the process of double fertilization in angiosperm endosperm, a sperm and Embryo sac The polar nuclei fuse into polyploid. The majority of angiosperms in seed development in endosperm formation, but some mature seeds without endosperm, with few, because of their endosperm is absorbed in the developing embryo decomposition. The mature seeds with endosperm, exalbuminous seeds. Exalbuminous seed embryo, each part of embryo, especially a large number of nutrients in the cotyledons.

Botany The main role

Most plants of solid material was obtained from the atmosphere. The one is called the process of photosynthesis, plants use sunlight energy to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be transformed into simple sugars. These sugars are used as building materials, and constitute the main structural components of plant. Plants mainly rely on soil as support and water, and nitrogen, phosphorus and other important nutrients. Most plants need to be able to successfully grow, also need the oxygen in the atmosphere (as breathing purposes) and oxygen around the roots. However, some special vascular plants such as mangroves can make the root growth under hypoxia.

Botany Photosynthesis

The plant has the ability of photosynthesis -- that is to say it can help Light Chlorophyll and animal do not possess, use water Inorganic salts and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis, release oxygen Produce, glucose, rich energy substance, for plant use.
 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis
The chlorophyll containing plant magnesium .
Plant cells have obvious cell wall And the nucleus of the cell wall by glucose polymer: cellulose.
All plants are the ancestors Unicellular Non photosynthetic organisms, they devoured Photosynthetic bacteria Two, the formation of a mutually beneficial relationship: photosynthetic bacteria survival in plant cells (the so-called Endosymbiosis ). Finally transformed into bacteria Chloroplast It is a kind of, but not independent survival in all plants Organelles . Most of the plants belonging to angiosperms, is Flowering plants Including a variety of trees. Plant respiration in cells Mitochondrion For in the chloroplasts; photosynthesis.
The green plant photosynthesis is widespread, the biggest reaction process on earth, the sun and the accumulation of energy in organic synthesis, Air purification Keep the atmosphere oxygen Content and carbon cycle Play a large role in the stability, is the foundation of agricultural production, is of great significance in theory and practice. According to the calculation of the whole world Green plants Every day can produce proteins, carbohydrates and fats, about 4 tons at the same time, but also released into the air nearly 5 tons more than the oxygen, with sufficient food and oxygen for human and animal.
The leaf is the main organ for photosynthesis, Chloroplast Is an important organelle of photosynthesis. Higher plant The chloroplast pigment including chlorophyll (A and b) and Carotenoid (carotene and Xanthophyll ), their distribution in light Photosynthetic membrane. The phenomenon of absorption and fluorescence of chlorophyll, it can absorb light, excited by light. Chlorophyll biosynthesis Formed in the light conditions, not only by Genetic Restricted by light, temperature, and, Mineral nutrition , water and oxygen The influence of.
Including photosynthesis Light reaction The process of photosynthesis Carbon assimilation Two steps, light reaction process including primary reaction and electron transfer and Photophosphorylation The two stage, the former of light energy absorption, transmission and conversion of light energy into electrical energy, the latter will be transformed into electrical energy ATP and NADPH2 (collectively referred to as the two assimilation) active chemical energy. Active chemical energy into stable chemical energy is accomplished through carbon assimilation process. Carbon assimilation are C3, C4 and CAM in three ways, according to the different ways of carbon assimilation, the plant is divided into C3 plant , C4 plant and CAM plant . But the C3 way is all the plants were the main form, some carbon assimilation, fixed CO2 The enzyme is RuBP Carboxylase . c4 pathway and CAM way But the CO2 is fixed in different ways, the last to be in plants again to release CO2, involved in the starch synthesis pathway of C3 etc.. C4 fixed CO2 pathway and CAM pathway enzymes are PEP carboxylase, its affinity to CO2 than RuBP carboxylase, C4 The CO2 pathway plays a role of pump; nocturnal stomatal opening is characteristic of CAM pathway, absorption and fixed CO2 formation malic acid Daytime, stomatal closure, using malic acid formed by decarboxylation at night by the release of CO2, the formation of sugar by C3 pathway. It is formed in the long-term evolution of adaptability.
Light respiration Green cell absorption O2 Release the CO2 process, the substrate is C3 pathway intermediates RuBP and oxygen formation Glycolic acid . Whole glycolate pathway Is followed in the chloroplast, peroxisme and Mitochondrion In the. C3 plants have obvious photorespiration, photorespiration of C4 plants is not obvious.
Plant photosynthetic rate varied with plant species, growth period, the accumulation of photosynthetic products, but also by light, CO2 Temperature and moisture, Mineral elements And the influence of environmental conditions such as O2. The effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis is not isolated, but interrelated, interaction. In a certain range, is suitable for various conditions, Photosynthetic rate The faster.
Plant energy utilization rate is very low. The existing theory of crop yield and value so far, great yield potential. In order to improve The light energy utilization rate It should be, resulted in the decrease of leakage. Energy loss and improve the energy conversion rate, mainly by increasing the photosynthetic area, photosynthetic time and improve the extension Photosynthetic efficiency And improve Economic yield The coefficient of photosynthetic products and reduce consumption. Improve Photosynthetic performance Is to improve crop yield The fundamental way.

