Asian Americans

Asian Americans are the United States citizens with Asian ancestry, including Chinese Americans Philippines, India Americans, African americans, More Americans , Korean-American Japanese Americans, or other blood from Asian americans.
Asian Americans

Asian Americans brief introduction

According to the Oxford dictionary, the word "Asian" in the United States is usually regarded as the only Asian blood person. The "Asian", or" Asian "Biantong, according to East Asia, including Vietnam, refers to the origin or any Epicanthus The characteristics of the people. However, this argument has not recently annexed definition of the U.S. government, currently in the United States often will come from the East and South Asia and Southeast Asia whether there is no inner canthus epicanthus features are recognized as asians. In the United States census, result from far east , Southeast Asia, and Indian subcontinent People have been defined for the Asian population.
In general, Asian Americans have the lowest poverty rate in the United States, all ethnic groups in higher education the highest acceptance rate, average household income and personal income.
In the past, the American people to "Oriental", Oriental Address: Asian americans. However, in 1960s, people began to oppose it, and that its derogatory Colonialism The thought of. But it was not until 1970s when the academic circles began to use the "Asian Americans", Asian American, as the official name of alternative. One of the most famous example is the historian Yuji Ichioka, many people will change the name due to his promotion. Today, the term "Asian Americans" has been widely accepted, most formal occasions including government or academic institutions are using this term. In general situations, we often omit the only into" Asian "At Asian.
Unlike other ethnic groups in the long ago, many related to the name of the United States, Asian Americans call the way the change is the same with other groups significantly. The most obvious change was in 1965 when the immigration law "the new immigration act of 1965", abolished the original in order to restrict Asian immigration and the establishment of the national immigration restrictions but change to output, family factors, and expertise for the consideration of the new immigration policy. This decision greatly increased the numbers of immigrants from Asian countries, the Asian American population has increased. Due to the increase in the number of people have more understanding of Asian Americans, the past does not define the scope limitation. Immigrants from Asia in education, economy and other aspects on the 20th century old immigrants are significantly different, engaged in different jobs, living in the United States in different environments.

Asian Americans The formation of consciousness

In twentieth Century 40s and 50s, the United States Asian Although all the specific situation is different, but cultural choices tend to be broadly consistent with the Chinese, basically is not agree with the United states. But by 60s and 70s, the situation was reversed, that most Asian, in the United States by examining your social status and identity, thus abandoning the mainstream of American culture pursuit, and establish the status of Asian American culture in American society. This change has milepost significance, it reflects the Pan Asian ethnic consciousness awakening, are all Asian Americans in a specific historical period of fruitful spiritual achievements.

Asian Americans historical background

In twentieth Century 60s and 70s, the occurrence of a major reorganization of international political power, separation of a large number of new independent countries from imperialist colonial system, and the formation of the" the third world ". This new combination, not only against imperialism, colonialism and arrogance, the racial equality has become an internationally recognized standards, and thus began a new revolution in the history of the world. This new international phenomenon, has greatly encouraged the critical realism tradition of American intellectuals in China launched a great in strength and impetus " The new left Movement "," Counterculture Movement "and the black civil rights movement, directed at the domestic and foreign policies and social issues in the United states. Which is the focus of the two themes, one is for racial equality, one is against the Vietnam war. The formation of these sports strong social thought, to the current system with hitherto unknown impact.
In the fierce social unrest, the concept of the American academic circles have also changed. Ethnic minorities, the once neglected or marginalized. social groups Become an important part of historical research, "black history, Asian The history, the history of Native Americans, Hispanic history, women's history, the field of gay history present very prosperous scene."
Thus, minority status in the history of the United States in an unprecedented emphasis. During this period, the U.S. government promulgated a new immigration law "(1965), the abolition of the old system of ethnic origin, the implementation of priority principle under the limit of the. With the implementation of the act, the surge in the number of Asian immigrants, the Asian American team continues to expand; the quality of immigration has greatly improved, so that the social and economic status of Asian immigrants is strengthened; women increased significantly, the sex ratio of Asian is more balanced. The Asian Americans oppose racial discrimination, equal rights for society, is undoubtedly a favorable opportunity. In the background, as used by mainstream society "silencing" of the United States Asian Although, a little slow pace, but still with a positive attitude and unique way to join this question in American society, culture and the fundamental values of sports.

