(Citrus Citrus reticulata
Genus Blanco) Rutaceae
Subordinate plant. Likes the warm and humid climate, cold resistance than grapefruit, lime, orange. Rutaceae aurantioideae
Located in north latitude 16 degrees ~37. Is a tropical and subtropical evergreen fruit trees (except orange, outside) used for economic cultivation has 3 genera: Poncirus
Citrus, and Kumquat
Genus. Chinese and other countries in the world are mainly cultivated Citrus Citrus
2-3 flowers solitary or fascicled; calyx 5-3 irregularly lobed; petals usually less than 1.5 cm long; stamens 20-25, style slender, stigma capitate. Florescence 4-5 month, month of fruit period 10-12.
citrus History of Botany
Orange is orange, orange, Kumquat
In general, such as grapefruit, orange.
China is one of the important origin of citrus, citrus rich resources, excellent variety, 4000 years of cultural history. After long-term cultivation, selection, citrus fruit became a precious human. Hunan Shimen
Citrus, planting a long history, as early as two thousand years ago, the patriotic poet Qu Yuan
In the hometown of wrote " Jie song
"Famous. According to the study, Chinese citrus originated in the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau, via the Yangtze and to the south of Huaihe. The lower reaches of the Yangtze River, south of the Five Ridges area until. After Chinese people's long-term cultivation. The precious fruit, citrus human. In fifteenth Century, the Portuguese Chinese orange belt to the Mediterranean culture, known locally as "Chinese apple". Later, orange also spread to Latin America and the United states. In 1821, the British Chinese were collected, the kumquat brought to Europe, the United States in 1892, the introduction of Chinese called "China from Ponkan. Tangerine
". English and mandarin orange. "(Dunning's" Mandarin
), its intent is "Chinese precious orange". Wenzhou Mandarin, Japan and middle Tang Dynasty Shang Tian Shou to China Zhejiang Tiantai Mountain pilgrimage back to the citrus seeds planted in Kagoshima, Long Island, Japan, and variation. Citrus cultivation across five continents, and in Brazil, the United States, Japan, Spain, Italy, China, Morocco
Mexico, israel, South Africa
Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Argentina, India, Australia, the planting area and yield of majority.
According to the research, until in 1471, orange, tangerine, orange and other citrus fruit was imported from Lisbon in Portugal Chinese, the year 1665 was introduced into the United States of Florida. In China, Taizhou city of Zhejiang Province, Huangyan is a town of tangerine.
citrus Morphological character
Citrus group A: the roots, stems and leaves, flowers and fruits. Small trees
. 1-foliolate, wing leaves usually narrow, or only traces of leaf blade lanceolate, oblong or broadly ovate, apex size variation, often with a notch by notch near the base of the midrib forked branches, leaf margin at least half are usually blunt or rounded teeth, rarely entire. 2-3 flowers solitary or fascicled; calyx 5-3 irregularly lobed; petals usually less than 1.5 cm long; stamens 20-25, style slender, stigma capitate. Ye Ganju leaves evergreen of single leaf, leaf and leaf wing body composed of. Leaf wing petiolar. Different varieties of citrus varieties, leaf sizes and shapes. The cause taproot and lateral root, fibrous roots and fibrous root hairs with short students constituted groups, collectively referred to as the root. Layering or reproduction of plants, no root. The trunk and root junction, called the root neck. Trunk by trunk, branches, branches of citrus branches.
The fruit shape, usually flat round to subglobose, pericarp very thin and smooth, or thick and rough, pale yellow, red or dark red, very easy or slightly more or less easy to peel, tangerine, reticulate, easy separation, usually soft, center column often empty, dilute full scoop sac 7-14 flap, dilute more thin cyst wall or slightly thick, tender or quite tough, juice sac usually spindle shaped, short and thin flesh swollen, slender, sour or sweet or bitter, or otherwise specific odor; seeds or many or few, rare seedless, usually ovate, base narrowly acuminate at the top. Sub rounded, dark green leaves, green or a nearly white, with purple, rarely single embryo embryo. Florescence 4-5 month, month of fruit period 10-12.