Botany Respiration

Respiration Is an important part of higher plant metabolism. A close relationship with plant life activities. Living cells through respiration will continue to matter decomposition, the energy required for various life activities of plants to provide raw materials and the synthesis of the important organic compounds play an important role. At the same time also can enhance plant disease resistance. Respiration is the hub of plant metabolism.
According to the need of oxygen respiration, divided into Aerobic respiration and Anaerobic respiration Two types of. Under normal circumstances, aerobic respiration is the main form of higher plant respiration, but in hypoxia Plant conditions and special organization of anaerobic respiration, to maintain the metabolism of.
Respiratory metabolism Can be carried out through multiple pathways, its diversity is a kind of environment adaptability formation in plant evolution. The EMP-TCA cycle in plants is organic matter Oxidative decomposition The main way, and PPP pathway in respiratory metabolism also plays an important role.
Respiratory substrate Complete oxidation, final release CO2 And water, while the substrate energy into ATP form the active activation energy. The formation of EMP-TCA cycle is only CO2 and a small amount of ATP. Most of the energy is stored in the NADH and FADH2. These substances through respiratory chain The electron transport and Oxidativephosphorylation The role, will be part of the energy storage in ATP, which is stored breathing The main form of energy release.
Plant respiration Metabolism affected by various factors. Respiratory effects Plant life For, and crop planting, breeding and seeds, fruits and vegetables, Root tuber , tuber The storage and Cut flowers There is a close relationship between preservation. Humans can make use of the related knowledge of respiration, adjustment Respiration rate And make it better for the production of services.
Plants corresponding to another animal biological. Animal and plant The difference is formed during the long evolutionary process. But the tiny creatures, the difference between them is sometimes not obvious. As the plant evolution trend, by the cell stacking formed the ontogeny, cell wall formation, photosynthesis and chlorophyll by become independent nutrition system independent Material metabolism The building is the main, and on the basis of the non motor are secondary features. According to the estimation of the existing plant species there are about 300 thousand species, accounting for more than half of the plants and fungi, due to its lack of attention to the important characteristics of chlorophyll, and the plants are divided into two groups, and some think that the whole biosphere can be divided into animal, fungi, plants in three groups. The classification system, used to Seed plant ( Flowering plant ) as the classification key, subsequently transferred to the so-called Phanerogam . At present, the plant community is divided into 10 ~ 13, seed plants just a door which. But even today, the important position of the door and its content, differences of opinion among scholars may be larger than the animal kingdom. In general, the first half of twentieth Century showed the Leningrad (H.G.A.Engler) classification system The most popular, the second half of the pasture (A.Pascher) classification system gradually dominant.

Botany Organization system

The mature organs of all plants basically consists of 3 kinds of organization system composed of these 3 kinds of system are: skin tissue
 Onion epidermal cells Onion epidermal cells
System, Vascular tissue System and Basic organization System. Including the skin tissue system Epidermis and Periderm . The skin covered on the surfaces of plants, plant protection layer is born. The periderm is a secondary layer of protection is to protect the plants, instead of epidermal tissue. The system includes two kinds of vascular tissue Conducting tissue That is, the migration of organic nutrient Phloem And transporting water and minerals in xylem. The basic organization system in leather organization system and organization system between the dimension of tube. The basic organization system mainly includes a variety of Parenchyma Thick skin tissue, and Collenchyma . In addition to seed germination and embryo There are meristem, in which cells after repeated splitting, produce a large number of cells. Most of these cells stop dividing and differentiation into a variety of small part is reserved for the organization; meristem .

Botany Ecological effect

Terrestrial plants and algae photosynthesis is almost the first exercise source of energy and organic matter in all ecosystems. Photosynthesis radically changed the composition of the early Earth's atmosphere, which has 21% oxygen. Animal and most other organisms are aerobic, rely on oxygen to survive. The plant belongs to the producers in most terrestrial ecosystems, the formation of the basic food chain. Many plants rely on animal as their homes, as well as the provider of oxygen and food.
Terrestrial plants is the key to the water cycle and a number of other material circulation. Some plants (such as legumes etc.) and nitrogen fixing bacteria co evolution, making the plants become an important part of the nitrogen cycle. In the plant root development and prevent soil erosion also plays a very important role in soil.

Botany distribution

Most of the plants distributed in the world of the hydrosphere, lithosphere surface, the bottom of the atmosphere, with different climate zones and a different number, and some of them even growth in the permafrost on the far north continental shelf. In the southern tip of the Antarctic, the plant also tenaciously against the cold environment.
Plants are usually their habitat on the physical structure and main composition. Many of the earth's ecosystem with vegetation type and name, because these plants are the main organisms in the ecosystem, such as grassland and forest etc.. To adapt to different environments through genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity.

Botany The ecological relationship

Many animal and plant co evolution, for example: many animal pollinated flowers will help to exchange the nectar;
 Carnivorous plants - flytrap Carnivorous plants - flytrap
Many animal will eat fruit and excrete in seed plants to help spread the seeds. Myrmecophilous plant is a co evolution of plants and ants. This plant will provide shelter and food ants, sometimes. In exchange, the ants will help the plant defense herbivorous animal, and sometimes help them and other plant competition. Ants can also provide plant waste organic fertilizer. Most of the roots of the plants will have a symbiotic relationship and different fungi, called mycorrhiza. Fungi will help plants get water and minerals from the soil, and the plant will provide fungi from photosynthesis in carbohydrate. Some plants will provide endophytic fungi in residence, while fungi can produce toxins to protect plants by herbivorous animal food. Festuca arundinacea In Neotyphodium coenophialum Is a species of endophytic fungi in the United States, the animal husbandry has caused very serious economic damage. Many types of parasites is also very common in plants, from semiparasitic mistletoe (only from its host must get some nutrients, but there were still some photosynthetic leaves) to parasitic Orobanche and toothwort (all through the plant roots and other links to obtain nutrients, so no chlorophyll). Some plants parasitic on mycorrhizal fungi, called mycorrhizal heterotrophic, and therefore would like is parasitic on other plants. Many plants are epiphytes, which grow on other plants (usually trees), but not parasitic on its top. Epiphytic plants may be indirectly harm to the residents, the residents through the interception of minerals and deserve the sun. A large number of epiphytes may break the weight of the trunk. Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses are usually epiphytic plants. Epiphytic bromeliad will accumulate water in the axils formed tree pool, a complex aquatic food chain. Some plants are carnivorous plants, such as the Venus flytrap and sundew. They capture and digest small animal to obtain minerals, especially nitrogen.