Asian Americans Gradually formed

Asian Americans Anti war movement

 In the Asian anti war movement In the Asian anti war movement
The U.S. invasion of Vietnam acts, caused widespread anger of the people of all ethnic groups across the country. many Asian People believe that the nature of the war is the United States of the Asian Racial discrimination With the race of aggression. Moreover, "throughout Racism In the world you Italy rampant history, the bloodshed white colonial predatory war and the people of Asia will not end soon, it will continue indefinitely." In view of the U.S. military in Vietnam violence, more and more Asian American college students and high school students shocked to realize: "the United States soldiers shot the enemy target and is the same with Asians and their faces." So, when they were stirred, walking the streets, and as white as the protesters chanted "we want peace" or "to withdraw back" and other slogans, but from their own perspective, to stop the massacre of Asian brothers and sisters "," refused to race war and placards, the same slogan shouted in unison to participate in the anti war demonstrations. Obviously, they put this war with their suffering from racial oppression, and began to believe that, regardless of their own efforts, the mainstream society Asian As Asians, the fact that outsiders, there will be no change. Such a new understanding, is conducive to the formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness.

Asian Americans The black civil rights movement

U.S.A Asian Is actively involved in the civil rights movement, because they truly feel their identity, status and black have a lot in common. This movement, "brought the racial pride and racial pride to us; at the same time to understand:" there is an important connection between the political struggle and a new identity,...... A new understanding of "for Asian Americans to obtain economic significance;", there is a close link between politics and culture independent countries of the third world and struggle for self-determination of American minorities, the third world The people's struggle for national liberation and the ethnic minorities equal rights struggle is run parallel." In addition, The Black Panther Party About black self-defense, reconstruction of the purpose of equality, but also has a great influence on Asian students. Therefore, the civil rights movement can not be ignored for the Pan Asian ethnic awareness promotion.

Asian Americans Campus sports

60s,
 University of California-Berkeley University of California-Berkeley
California university campus and Berkeley San Francisco State University The Asian Students around the campus to carry out fight for their equal rights movement. Things from the school of Asian students about setting reform history just demands ignore them, resulting in Asian students collective strike. Colleges and universities in the United States, are generally introduced to Europe and the United States as the center of the education system, regardless of ethnic community, which is a typical Racial discrimination . Under this system, many Asian American students know little about their ethnic history, even as the Chinese, even how they are forced to live in Chinatown, the facts are not clear. Asian students are eager to get the history curriculum reform. After the cold, the students began to suspect that the real purpose of school education.
When on the establishment of the "Third World Academy" the request was shelved, Asian students finally provoked, have joined the radical "third world Liberation Front", launched a tit for tat struggle with the school authorities. The autumn of 1968 San Francisco State University The students' strike demonstrations (The San Francisco State Strike), the Asian student campus movement to a climax. After five months of the strike, the spring of 1969, San Francisco State University, founded the first in the country Asian The United States Department of the University of California; soon. Berkeley The campus also set up a minority research course; at the beginning of the 70s, one university in California and University of the east coast, have also set up the Asian history, social and cultural aspects of the curriculum.
To campus sports as the core of the Asian student, is one of the important signs of the formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness, influence on American society and the Asian group should not be underestimated. First of all, it has changed the education and academic attitude of Asian, Asian Studies and ethnic studies began in the education system in American universities occupy a space for one person. Asian The study of this new subject as a respectable, respected, and American ethnic studies to improve, innovation and prosperity. Secondly, the Asian student changed public opinion environment, the Asian from the original by silencing (silenced), - (erased), from the late 60s to hear by mainstream society (heard) and see (emerged). Although still in the edge of the society, but the cross race makes their combined strength of public opinion can not be ignored them, government decision-making departments to understand and focus on Asian Americans have a relative improvement. Again, it is the real meaning of Asian American culture, history, literature, the cradle of the first generation of Asian American scholars and writers.