citrus Growth environment
The growth and development of citrus fruit, and temperature, sunshine, moisture (moisture) and soil, wind, altitude, topography and slope conditions are closely related, these conditions affect the number of maximum temperature. Even if the difference between the 0.5 DEG C temperature sometimes there will be different results. The process of growth and development require 12.5 to 37 DEG C. The autumn flower bud differentiation requirements of diurnal temperature were 20 degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius, the temperature of root growth and roughly the same upper. The low temperature will make the citrus cold, sweet orange -4 degrees, -5 degrees will make Wenzhou orange leaves and orange, -5 DEG C, Wenzhou Mandarin -6 DEG C frostbite limbs and branches, orange -6.5 DEG -9 DEG C, Wenzhou Mandarin will make the plants freeze to death.
High temperature is not conducive to the growth of citrus, air temperature, soil temperature is higher than 37 DEG C, fruit and root growth stopped. Effect of temperature on fruit quality is obvious: in a certain temperature range, the temperature usually increased sugar content, soluble solids increased, acid content decreased, the quality is better. Citrus is resistant to strong negative species, but high yield still need good sunshine. Average annual sunshine hours 1200 to 2200 hours in the area could grow normally. As compared to sunshine good, rich in calories and less sunshine in Southern China region: Chongqing citrus fruit sugar content, acid content, sugar acid ratio. General in tropical and subtropical areas annual rainfall of about 1000 mm are suitable for citrus, but because of the uneven distribution of rainfall and often need irrigation. The soil relative water content from 60% to 80% as appropriate, less than 60% for irrigation, too much rain, the water level of underground water and soil, poor drainage of citrus orchard, the root of death. Citrus fruit requires air relative humidity to about 75% is appropriate.
Citrus has a wide adaptation to soil, purple soil, red soil, sand and beach, pH value of 4.5 ~ 8 can grow, with pH value of 5.5 ~ 6.5 is the most suitable. The oxygen content of Citrus Root Growth and higher requirements, with loose soil texture, good structure, organic matter content of 2% ~ 3%, the most suitable for the soil with good drainage.
citrus Distribution range
Chinese citrus distributed between north latitude 16 degrees ~37 degrees, altitude up to 2600 meters high (Sichuan Batang), south of Hainan city in Sanya Province, to the north of Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan Province, east of Taiwan, West to Tibet in the Brahmaputra valley. But the economic Chinese citrus cultivation area mainly concentrated in the North Latitude 20 degrees ~33 degrees, at an altitude of 700~1000 meters below. The production of Citrus in Taiwan Province, including 19 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions). Which of the 10 citrus producing provinces of Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hubei, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Chongqing and Taiwan (city, district), followed by Shanghai, Guizhou, Yunnan, Jiangsu and other provinces (city), Shaanxi, Henan, is also grown in Hainan, Anhui and Gansu province. The planting of Citrus County (city, district) 985. The world citrus is mainly distributed in the north latitude 35 degrees south of the region, likes the warm and humid, with large water temperature increase area can be pushed northward to 45 degrees north latitude.
The world has 135 national citrus production, annual output of 102 million 822 thousand tons, an area of 107 million 300 thousand acres, ranking first in the first fruit yield, the number of Brazil, 24 million 252 thousand and 600 tons, second digit America, 16 million 335 thousand and 200 tons, 10 million 780 thousand tons, third Chinese, then Mexico, Spain, Iran, India, Italy and other countries.
citrus Species classification
citrus cultivation techniques
The garden should be chosen without obvious damage area, requires deep soil, permeability good drainage, rich in organic matter, convenient irrigation and convenient transportation. The hills and mountain at an altitude of 800 meters below the slope below 25 degrees, the winter cold area should choose the southeast slope, poor drainage of low-lying land and cold air stagnation of the valley can garden, below 5 degrees, the gentle slope of the river and rice field construction, must pay attention to drainage. Can the temperature regulating function of the use of natural barrier and a large body of water, around the garden. Park has great demand for the surrounding environment, the requirement for the production of Citrus robust non pests must fully understand the surrounding air quality, water quality, soil environmental quality etc.. The pollution-free food standards enacted in 2001, said he would consider the environmental quality problems of the production process.