Botany The main value

Tens of thousands of plant species are planted to beautify the environment, provide shade, adjust the temperature, reduce wind speed, reduce noise, to provide privacy and prevent Soil erosion . People will be placed in the indoor flower, Dry flower And indoor potted plants, outdoor will set up lawn, trees, landscape trees and shrubs, Cane vine , Perennial herb The images of flowers and plants and flower beds is commonly used in art, architecture, nature, language, photography, textile, coins, stamps, flags and armbands. The art of living plant types include green carving, bonsai, flower and trees etc.. Ornamental plants sometimes affects the history, such as Tulip mania . The plant is every year billions of dollars in tourism industry, including to the botanical garden, The history of the park And the state of, Tulips The flower, colorful autumn leaves of the forest and forest and other places to travel.

Botany Edible value

In fact, all human nutrient sources are directly or indirectly dependent on the terrestrial plants. The vast majority of human beings rely on nutrient grains, especially corn, wheat and rice, or other staple foods such as potato, cassava and legumes. The other is the edible parts of plants including fruits and vegetables, nuts, herbs, spices and edible flowers etc.. Plant based beverages including coffee, tea, beer, Wine etc.. Sugar is mainly composed of Sugar cane And in the beet. Edible oil and margarine from corn, soybean, canola, safflower, sunflower, olive and so on. Food additives including Arabia gum, guar gum, locust bean gum, starch and pectin etc..
grain crops
The food plants for human consumption part. The narrow sense refers to a single grain of grain (cereal),
 foodstuff foodstuff
The cereal crop seeds (as well as exceptions of non grasses buckwheat Seed). Generalized food also includes legume seeds and potato plants such as edible roots or stems. The food contains nutrients are mainly carbohydrates (starch based), followed by protein. The food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations definition of food includes three kinds of grains, including wheat, rice, coarse grains (also called grains, is often used as animal feed grain, including barley, corn, rye, oats, black wheat and sorghum). The grain of the Chinese has said in the pre Qin period, refers to rice, millet, millet, wheat, beans crop species, the seeds of rice, millet, corn, as wheat, beans, beans.
Vegetables, cooking, cooking can refer to the food, in addition to other plants than grain
 Vegetables Vegetables
(most are herbaceous). The vegetables to life, and often "fruit" discussed separately. But it is often called Vegetable & Fruit and fruit". In addition, the "wild herbs" and different places, after long time of human lies in vegetable breeding, improve the taste and nutritional value, and disease resistance and other characteristics, and have obvious differences in the original wild species, human consumption frequency is much higher; and the wild herbs mostly without human domestication, almost all wild species. Humans also often eat less.
Refers to the fruit can be eaten raw, juicy, sour or sweet fruit, such as apple, orange, Grape , Strawberry Banana and lemon, Blueberry Etc.. But in the botanical definition, there are some fruit as the fruit, such as beans, corn, wheat, wheat and tomato.
 Fruits Fruits
Also known as spices, spices or spices, as some dry seeds, fruits, roots, bark made of seasonings, such as pepper, clove, cinnamon etc.. They are being used to increase the flavor for food, rather than providing nutrition.
For some spices plants can be used for medicine, religion, cosmetics, fragrance, or food. Spice is rarely used alone, most of the number of ten species composition harmonic composition. Sometimes, spices also refers to fragrance materials used in manufacturing.
Oil crops
People use cooking oil when cooking is distilled from some high fat content of Oilseeds in fruits or seeds. Common oil crops are palm oil, peanut, soybean, sesame, rapeseed, sunflower etc.. Peanut beans and some dried kernels are good oil. Planted in China widely oil crops are peanuts, soybean, rape etc..
Sugar crops

For the sugar crop called sugar crops. The main sugar crop
 Sugar - cane Sugar - cane
There are two kinds: one is the sugar cane, it is a kind of high green stems; one is the sugar beet, it is a long swollen roots in the ground. People out of their juice, the juice collected into sugar crystallization. In our country, north to southern sugar beet as raw material, often with sugar cane as raw material.

Botany The value of raw materials

wood Be used in construction, furniture, paper, musical instruments and sports equipment. cloth Is usually made of cotton, linen or synthetic fiber raw materials, such as cellulose, rayon and acetate. From plants Renewable fuels Including wood, peat and other biofuels. charcoal and petroleum Is to From the fossil fuel plant. From plants medicine Including aspirin, paclitaxel, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine etc.. There are hundreds of plants in herb Such as ginkgo, echinacea, antipyretic, chrysanthemum and Hypericum perforatum etc.. From plants Pesticides Including nicotine, rotenone, strychnine and pyrethrins etc.. From plants narcotics Including opium, cocaine and cannabis. From plants poison Including the poison ricin, ginseng and curare etc.. Many plants Natural products Such as source material fiber, essential oils, dyes, pigments, wax, tannins, latex, resin, rosin, alkaloids, amber and cork. From plants product Including paint, soap, shampoo, cosmetics, sesame oil, turpentine oil, rubber, varnish, lubricants, linoleum, plastic, ink, gum and rope etc.. The plant is also a large number of organic compound The industrial synthesis, the main source of basic compounds.