Asian Americans In position

In 50s Rose Lee proposed "integration theory", at that time, the majority of Asian There is indeed a great temptation, and that they possessed the same like crazy, pursuing and practicing their own American dream. But in the United States in the process, although Asian people they give up their own language, customs, history and Cultural values So, in order to adapt to the white culture, but found himself is not accepted by mainstream society, the state remains the same discrimination. The alliance founder Yuji Ichioka said more clearly: although Asian as white appearance, imitate their actions speak, in almost all have to like them, but this is just a self deception like dream, but increased their Identity crisis ."
After this reflection, the majority of Asians are deeply aware of: white consciousness and culture, for their own miles away; must abandon the unrealistic American identity, and should establish a new direction is more suitable for their own characteristics. The change of knowledge, is the key to the formation of Pan Asian ethnic consciousness. Secondly, completely negate" Oriental "With the method as the charm of the" show that the majority. Asian The unprecedented awareness of racial equality.
Since the North American continent from the first Asian board, there is the "Oriental" nickname "". Later generations, and the more a means of discrimination. This term, almost make Asian Americans live in full prejudice And limit the "cage", to gain a foothold in the United States and their development caused great obstacles. After 1965, although the number of Asian immigrants is increasing, the quality is improved, the economy has improved, but the mainstream of its social exclusion and discrimination is unabated. According to the 1970 survey results show that has been praised as the "model minority" in Chinese, 25% of college graduates in a restaurant, gift shop or grocery store, and many university graduates can not find work, has become a typical "full employment"; in the history of science with university men in person $10 thousand is only 13.39%, while in the same degree of white men, the personal income of $10 thousand accounted for 27.7%. As for Chinese women, incomplete employment is a common phenomenon; even to employment, mostly engaged in clerical work, such as accounting, cashier, secretary, typist, archivist etc.. According to statistics, more than 40% Chinese female secretary has a college degree, and most engaged in this occupation of white women, often only a high school education. In California, the Chinese female employees in 36% engaged in clerical or typist occupation.
In this case, the majority of Asian The "Oriental" appellation of hate. But for a long time, had no solution, only to swallow. "Asian Americans" as a new concept, stressed that "the mainstream society of Asian Americans is also forced to admit the idea, thus denied the" Oriental "and a series of obvious derogatory meaning of appellation. The struggle around the title issues, the essence lies in the maintenance of existing or against racial discrimination, reflects the new awakening of the Asian racial equality consciousness. Again, the Asian race as a whole, "the United States and the third world" cognition, transcendence of single ethnic consciousness.
For a long time, Asian The lack of the necessary links between ethnic groups, individual combat always struggle against discrimination. Since the end of 60s, has fundamentally changed the situation. Many speeches throughout the league, regardless of the author from which specific ethnic, its basic position is consistent, namely regard themselves as a member of Asian descent, and at this point to discuss problems. The papers published in 1970: "Asian American Reader" (the root Roots An: Asian American Reader), by the League central figure Franklin Hondo, Mary Uyematsu, Ken Hannada, Peggy Lee and Maria Cheng co authored, and they are from Japan, India, China different races. To express their common aspirations in the book: "we work hard and pay taxes, the final full of rich country, get in return is not equal rights, restrictions and discrimination suffered life. As the colonists, this life is considered to be reasonable, without objection, can be immutable and frozen. Obviously, the United States and China to treat Asians Asian There are many similarities between people ";" a lot of trouble the third world The problem also plagued the United States in the third world." It can be said that the same experience, social status and common pursuit of equal rights for Asians, the Pan Asian ethnic consciousness on Asian American history stage. The term "Asian Americans" will all Asian Americans across the nation together, for their identity and attributes with "unique" label, so that they stand on a new perspective to know themselves, define themselves as the true meaning of seeking an Asian american.
At the end of 60s and early 70s, a number of outstanding Asian writers began to emerge, their work is not in the discussion and they are closely related to the racial identity and cultural identity The problem. The Chinese American writer Zhao Jianxiu (Frank Chin), is one of the most representative one. He went through the historical and cultural filtering, accurately summarized "Asian Americans" cultural connotation: "Asian Americans are not a minority, but by the composition of Chinese, Japanese and American Philippines and several other ethnic groups. Chinese and Japanese have the same Chinese and Japan in geographical location, social cultural and historical aspects of separate seven and four generation. They are in the United States has evolved a very unique cultural and emotional characteristics, they are different from China and Japan, also have different characteristics from the whites in the United states. Even in the United States is still Asian The use of a variety of Asian ethnic minority languages, has also been adapted and developed into a unique language to express their experience of the new."
The term "Asian Americans", all American born Asian descent gather under the name with strong political color, with widespread Asian ethnic groups collective consciousness will disperse the Asian American individuals together. It is like a badge of honor, a beautiful trophy hanging in the all American born Asian chest.