citrus Planting season
Citrus general spring late February to mid March spring shoots before planting. No freezing winter area can be planted in autumn 10~11 month 4~5 months; spring spring shoots stop growing to shoot before the summer planting survival rate is high; container seedling planting in four seasons.
citrus Planting spacing
The most common citrus cultivation and spacing of 4X6 meters, but there is a current tendency is to use different planting methods to citrus growth in late planting, and even spacing 4X3 meters 4X1.5 meters are often used. The planting density is usually planted 410 strains per hectare, planting conditions also have 800 or 1600 plants per hectare. According to the 1 x 1 metre pit dug planting specifications. The pit into weeds, garbage compost and compost organic fertilizer, superphosphate fertilizer etc.. Can also be planted in spring, autumn planting.
The soil is land surface by minerals, organic matter, water, air and biological composition, with fertility, unconsolidated layer can grow plants. Citrus grew well in light soil, but if the use of suitable rootstocks and have good drainage conditions, but also can grow in Citrus in heavy loam. The pH value of more than 8 of the soil of Citrus negative growth. Citrus on soil salinity and boron (even in deep soil) was sensitive to soil compaction is sensitive. Citrus Root mainly distributed in the 0.90 meters depth, and according to the irrigation condition. Most of the aerobic activities of root distribution in the surface 30 cm soil layer. In light soil, the recommended irrigation period is 2 times a week, every day better irrigation. Obviously, because of the light soil water is easy to penetrate into the following activities, and often the root zone, and the small amount of irrigation will produce better results.
The need for irrigation in the arid citrus month, so when the winter drought, temperature of 13 degrees Celsius, irrigation must. In addition, dehydration is dangerous, it makes the fruit water flow caused by leaf fruit wilt. In the past mainly by the upper canopy or furrow irrigation sprinkler irrigation, sprinkler irrigation has but Salinization Risk, furrow irrigation can cause the decrease of permeability of soil. Now tend to use micro sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation under canopy, zonal irrigation, surface soil dry part. Before planting is not fully P and K of the orchard, P, K fertilizer should be increased year by year; 1 months after planting trees, the new root activity, can be applied to dilute manure, fertilizer amount should be less than, should not concentrated light, especially fertilizer, should pay more attention to application, so as not to hurt the roots. Each new shoots sprouting and growth period were to be applied before 1~2 available fertilizer, and strive to 1 years pumping 3~4 shoot that is the end of February to early March 5 months late, Shi Chunshao fertilizer, Shixia shoot fertilizer, the middle of July, the early autumn shoots fertilizer, good fertilizer application in late November. In areas susceptible to freezing, 8~10 months should stop fertilization, pulling hair against late autumn shoots and winter shoots, avoid the consumption of nutrient frost. The second year after planting, we should gradually increase the amount of fertilizer, combined application of organic fertilizer to improve soil, increase the amount of phosphorus and potassium, acidic soil adding lime, to cultivate the dense root group and strong autumn shoots, lay the foundation for third years, 2~3 years old tree fertilization, to seize the shoot growth during continuous top dressing, shoots before half or so apply fertilizer should be less hair tip, topdressing 1 times of shoot tip from fertilizer; cut or pinching, topdressing 1 shoot strong fertilizer, autumn shoots turned green after an additional 2 fecal water. Fertilization should pay attention to weak and strong differences in tree tree. In order to ensure the normal growth of the weak tree three times, increased shoot number, in the first year after planting and promote the sprouting of summer shoots, pinching in the summer shoot length to the 7~8 leaf fertilizer and fertilizer supplement, enrich the thick after the summer shoots, from fertilization to promote early autumn shoots robust, can play a little fat strong support for the shoot. Second years after planting, the weak branches of summer shoots not short cut, cut short due to poor nutritional conditions, new shoots sprouting of weak growth potential.