Botany Ornamental value

Thousands of plant species are planted to beautify the environment, provide shade, adjust the temperature and reduce wind Speed, reduce noise, prevent soil erosion and provide privacy. People will be placed flowers, dried flowers and potted plants in the indoor; outdoor will set up lawn, trees, trees, shrubs, vines, viewing the perennial herbaceous plants and flower plants; plants like Italy is commonly used in art, architecture, nature, language, photography, textile, coins, stamps, flags and armbands above; live plants can be used for carving, bonsai, flowers and green trees.
Ornamental plants sometimes affects the history, such as the tulip mania.
The plant is every year billions of dollars in tourism industry, including the historical garden, botanical garden, National Park, tulip flower fields, forests and colorful foliage forest to travel.

Botany Cultural value

Plants also provide the basic needs for human spiritual life. Daily use of paper is to use plant production. Some of the fragrant substances plants can be made into the human essence of various cosmetics, perfume.
many Musical Instruments Is produced by plants. The flower is a decorated human living space of ornamental plants.

Botany Plant pulse

Lai every sunny day, the sun rises from the East, the plant trunk began to shrink until sunset. At night, the trunk stop contraction, began to swell, and will continue on the morning of the second day. This plant on night of fine coarse beating, daily cycle, but every beat, slightly larger than the total expansion contraction. Then, the trunk so gradually thickening grew up.
However, a rainy day, trunk" pulse "Almost completely stopped. During the rainfall, the trunk always day and night continuous thickening, until the rain clears, the trunk was again started to shrink, it is a plant "pulse" of a "sick" feature.
The pulse phenomenon is so strange, is caused by the movement of water in plants. After the accurate measurement, the scientists found that when the plant root water absorption and transpiration of water as much, basically no change of the thickness of the trunk. But if the absorption of moisture than the transpiration of water, the trunk will thicken, on the contrary, when the water in the trunk will shrink.
Understand this truth, the plant "pulse" it is easy to understand. At night, the plant stoma Always closed, the water transpiration is greatly reduced, so the tree is thickening. During the day, most of the plants are stomatal opening, transpiration increase, the trunk will tend to contract. There are quite a lot of woody plants have this phenomenon, but some fast-growing broadleaf species pulse "phenomenon is particularly evident is also.