Asian Americans Sample status

U.S.A Asian In the general election position
Asians in the United States is small, but can not be ignored and the source of votes donations. Because, not only Asian pluralistic society the economic ability of the population (according to the recently published "Asian Americans" pointed out that, in the annual income of more than $75 thousand in Asian class, the highest proportion, and slightly more than white), is the fastest growing population of minority ethnic groups, data show that since 1970, the Asian population has doubled, estimated in 2020 will increase to 20 million people, the United States accounted for 6% of the population.
From the past, participate in the competition for the nomination of the various people are aware of the important Asian vote. From the current situation, Gore and George W. Bush are trying to get more Asian communities, including George W. Bush California finance director Kwong Jie Ling Support them in California Asian The position was consolidated. As Gore The Democratic Party of the United States Big and hot Clinton The vice president has consistently stressed the need to strive for Asian support, just political contribution The storm has not yet subsided, long-term democratic fundraiser in the summer before the bell more guilty. In order to avoid Gore in the fight for support found in a suspicious position, at the same time have to be careful.
It is worth mentioning that the Asian people participating in politics unprecedented enthusiasm, such as one of the most important Chinese organization by the United States " The Committee of 100 "The launch of the 80/20 movement, which called for the Chinese voters to vote on the hands play a greater effect. This is because the Asian situation does exist many problems. Headquartered in Losangeles, the Asia Pacific region "ethnic leaders education" research institutions throughout the United States, about 11 million of Asians in recently released research report shows that Asians in the United States social education and economic achievement beyond the white majority, successfully broke the American society to hold minority prejudices, but for a long time since reunification, the conservative stereotype, and excluded from the mainstream society, about 4% of the population as a whole. Asian It has always been considered a foreigner.
In other words, although Asian enjoy amazing achievements in education and work, but suffered in other areas of the treatment failed to be fair. As for the reason, there is a minority, most Asian is not clear for civil rights in American social history, indifferent to their own rights and interests; two, they are still positioning in American society is classified as a minority, and minority means can be ignored; three, the political performance is usually apathetic, United States the society identified as mysterious, the popularity of American Society questioned the patriotism. Fortunately, all this will become the past tense, because Asian voters have voted consciousness need to demonstrate their power through the ballot to assert their claims.
Beautiful piece Asian Negative image
along with Hollywood Take the history to become young "real history", Chinese or non white ethnic images of Hollywood's eyes will become a "global standard". The Dutch Li Huo and American Asian media image of the "Asian American Media Action Network earlier issued an open letter listing by the media image of the designated Asian various repeated"":
(1) in the United States, Asian is always foreigners, can not integrate into the society: many Asian movies with an accent when speaking English, and will also be white as a joke, is that the Asian people have no way into the United states.
(2) Asian American occupation: focus on film and drama the same, South Koreans always sell groceries, Japanese business, Indian taxi news, other occupation, including setting a restaurant: martial arts instructor, faith healers, laundry workers, underworld, prostitutes. This approach distorts Asian People engaged in a variety of industries in fact in the United states.
(3) Asian White actors, Asian people rarely when the protagonist of white led. Even in Asia as the theme of the film, the protagonist also is mostly white.
(4) Asian men are not Impotence It is not sexual: although Asian women often become a white man in the movie partner, but Asian men are almost impossible to catch the white woman, not to mention love, seems to be in Asian men Sex life Have problems. (some of them said, if Zhou Runfa In " Anna and the king "With Julia, Robert sex, white viewers would stomach).
(5) Asian women are stereotypes: Asian women have a two extremes on the screen: exotic, submissive, hard-working and easy to please "China Doll"; or a bite at any time counter" daughter of the Dragon King ".
(6) a white China Kung Fu, bar! In the TV series, Kung Fu Chinese is bad, and understand the time white is a hero, is felt only in the white hand, can have a positive use of Asian Art (in this case Jackie Chan The film is on the contrary, those who play the time white people are bad).
"Asian American Media Action Network" that the creation of these specified Asian The image of "Asian filmmakers know on the surface, but also ignore the impact of the Asian American community of Asian dwarf.