Pruning is based on tree growth characteristics and cultivation objective, combined with the technical level of natural conditions and management, through certain surgical methods, will be adjusted to the fruit has a fairly stable and technical measures of tree growth and development space. Citrus pruning is to "early results, results, good fruit, long results". The correct shaping and pruning can promote tree growth, the early forming, especially fruittrunk reasonable distribution, canopy ventilation, tree body stable, which is convenient for field management, improve production efficiency, reduce production cost and increase economic benefits. For different ages of tree saplings, as far as possible early results and high yield; adult trees achieve high-quality, high yield, the results extend the deadline; try to update the aging species, promote growth, maintain production.
citrus Flower and fruit retention
Aiming at the phenomenon of flower and fruit drop should take corresponding measures for protecting flowers and fruits. Measures：
Cultivating vigorous vigor, accumulated abundant nutrients, is the foundation of protecting flowers and fruits.
Flower and fruit retention must guarantee the leaf, in the process of growth and development of fruit in different citrus varieties yield tree leaf fruit ratio of different requirements.
The use of plant growth regulator of flower and fruit retention, mainly by Guangzengsu, nucleotides, cytokinin etc..
Control of spring shoots, summer shoots erase.
Girdling, selection of robust growth in the 4~6 month of 4~5cm tree diameter at 4~5cm local bifurcation branch girdling circle two.
Deblossoming Vegetable & Fruit in steady, fruit, a small fruit thinning and dense fruit, and the fruit is close to the ground to hide, to retain the normal green fruit.
Pollination, flowering in the sunny dew dry after artificial pollination.
citrus Vegetable & Fruit
Suitable for Vegetable & Fruit physiological drop after, in the mid to late 6 and mid July two, Vegetable & Fruit amount can be because of tree yield and leaf fruit ratio according to the determined, first remove the pest Vegetable & Fruit fruit, fruit deformity, injury and removal of fruit, small fruit.
Citrus breeding is the key technology in the production of citrus. Citrus grafting, early in the Warring States era was loaded with books. In the "orange book" Han Yanzhi in the Southern Song Dynasty, on Citrus grafting technology has made a detailed description: "Zhu twin nuclei wash, under hido, a year long, another year as big as a fist in children, but after months of yuchun. The good and the beauty of mandarin orange, a branch of Xiangyang thought anvil. To Chi Yu, keep cutting, picking their skin, two branches do not waver in its root docking. One of which the water and soil, the outer beam supporting lotus, ma. The work is good, with Jin, all alive." Most of the citrus seed exposure to dry, to the loss of germination capacity. However China ancient gardener has created even orange peel or peeling split with bentonite, wait for spring germination. The invention and application of citrus breeding technology, laid the foundation for modern large-scale production of citrus.
citrus Pest prevention and control
The process of growth and development of Citrus Diseases and insect pests prevention and control of citrus, due to the impact of harmful organisms or adverse environmental conditions than its ability to adapt to the normal growth inhibition, metabolic changes, decreased yield, quality deterioration, and even death, which brought great losses to the economic value of citrus, serious the influence of farmers income, therefore, a clear understanding of the main pests of citrus pests and adopt effective measures to control governance is the biggest harvest for farmers. The following is the citrus pests and some effective prevention methods, for reference.
citrus Citrus Huanglongbing
Citrus Huanglongbing is also called yellow shoot disease, is the plant quarantine disease, seedlings and young trees after the onset of 1~2 years after the onset of the dead, adult tree loss results ability in 2~3 years. The symptoms of a few new shoots on the individual plants in the early stage of disease, in the green canopy with a small amount of yellow shoot, commonly known as gold or a yellow plug. The leaf tip disease becomes hard and brittle, starting from the base of the leaf mesophyll yellowing and main vein lateral veins remain green, a green and yellow mottling, vein swelling, local suberification cracking or whole leaf yellowing evenly. Prevention and control measures:
Strict quarantine, prohibition of the new unit and the introduction of nursery stock and scion from the ward;
Cultivate disease-free seedlings, establish disease-free nursery locations should be selected without Huanglongbing and citrus Psylla occurred in the area, and the selection of virus-free seedlings;
Pest control, prevention of disease vectors of citrus psylla;
Digging diseased plants, strengthen inspection, timely processing plant.