Botany Other information

Botany Most of the plants

 Baiteng Baiteng
In Africa's tropical forests, towering trees and growth Exotic flowers and rare herbs Also, your trip may fall" Ghost cable "This is wrapped around the tree into numerous rings of rattan. Baiteng Also called Calamus Yunnan, China have produced. Cane chair , rattan bed Rattan, rattan shelves, blue etc., are as raw material made of rattan.
The rattan stem is generally fine, a small wine export as crude, and some also fine. On the top of it with a bunch of feathery leaves, leaf long spines. The upper part of the stem until the shoot tip is long and strong, hard thorns are covered with large and sharp bends down the. It is like a barbed whip, swaying, touch the tree, tightly clinging to the trunk, and soon developed a long beam and a bunch of new leaves. Then it continues to climb down the tree trunk, and the lower leaves are gradually falling off. The rattan to climb the tree top, or a lot of long, but have no what can climb, so it is more and more long stems will fall, on the tree as a pillar in the trees around, twisted into countless strange circle.
The rattan from the root to the top, up to 300 meters, is the highest in the world of Eucalyptus is also 1 times longer. The maximum record length up to 400 meters of rattan.
The late flowering plants
The world of the late flowering plants Ramon Brother pineapple, it is produced in South American countries bolivia And it will grow 150 years after a cone-shaped inflorescence, inflorescence. Brother Ramon Pineapple Bloom only once, after flowering means it will wither and die. (scientific name The flower )
The highest tree
 The highest tree almond Eucalyptus The highest tree almond Eucalyptus
If the world tree circles high competition, the only Australia The almond eucalyptus To be eligible, won the championship.
Almond Eucalyptus is generally 100 meters high, which has a height of 156 meters, the trunk Reaching for the Sky There are fifty floors as high. In humans, the trees have been measured, it is the highest one. The birds sing on the top of the tree, it sounds like under a tree. mosquito The hum of the same.
Around the base of the tree is 30 meters long, straight trunk, upward is obviously fine, dense branches and leaves in the top of the tree. Ye Zisheng is very strange, the general leaf surface is overturned, and it is the side of air, like hanging in the branches, in parallel with the projection direction of the sun. This odd appearance is in order to adapt to the dry climate and strong sunlight environment, reduce glare, prevent excessive water evaporation.
Tall broad-leaved tree
The famous Yunnan China Xishuangbanna Tropical jungle, a great tree was found in 70s, its beautiful posture, high
 Parashorea chinensis Parashorea chinensis
Towering tall and straight trunk, proudly stand in the trees above, people can not see it at the top of the tree, even sensitive altimeter here is also of no avail. Therefore, it is known as a tree. The local people called it" Acacia saligna ". The tree can generally be up to 60 meters. People have been measured and analyzed for a tree, found that the growth of Parashorea chinensis fairly quickly, a 70 year old tree, as high as 50 meters. A few even as high as 80 meters, diameter at around 130 cm, up to 300 cm.
The tree belongs to dipterocarpaceae , Parashorea . This is Liu An family, a total of 11 members, mostly living in Southeast asia. Parashorea chinensis Chinese only grows in Yunnan, is a rare species Chinese specialty. The tree tall and straight, with leaves alternate, pinnately veined, yellow flowers lined up Panicles Fragrance. his fruit Hard. The tree is generally grown in 700 ~ 1000 meters in the valley rainforest And the mountain rain forest, the formation of the independent Community types Show a unique natural landscape. Therefore, the academic circles regarded it as Tropical rain forest Mark Tree species .
The tree of good material, rapid growth, productivity is high, the trunk of a tree of Parashorea chinensis Volume of wood Up to 10.5 per plant, the average annual growth rate of 0.085, with 2 of the other species is ~ 3 times. It is a fine tree worth popularizing. At the same time, it is rich in wood Gum There are. spice oils Well, there are many other unknown components, have yet to be further research and utilization.
The Parashorea with such a high scientific value and economic value, and its range is very narrow, so it is listed as a protected plant Chinese.
There is a very close look" Twin brothers "Named Qingtian tree. It is in fact Parashorea chinensis The varieties, is also found in Guangxi in 70s. The appearance of P.chinensis and brothers are very similar, but also extremely tall, Chang Da 60 ~ 65 meters, 30 meters high light branch. The hard material, corrosion resistance, and the plane section is smooth, beautiful texture, economic value and scientific research value is high. Qingtian tree found only the growth in Guangxi Nonggang nature reserve, so as to be strictly protected.
The shortest tree
 Ardisia japonica  Ardisia japonica 
The trees can grow to 20 ~ 30 cm high. In temperate forest, the growth of a small shrub, called Ardisia japonica  Green leaves. Chinese Hawthorn And people are like it, often put it as a bonsai. It was the highest is only 30 cm, so we gave it a nickname, called it" Herba Ardisiae Japonicae ". In fact, the "old not big" than the world's shortest tree, 6 times higher. This tree is the shortest Dwarf willows The growth in the mountains. frozen soil Belt. It stems crawl On the ground, out of branches, like a long Willow The same inflorescence, but 5 cm high. If you take Almond Eucalyptus With the height of dwarf willows compared to a height difference of 15000 times. Short trees and dwarf willows almost as high, and growth in the arctic circle Near the mountain high Arctic birch, there Mushroom Long, even higher than the Arctic dwarf birch. The second dwarf tree forest wood.
Alpine plants Why not? Because of very low temperatures, the air is thin, wind Also, direct sunlight, ultraviolet light and high content in the mountains. So, only those small plants, in order to adapt to this environment.
The crude plant
 100 ride Dalishu 100 ride Dalishu