Asian Americans Work consumption

Asian The nation's richest consumer groups
In new network on 8 May 2007, according to the U.S. " ming pao "Comprehensive report, a market survey report pointed out that the day before, Asian has become the richest American consumer groups, their ability to buy up to $434 billion, accounting for 4.7% of the national consumer purchasing power. The report also predicted that the Asian American purchasing power In 2010 will reach $611 billion, while Chinese is the largest ethnic group in Asian consumption.
According to statistics, the average income of Asian families is the highest in the United States of all ethnic groups in the family, the median is $56200, 56% higher than the Hispanic families is 15% higher than that of white families, 26% higher than the average level of the United states. At the same time, the annual income of more than $100 thousand of Asian families about 28% in the United States, the ethnic family is the highest. U.S.A Asian The per capita income is $25800, more than the national per capita income of $24000. But in the Asian, Chinese per capita income of $28000, ranked third.
Experts pointed out that Asian Americans earn a lot, but more cautious on the consumer, the most cost-effective to buy merchandise. They are willing to spend money on household products, brand-name products, science and technology, online shopping, health care and other aspects, is willing to accept every kind of promotional advertising, so manufacturers become the ideal target market . Experts said that although the Asian American consumption is huge, but the U. Consumer advertising The degree of attention to the Asian population is still not enough.
The newspaper pointed out that the Asian American population of nearly 13 million, which accounted for about 3 million of Chinese. The population of the United States 1%, is the nation's largest Asian ethnic groups. In addition, it is expected that in 2010, the Asian population will increase to 14 million 600 thousand, the cumulative growth rate of 14%.
In the United States, most Asian Living in the city, about 40% of Asians live in Losangeles, San Francisco And New York metropolitan area. About 5 million 400 thousand of Asians live in Hawaii and The west coast of the United States Among them, in California there are about 4 million 200 thousand.
The high-tech company is best for the "Asian" work
To be published in the latest issue of "fortune" magazine named the "best ethnic work of the 50 companies". Although the selection of the enterprise also can not escape the economic downturn in the United States the bad luck, but these companies still did not give up racially equality thoughts of talents.
From the overall situation and status of ethnic minorities in the United States, in the continuous improvement. Survey shows that the corporate management staff this year, the top 50 of the ethnic minorities accounted for 24%, compared with 23% in 2001, while in 1998 only 17%. The board of directors of minorities accounted for 19%, only 11% last year. In the survey, the "fortune" magazine issued a questionnaire to the more than and 200 large companies will be divided into questionnaire of ethnic minorities Asian African American, Latino, and native americans. Considering the main factors in the rank of enterprise:
- the number of minority staff in. But the number is not necessarily related with enterprise ranking. With CISCO and Intel as an example, the number of companies of minority personnel were above 40% and 30% in the top 50 in the upper reaches, but the ranking in 30 after they are.
- minority staff position. This is a more important factor than the number of. If they enter the management in the entire management in proportion. How many directors are black, Hispanic, Asian or native american.
- minority salary. If the same position will get the same salary in the company dividends, the top 50 in the colored number.
The questionnaire also asked the company how to allocate funds, whether from the purchase of minority business companies, whether they will be for the minority company guarantee. On all kinds of data, the "fortune" developed a rating for each company.
The big winners of this year's American housing credit services giant Federal National Mortgage Association, it is the first list for the first time, this is mainly due to its strong minority composition of the management team in 18 board members accounted for 5, and the company CEO Frank himself is black. McDonald's Corp ranked fifth, its minority staff is also the largest, reached 55%, but a few white.
In addition, the "fortune" is also based on the proportion of all ethnic groups are a list of the most suitable Asian , African American, Hispanic and Native American top ten companies.
What is the most suitable for the Asian top six are all high-tech companies, including INTEL, Sun Microsystems Sun and other industry leaders for having heard it many times?. The first is the Applied Materials (it is the world's largest semiconductor manufacturing equipment suppliers, INTEL, Samsung CPU, the memory of the equipment order from it). It is also the five consecutive scoring charts. After a report pointed out that at present silicon valley Half the researchers are Chinese or Chinese, and 1/3 of India immigrants. On one hand, the Asian population has a comparative advantage in the field of science and technology, on the other hand, immigration policy guidance and the United States on.
On the contrary in the United States and Asian, black service industries themselves, most suitable for African American top 10 in 7 is the service companies, including McDonald's, FEDEX , Coca Cola Other large multinational companies.