citrus citrus canker
Citrus canker is domestic plant quarantine objects, seedlings and saplings damaged, causing litter, vigor and fruit damage light with disease scar, low quality, heavy fruit yield decreased. This disease damage leaves, shoot and fruit. At the beginning of the lesion for the needle size, yellow, water soaked, after the expansion is nearly circular spots, in the leaves of positive and negative uplift, suberification, rough surface, gray brown, a volcano shaped cracks. Prevention and control measures:
The strict quarantine of imported seedlings and scion, 0.3% with ferrous sulfate and soak for 10 minutes.
To strengthen the cultivation and management of winter pruning and Qing yuan. Do the bud tip control, reduce the incidence of. Reasonable fertilization, fertilizer to control shoot.
Spraying shoot and fruits, with 77% copper hydroxide wettable powder, suspending agent copperoxychloride 30% times liquid, 20% 800~1000 two chloro isocyanuric acid methyl WP 1000~1500 times or 20% chinomethionat wettable powder 1000~1500 times liquid spray.
citrus Citrus scab
Scab of citrus leaves, the main damage caused by new shoots and fruit, leaves, fruit drop. Not fall ill small fruit deformity, quality deterioration, the growth of new shoots bad. This disease can infect the leaves, shoots and young fruit tissue, damaged leaves early water soaked spots, gradually expanded, yellow wax to brown, diameter 0.3~2.0mm, suberification. Prevention and control measures:
The introduction of new seedling quarantine, garden nursery stock and scion from the field, quarantine. From the field and scion seedlings, available 50% benomyl WP 800 times liquid, 40% Triadimefon three carbendazim WP 800 times liquid soak for 30 minutes.
To strengthen the cultivation and management, combined with the winter pruning, cut off the infected leaves, branches and leaves the ground to collect together burned, and then the tree under the tree spraying prevention. Strengthen management, promote shoot neatly, shorten the fruit tender period, reduce the chance of infection.
Medicament spray control, protection of shoot leaf and fruit. Can be 600 times liquid, 40% Triadimefon three carbendazim WP 800 times or 50% prochloraz manganese complex 1000 times liquid spray with 30% copper oxychloride suspending agent.
citrus Citrus Anthracnose
Citrus anthracnose often cause a lot of leaves, shoot blight of citrus trees and fruit, resulting in decreased growth weak, and product quality, even branches and dead plants. Prevention and control measures:
To strengthen the cultivation and management, soil Shen fan to avoid the increase of nitrogen fertilizer, organic fertilizer and potash fertilizer, timely irrigation and drainage, antifreeze, anti pest do other work.
Clear winter park, cut off the infected leaves and dead fruit branches, remove the ground leaves and fruit disease, concentrated burned or buried deep.
Medicament spray control, in spring, summer and autumn shoots of leaf, fruit and fruit enlargement period of spraying, selection of 25% prochloraz EC, 24% fenbuconazole SC, 43% mancozeb suspension 1000 times or 25% times liquid bromine cyanide nitrile EC 500~800 spray.
citrus Citrus Root knot nematode disease of Citrus nematode disease
The main harm of plant roots, the plant was damaged, the light is caused by growth decline, while the whole plant wilting death. The victim root tissue due to stimulation of excessive growth, the formation of root nodules, ranging from the size of the root hair scarce, diseased leaf becomes small yellow, or curling of leaf margin, leaf dry off, shoot wilt and death of the whole plant. Prevention and control measures:
Strict quarantine, prohibited from ward transporting seedlings.
Cultivate disease-free seedlings, the former as rice, seedling, seedling to repeatedly rake Fanshai, two weeks before sowing and ditching application of nematicides fumigation treatment to kill.
Seedling disease treatment, the pathogenesis of C seedlings with 48 degrees warm water was 15min, or 40% fenamiphos EC 100 times liquid soaking root, root nematode killing.