There is a strange legend in Europe: ancient kings and queens of Arabia, a leadhindred ride to the people, The tour, suddenly the heavy rain, 100 ride People hurriedly escape to a large Chestnut Under the shade, just to give them cover the rain. Therefore, the king took the big chestnut named" 100 ride Dalishu ".
According to foreign reports in 1972, Mount Etna in Sicily near the mountains, there is actually a call" Hundred trees The chestnut trees, the girth of a tree trunk was 55 meters, diameter has reached 17.5 meters, more than and 30 people hand in hand, it can be surrounded by. Even with a great reputation in Africa Baobab Tree And it compared to just Pale into insignificance by comparison . A big hole in the tree below, mining people there when the chestnut dormitory or warehouse. This is the world's most thick trees.
Chestnut fruit Chestnuts That is a favorite food, it is rich in starch, protein and sugar, Nutritive value Very high, regardless of raw food, fried food, cooking, cooking and cooking are appropriate, not only sweet and delicious, and the curative effects of treating spleen tonifying the liver and strong body.
The largest volume of plants
 Sequoia Sequoia
Plant on earth, some individual is very small, others are very large. Like the United States California The Sequoia That tall and fat, the trees in the "giant", it is also known as the world. The average tree height of 100 meters, the highest one is 142 meters, 12 meters in diameter, trunk circumference of 37 meters, need twenty adults can hold it. It is almost as thick, it has lived more than 3500 years. People from the trunk under cut a hole through the car, or let the 4 riders walk side by side. Even saw the tree down, people have to use a ladder to climb up the trunk length.
Almond Eucalyptus although Sequoia high, but it is tall, it is not as large as the volume of trees, so is the world's largest giant sequoia trees. The earth is no larger than its plant.
Sequoia economic value is larger, is a good material for timber, poles and building. Sequoia wood is not easy to fire, there is the role of fire.
The biggest tree.
 Ficus benghalensis Ficus benghalensis
As the saying goes," Great trees are good for shade. ". Do you know what the number of trees supply shade most? The number of Bengal A Banyan It can cover the canopy, about 15 acres of land, 1.5 The football field So big. Ficus benghalensis Not only the lush foliage, and it can take root downward by the branch. Some of these roots hanging in the air to absorb water and nutrients from the air, thousands, this is called" Qigen Also called ". Aerial roots . Most aerial roots into the soil, to the ground, a support role of branches and nutrient absorption. Erect aerial roots, like a banyan tree trunk, most can have more than 4000, from afar, like a piece of wood. Therefore, the local people called the "wooden forest tree". It is said that there was an army of six thousand or seven thousand men in a line Big banyan tree Under the cold. The local people, is still an old Bengal under the banyan, opened a person to go, streams of people busily coming and going in the market. There's no bigger than that of the crown.
The highest hedge
All around the house, garden and orchard, planted a tree, like a wall, which is called hedge , or call Hedge .
People often use the beautiful flowers Hibiscus Covered with thorns, poncirus trifoliata The evergreen privet, and Autumn Ye The maple tree, as a hedge. Hibiscus, trifoliate orange is long not tall shrubs, Privet , Maple Although Grow taller But, because planted too closely, often pruning, it is generally only 5 ~ 6 meters high. In British Scotland, with Beech As a hedge, this tree pruning, there are still some 25 meters high, 30 meters high. This is the world's highest hedge.
The light wood tree
The growth of tropical forests in the Americas Light wood Also called. balsa That is one of the fastest growing trees, but also the world's most light wood. The evergreen tree, trunk tall. Leaves are like Indus Five pieces of white petals, like hibiscus flowers, like fruit dehiscence cotton . China southern Taiwan early introduction. On 1960, in Guangdong, Fujian and other places are also widely cultivated, and grow well.
Balsa wood, only 0.1 grams per cubic centimeter, is the weight of the 1/10 parts of the water. We do the matches for Poplar than it weighs 3.5 times. The wood texture is light, but the structure is very strong, therefore, are valuable materials for aviation, navigation and other special process. Local residents have long used it to make a raft, shuttling between the islands. It Chinese thermos stopper.
The most hard plant
You may not think there will be an even harder than steel tree. This tree is called? iron birch That belongs to the Betulaceae birch
 iron birch iron birch
Genus. The bullet hit the wood, like the thick steel plate on the same motionless. such precious The trees, about 20 meters high, trunk diameter of about 70 cm, about 300 to 350 years of life. The bark is dark red or almost black, with white spots above the clouds. The leaves are oval. The area is not wide, mainly in South Korea and North Korea and China regions bordering Russia along the south coast there are some.
Iron birch wood hard, 3 times harder than oak, 1 times harder than ordinary steel, is the world's most hard wood, it is used as a substitute for metal. The Soviet Union had birch manufacture of iron ball bearings used in the speedboat. Iron birch and some wonderful characteristics, because of its texture is extremely dense, so in the water sank; even if it is a long-term immersion in water, it still can stay dry.
The fire tree
The growth in the African jungle "Zhang Ke tree", is a strange fire tree. A scientist has sensitivity to the fire test, he intends to stand in Zhang Ke under the tree with a lighter smoke, who suddenly flash from the tree to his face, spitting out liquid white foam, the lighter the fire suddenly extinguished, the scientist also covered with white foam, mood.