Asian Americans The economic situation

According to the voice of "Chinese Global Chinese radio network "Recent reports. American media A survey shows that life in the United States Asian The group is equivalent to the sum of wealth fabulously rich, the eighteenth largest economy in the world. The Chinese economy is substantial, their average retirement savings of $100 thousand.

Asian Americans data statistics

Asian Not only is the fastest growing minority population in the United States, is also the richest and highest level of education group. Recently American media Imagine, if the United States composed of a single Asian country, its economic strength is equivalent to the eighteenth largest economy in the world.
According to the report, the Asian American annual purchasing power of $718 billion 100 million, five years will rise to $1 trillion, taking into account the total US $15 trillion GDP, it can be seen that the Asian economy in the United States occupies a very important position, can occupy a space for one person even in the global economy are.
Asians in the United States accounted for about 6% of the total population, but its economic influence is far more than that. Let us check the status of the Asian kingdom. The population, the Asian population will exceed 18 million, equal to the total population of Romania, the population increased by 50% compared with 2000. The next five years, the population of this country is expected to reach 20 million 900 thousand, so strong purchasing power , Asian The kingdom will become the world's eighteenth largest economies, GDP will be in line between Turkey and switzerland.
Asian American families, the average annual income of $66 thousand, 28% higher than the overall level of Asian Americans, the kingdom with an average of 83 thousand and 500 yuan of national household wealth easily over all American levels of $68 thousand and 500. Education for adults over the age of 25 Asian Kingdom, about half have bachelor degree or above, more than the United States as the world's only Russia can match.

Asian Americans Chinese situation

Asian 18 million people in the kingdom of export 23% Chinese, is the largest ethnic group. Because the new Chinese immigrants have higher education, engaged in professional and technical work of the people is more, so the Chinese and Japanese, Korean and India together to become the so-called Asian upper class.
Wells Fargo Bank Survey shows that whether the current economic situation, and prospects for future economic. Compared to other ethnic groups than the United States, the Chinese have shown consistent confidence. 67% Chinese believe that the current economic situation is good, 65% Chinese are optimistic about their future prospects, but only about half of adults nationwide hold the idea. In addition, 60% of Chinese believe that their economic status, better than the financial crisis three years ago, while only the idea of family is only 51%, Chinese household income is quite considerable, 37% of Chinese households earning more than $100 thousand a year, and the annual income of only 23% of American households reached this level.
Compared with other ethnic groups, Chinese American savings known to be good at. The average Chinese funds in-service retirement savings is more than two times the national average. In the Chinese retirement savings value reached 100 thousand yuan, the adult retirement savings median value of only $45 thousand, because the pension prepared sufficient funds, the Chinese American confidence in life more. 63% of Chinese believe that their standard of living after retirement will not fall. But in real life, the Chinese used to live, rarely buy unaffordable goods. 65% of Chinese believe they can monthly pay off credit card debt, and the monthly to pay off credit card debt in adults is only 42%, compared with 25% of American adults are faced with a situation where only 17% of Chinese said they make ends meet.