The diseased trees, dig the root cause, in the 1~2 month, in addition to the root surface were dug and fibrous roots per plant group and burned, Shi Shihui 1.5~2.5kg, organic fertilizer, promote the recovery of root growth and vigor.
citrus Red spider
The main citrus leaf, shoot and fruit. The victim of leaf and fruit serious gray white, lose luster, until the yellow and fall off. 4-6 months and 9-11 months for a peak. Prevention and control measures:
To strengthen the inspection, the average 5-6 per leaf worm head should be control.
Make clear winter garden, and in winter in the bud before the election of 100 times liquid spray oil emulsion or Baum 0.8-1.0 of lsss.
Pest control index reached by acaricide control or pricking, less use of broad-spectrum home medicine, to protect natural enemies.
citrus phyllocnistis citrella stainton
The leaf moth commonly known as "talismans". The insect larvae to sneak into the leaves, twigs and fruit skin feeding, forming white mbrosia bending, the leaf curl hard off, caused by the growth of new shoots, affect the vigor and results. Summer shoot bud beginning in late May by 7-8 months were sheng. Prevention and control measures:
With the clear winter garden, cut off branches and to burn victims.
Extraction of new shoots scattered too early or too late to out, strengthen management, to promote the new shoots sprouting.
New shoots developed or most teeth 50% adorable, 2-3 cm long, the leaves or the damage rate reached 5%, began spraying, every 1 times 5-7 days later, 2-3.
citrus Citrus rust mite
Mainly in the larva cluster in Citrus branch, leaf and fruit damage on the victim rind or leaf blade abaxially brown. Prevention and control measures:
Frequently fine check, each park checks 5-10 strains, each plant used to expand microscopic examination of 10-20 leaf or fruit per leaf and fruit worm 2-3 or individual leaves and fruit showed gray like, should immediately control.
The winter to early spring spray Baum 0.8-1.0 degrees LSSS, destroy overwintering body. The peak period of 0.2-0.3 degrees Baume lime sulfur spray.
To prevent or control index pricking, acaricidal agent to do meticulous, uniform spraying.
citrus Coccid scale insects
Citrus shoot, leaf and fruit. Adult and nymph sucking the sap, the victim organization is not fully developed, the force is weak, cause the drop leaves, influence fruit quality, and can induce fuliginous. Mainly, Nanfeng orange icerya black scale and parlatoria pergandii etc.. Prevention and control measures:
To strengthen the inspection, to grasp in the hatching period and the first order nymphs nymphs of spraying control. General in mid May to mid June on spraying 2 times and 8-9 month spraying 1-2 times to prevent.
Make clear winter park, cut off the pest branches twigs, and completely burned. Loose mixture spray 8-10 times of the alkali winter or 100 times liquid oil emulsion with 3000 times liquid organic phosphorus pesticide.
citrus The main value
The human body health care materials containing citrus fruits, have been isolated from more than 30 species, including: monoterpenes, coumarins, flavonoids, carotenoids, propanol, quinacridone, glycerol sugar lipid etc..
There are three types of flavonoids in citrus fruits contain flavonoids: type I is the general flavonoids such as rutin; type II is flavanone hesperidin, naringin, unique citrus fruit; type III is the other has not yet been found in fruits and vegetables and citrus can only contain some citrus flavonoids special class of flavonoids of methoxy poly.
Carotenoids as everyone knows, many vegetables and fruits contain carotenoids, which plays an important role in human health ingredients. Study on the physiological function and mechanism of carotenoid pigment, China has to use this kind of material of health food and industrialized development. The coumarin containing coumarin in Citrus has been fully affirmed the anti-cancer substances of scientists. The results show that the formation of coumarin anti-cancer function there are two main ways: one is that cancer detoxification by coumarin detoxification enzymes; two is activated and inhibit the metabolism of antagonistic substance cancer. The effects of these two aspects mainly in the initial stage of cancer inhibition effect.