Why can the Zhang Ke tree fire? The scientists found that Zhang Ke tree is able to fire, because it has a natural "automatic fire extinguisher". Zhang Ke tree is an evergreen tree, growing in Africa and Angola in the western region, the tree is tall, lush foliage, slender leaves downward drag, about 2.5 meters long, hanging down like girls long braids. However, in the lush foliage of many hidden Steamed Buns sized ball, seemingly fruit, in fact it is the fire "weapon" - bud festival. There are many small holes on the shell section on the same, like the holes in the shower, filled with white and transparent liquid. But scientists analysis found that these liquids should contain a lot of carbon tetrachloride, is really worthy of the name "fire extinguisher". Zhang Ke tree is particularly sensitive to the fire, once near the fire, Zhang Ke tree immediately to Festival bracts sends action to "order" tree section bud will suddenly spray liquid foam, the flame extinguished, so that the dense forest turned the corner".
The longevity of the plant
Many trees are more than a hundred years of life. Apricot tree , Persimmon You can live for more than and 100 years. Orange, orange, chestnut can live to 300 years old. Cedar can live for 1000 years. A strain of Nanjing Song Has one thousand and four hundred years of history, but it is not old. Qufu juniper was two thousand and four hundred years ago the old antique. Taiwan Province, Ali Mountain cypress, has 3000 years of history. This is China Taiwan live the longest life tree. The territory of the China known live the longest tree is planted in front of the temple of the Lord Huang Di Bai Ling in the legend of Huang Di in Northern Shaanxi, this tree is planted by Huang Di, the scientific identification of the tree age more than 5000 years, and compared the ancient legend, and Huang Di did at the same time. Shaanxi described the tree: seven eight round tie, bumpy not. The tomb of more than 3000 years of ancient cypress 10 trees of.
The oldest surviving, the tree grows in the United States Bristlecone Pine Some have more than 4000 years old. The giant sequoia may survive 5000 ~ 6000 years.
The world's oldest tree, is West Africa's Canary Island of a dragon. More than and 500 years ago, the determination of it is about 8000 to 10000 years old. This is the oldest trees in the world. Unfortunately destroyed in a storm in 1868, legend of Dracaena war dragon and elephant bleed with land and Zi, and hence the name. Dracaena dark red resin can be used as antiseptic, traditional Chinese medicine can also be used as a muscle and bone pain.
The most ephemeral plants
 Ephemeral Chrysanthemum Ephemeral Chrysanthemum
In nature, plants propagated by seed variety, longevity, but also short-lived. Woody plants than herbaceous plants to longer life. The plant kingdom "Old God of longevity", both in woody plants. General herb, usually a few months to ten years of life. Plant life is closely related to their living environment. Some of the plants in order to make their own survival in the harsh and hostile environment, through long-term hard training, developed rapid growth and rapid flowering ability.
There is a call Luo together with The plant growth in the cold The Pamirs Plateau. There was a short summer, June to just a little bit of warmth, together with Luo hurried sprouting. After a month, it will grow two or three branches, quickly bear fruit, in the frost was completed before the arrival of the process of life. It's life so short, but it is able to calculate.
The shortest life to grow in the desert Ephemeral Chrysanthemum It can only live a few. week . The desert in the long drought, short-lived chrysanthemum seeds, while slightly rain, quickly grew, and catch in the drought came before the rush to finish it life cycle Otherwise, it will be" Die without descendants ".
The fastest growing plants
Growth in Yunnan, Guangxi China and Southeast Asia anthocephalus chinensis A year can grow 3.5 meters.
At the Seventh World Conference on forestry, known as the "miracle tree". Growth in Latin America than balsa, Anthocephalus chinensis grow faster, it can grow 5 meters a year. However, the absolute champion plant growth rate is Bamboo ( Gramineae ). It shoots from bamboo to grow, as long as two months, up to 20 meters, about six or seven storey building so high. When the growth peak, one night can rise 1 meters. Therefore, the "bamboo shoots after a spring rain".
The growth of bamboo is more special, it is a section of elongated. Bamboo shoots How many day and rough, grown bamboo Festival and how much more crude. Once the bamboo grows tall, no longer. All of the growth of the trees is in young buds, bold slowly stretch, by tens to hundreds of years, it will grow slowly.
The largest flower
Southeast Asia King of flowers Is the largest flower in the world. King of flowers A fleshy send
Herbaceous plants, produced in Malaysia, Indonesia, java, Sumatra Tropical rainforest, is the world's largest flower, "world Kao " Reputation. King of flowers Dioecious Female flowers, composed of 8-6-4 pieces syncarpous, ovary Next, semi inferior or superior, 1 room or within the placenta extends to the near middle, forming many irregular lacunae, ovules numerous, born in placentas, 1 to 2 layers of integuments; styles 1 or no stigma discoid, capitate or multifid. The majority of male flowers to 5, sessile, 1 ~ 3 in the column column ring, anthers 2 - celled, slit or top hole cracking chamber, sometimes confluent, often sticky pollen, single or split into four. Fruit a berry, tiny seed, testa hard, with endosperm.
The biggest sperm
 Cycas Cycas
Cycas The sperm is the largest volume of all organisms, up to 0.3 mm, can be seen with the naked eye. The shape of a gyro, the front end of a large number of Flagellum A row, a ring ring, can Pollen tube Free swimming in the liquid, and when the female flowers in the egg, which is combined with the development of embryos fertilized, mission.
The most poisonous tree
Antiaris Aka. antiaris toxicaria , Sancho , Antiaris Botany。 Trees up to 40 meters high, the occasion of the spring and summer autumn flowering, bear a small pear like red fruit, ripe purple black. This fruit is very bitter taste, containing toxins, can not eat. Chinese, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, vietnam, Cambodia Indonesia, Malaysia, were distributed. Sap is poisonous, strengthen the function of the heart. 3 national protected plants.

Botany Endangered plants

Two endangered plants
Adiantum reniforme var. sinense
 Chinese treasure species Adiantum Chinese treasure species Adiantum
[name] Adiantum reniforme English L. var. sinense Y. X. Ling
[name] Chinese Adiantum
[Department] Adiantaceae Adiantaceae
[category] endangered endangered
[2] the level of protection
[] present only in Sichuan and Shizhu County Wanxian, by the road, digging for medicinal, are very few, endangered
[] Sichuan province county distribution Wanxian Wuling District, Xinxiang, small Tuo mountain, Shan Shu Ping, Shizhu County
[Ph] neutral and slightly alkaline
[Characteristics] in ecological wet thin soil rock layer without shade and stones or grass
[July] fl.
[fruit] from 8 to September
[] the research value of the relationship, Flora and geographical distribution Is of great value
[] the economic value of whole plant for detoxification, diuresis medicine, but also for appreciation
[] is the origin of protection measures and protection, artificial cultivation
[Methods] reproductive ramets or spore propagation
Archangiopteris henryi
 Archangiopteris henryi Archangiopteris henryi
[name] Archangiopteris henryi Christ et Gies.
[name] Chinese Archangiopteris henryi
[type] Angiopteridaceae angiopteridaceae
[category] endangered endangered
[2] the level of protection
[situation] only the southeast of Yunnan, because of dwindling forest area, habitat Changes in danger
[distribution] County Yunnan Jinping Pingbian.
[4.5 ~ 5.5] soil pH [type] lateritic red soil or red soil
[Characteristics] lower edge hill gully terrain
[ecological characteristics] Seasonal Wet rainforest habitat
[] flowering period from 7 to August
[fruit] November
[] the value of scientific research on ferns The evolution of plants And the origin of the flora is valuable
[economic] shade ornamental value
[protection] has been zoned nature reserve, to improve the management system as soon as possible
[Methods] breed spores; seedling cultivation
[requirements] choose warm wet cultivation ecological environment
Phyllitis japonica
 Phyllitis japonica Phyllitis japonica
[name] Phyllitis japonica Kom.
[name] Chinese Phyllitis japonica
[type] Aspleniaceae Aspleniaceae
[category] rare endangered
[2] the level of protection
[status] only in Jilin Changbai Mountain The South and West, scattered distribution
[Jilin province] County Distribution Changbai Korean Autonomous County Ji'an, Fusong , Huadian
[description] the distribution of the Soviet Union, North Korea, Japan
[type] cool and humid climate.
[946] annual precipitation
[Ph] acidic soil
[type] dark soil Brown forest soil
[Characteristics] mountain deciduous broad-leaved forest. Humus layer Hi, dankness
[] the value of scientific research to fill the gaps in the geographical distribution, the Plant geography The study \ florology valuable
[economic] ornamental value
[] to find out the protective measures to protect the habitats, the existing number of planted into the protected area
[Methods] \ spore reproduction Division propagation
Cystoathyrium chinense
[name] Cystoathyrium chinense Ching
[name] Chinese light leaf fern
 Cystoathyrium chinense Cystoathyrium chinense
[type] Athyriaceae Athyriaceae
[category] endangered endangered
[2] the level of protection
[situation] because Forest harvesting The quantity, habitat change, on the verge of extinction
[Sichuan province] County Distribution Tianquan Erlang Mountain Rock group to Niu Ping Yuanyang
[type] year-round climate humid and foggy rain, sunshine less
[precipitation] 1800 ~ 2000 mm
[4.5 ~ 5.5] soil pH
[type] mountain yellow soil and soil The mountain yellow brown soil
[Characteristics] terrain Sichuan Basin The mountain west margin
[Characteristics] forest ecological slope
[Characteristics] community in subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest
[companion] Lithocarpus cleistocarpus Lithocarpus cleistocarpus Rehd. et Wils. Castanopsis platyacantha Rehd. et flat thorn cone Wils. Handkerchief tree Davidia involucrata Baillon Betula insignis Franch. sweet birch Betula utilis Betula utilis D.Don
[] flowering period from 7 to August
[fruit] September
[] on the scientific value of Pteridophyte hybridization and the Division System development Of value
[protection] protection of origin, to artificial cultivation and breeding
[Methods] reproductive ramets or Spore Reproduction
Sphaeropteris lepifera
[name] Sphaeropteris lepifera (Hook.) Tryon
[name] Chinese fern
[Department] Cyatheaceae Cyatheaceae
 Sphaeropteris lepifera Sphaeropteris lepifera
[category] rare endangered
[2] the level of protection
[Guizhou, Taiwan] situation are distributed near the Xiamen University valley there is a pool of water, habitat are not hidden and easily damaged, missing seedlings under forest seedling
[] Guizhou County, Taiwan province distribution in Taipei, Yilan Taoyuan, Nantou, Hualian Pingtung, Taitung, Fujian; Xiamen
[description] distribution near the Xiamen University pool of water valley, Philippines, Japan
[type] spring rainy climate, often have typhoon and rainstorm in summer, autumn and winter weather with little rain, drought habitat
[Characteristics] gully slope terrain, slope of 15 degrees to the southwest.
[Characteristics] ecological air humidity, soil moist environment
[Characteristics] community of broad-leaved forest cemetery, in the rain is deep, about 15m high, the coverage of 70%
[Taiwan] companion species Acacia Acacia confusa Merr.
[] in October 4, FL.
[] to study the value of scientific research, and the flora of Taiwan has significance
[economic] the value of ornamental garden plants
[protection measures] to observe the development cycle, the determination of the ecological factors, cultivation
[Methods] breed spores; tip tissue culture
Sorolepidium glaciale
[name] Sorolepidium glaciale Christ
[name] ERON Chinese fern
[Department] Dryopteridaceae Dryopteridaceae
 Sorolepidium glaciale Sorolepidium glaciale
[category] rare endangered
[2] the level of protection
[in] Tibet, Yunnan, Sichuan provinces adjacent to the mountains, scattered in the vicinity of the edge of glaciers and snow
[Tibet province] County Distribution Bomi Yunnan; Lijiang, Zhongdian Sichuan Muli, Daocheng
[description] distribution in eastern Tibet; Northwestern Yunnan; Southwest Sichuan
[type] mountain climate heat is insufficient, strong radiation, strong wind, the temperature difference between day and night, cold weather is bad
[terrain characteristics] bare rocks, cliffs and gravelly scree, i.e. Alpine glaciers The lower edge of the area
[Characteristics] frozen Alpine ecological Desert belt
[good material of study on morphology and function of ferns of unity of scientific value]
[protective measures] mountaineering expedition staff not collected
[ abies beshanzuensis In 1987 the International Committee of Pinaceae Abies] species protection as one of its 12 plants in the world's most endangered. In the natural distribution area of forest only five strains, one strain of a weak, poor growth.
[ Carpinus Putoensis ] Betulaceae Carpinus deciduous trees, 14 meters high, 70 cm diameter. In addition to a specimen tree only, and not in other places have found. Hangzhou botanical garden culture.
An endangered plant
 Chinese living fossils Alsophila Chinese living fossils Alsophila
[name] Alsophila spinulosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Tryon
[name] alsophilaspinulosa Chinese
[Department] Cyatheaceae Cyatheaceae
[category] endangered endangered
[1] the level of protection
[] because status of forest vegetation and habitat area reduced, dry, cut down the stem for medicine and orchid cultivation, the plant is decreasing
Fujian County of Fuzhou province [distribution], Anxi ; Taipei Guangdong hill, emerging; Hainan; Qiongzhong Guangxi; Longsheng Guizhou; Cehengensis , Chishui Yunnan; Guangnan Gongshan, Sichuan; Hejiang , Qionglai Tibet; Medog
[description] Distribution Department, Southeast of South Fujian; northern Guangdong; southern; northern, southern Guizhou, southeastern Yunnan; West China; Department of central southern Sichuan, southeastern Tibet, Nepal Sikkim, Bhutan India, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, The Philippines In southern Japan,
[type] climate humid subtropical monsoon climate, winter, early spring, summer heat, rain, humidity, clouds, less sunshine, obvious wet and dry seasons
[Ph] acidic soil
[Characteristics] ravine humid terrain slope
[Characteristics] stream ecological sunny forest thickets
[Characteristics] community or hundreds of dozens of strains of strains are the dominant community
[] is the formation of scientific value and study the relationship between the geographical distribution of plant species of the ideal object
[] economic value for viewing
[] protection measures in Sichuan key protected areas, breeding research, expanding the area of distribution
[Methods] spore reproduction reproduction
[requirements] for cultivation of fertile sandy soil good water permeability

Botany Venereal disease fungus

All along, scientists know that by plant pollen can spread some diseases of fungi. Although most of the animal and plant diseases for sexually transmitted diseases, the host plant is not fatal. However, the concept of animal and plant diseases are not exactly the same.
First of all, plant caused by fungal spores infected with sexually transmitted diseases by wind or insects mining powder between plants and animal diseases, is spread through direct physical contact. Specifically, the most in-depth study of plant disease is called anther smut (Micobotryum violaceum) caused by bacteria, it can infect flowering campion.
Infection of anther smut, male and female plants will become a hotbed of sexually transmitted diseases, fungal spores, and can be spread or other Bumblebee pollinators. Sometimes, these fungi may even stimulate diseased plants grow excess flowers, to more effectively spread of infectious bacteria.
Secondly, the Swedish botanist Anders Winstem (Anders Wennstrom) and Lars Erickson (Lars Ericson) in the study of many other flowers by fungi. They found that some STDs from fungi can plant flowers into the soil, so in the coming year of the next generation of infected plants.
Some STDs fungi through the flowers of plants spread to other plant seeds, leaves or stems. Because these are the infectious disease does not need two plants of sexual organs, so scientists believe that these plants may be called venereal disease rather than reproductive diseases, sexually transmitted diseases.