Monoterpenes, three terpene in Citrus contains a large number of (R) - terpenes limonene as the representative. Is a unique fragrant citrus terpene substances, with the people of the CNS sedative effect, the research also confirmed that it has the effect of reducing stress, to eliminate fatigue. Limonoids limonin in citrus juice is bitter components in citrus fruit, the content is about 100 200ppm. However, the study found that limonoids inhibit tumor function.
Other chemical components here refers to the three kinds of compounds in Citrus: benzene propanol, acridone and glycerol lipid sugar. Orange is the body, the pulp, peel and core and winding can be used as medicine. Exocarp dried orange after called "citrus" (due to the efficacy of medicine Chen, named tangerine peel). The orange flesh above white mesh wire network, called "tangerine", contains a certain amount of vitamin P, with collaterals, phlegm, Qi, flatulence and other effects. Tangerine seed is bitter, non-toxic, there is Qi analgesic effect, can be used in the treatment of hernia and lumbago. Even the orange orange leaf root, etc. can also be used as medicine, with different functions, spleen, stomach and liver.
The "Chinese Pharmacopoeia"
[Medicine] Dai Ma Zhuang: fruit for children with diarrhea, sleepless night fever, "medicine", "Xishuangbanna Dai Dai medicine". Ma Zhuang (Xi DAI): fruit juice, for children with diarrhea, sleepless night fever, "Yunnan medicine.". Ma Zhuang: fruit for children with diarrhea, night sleep, fever "Dai medicine.".
[Medicine] water will harbor bureau, orange peel: Peel for xingqizhitong "aquarium medicine".
[Medicine] Orange Peel Achang: used for gastric distention, vomiting, hiccup, cough and phlegm "Dehong medicine.".
[Medicine] good wow: Deang don't function with Achang "Dehong medicine.".
[Medicine] Zechuigvuq: the function of Jingpo Achang with "Dehong medicine.".
[Medicine] Orange, Jean - Hadley: Peel for gastric distention, vomiting, hiccup, phlegm cough and phlegm; seed treatment of breast cancer, colic, testicular swelling; endocarp jinlao cough phlegm, chest pain; young fruit treatment chest distension, hypochondriac pain, mastitis, colic "Mongolian".
[Medicine] fruit seedlings or immature fruit exocarp treated Xiongxie pain, dyspepsia and abdominal pain, mastitis, hernia, chest epigastric fullness, belching, vomiting, cough and phlegm "Hunan blue test".
[Medicine] he pulled West Tujia cut (qiefxixtafpar): Peel for abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, food was "Tujia medicine".
[Medicine] Lisu sub Valley quality ma nine: skin cure stomach distention, vomiting, hiccup, cough medicine "Nu River".
[Medicine] Mary: Azeng Keno main peel to treat mastitis, colic pain, testicular pain, stomach pain, vomiting, cough and phlegm; cold cough medicine Kawaji is keno ".
Has the medicinal value of citrus fruits. Since ancient times, tangerine, tangerine peel, bitter orange, citrus, green is the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese medicine widely used in clinic. Modern pharmacological studies suggest that: Orange carotene, vitamin C, vitamin P content higher than the flesh.
Orange peel contains thiamine, riboflavin, volatile oil, flavonoids. The volatile oil from orange peel has a stimulating effect on the digestive tract. Can increase gastric secretion, promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, and stomach. Flavonoids dilate coronary artery, increase the coronary artery blood flow function. In addition, anti-inflammatory, anti ulcer, orange peel and antibacterial and cholagogic effect. Orange peel of vitamin P in extraction process can also be made into injection, has obvious therapeutic effect on vascular sclerosis. Also contains the pressor effect of synephrine and N- methyl orange tyramine.
According to scientists, they extracted an anti-cancer substance from orange peel, the substance was found in the lower blood pressure components. This anticancer substance widely exist in the lemon peel and orange peel, the animal experiment indicates that taking the material of cancer animal can obviously prolong life.
Citrus is a small evergreen tree, producing oxygen, absorb carbon dioxide, a "carbon sink" value. Citrus trees are evergreen, beautiful, is a good ornamental plant. Set of flowers and fruit, smelling in one of the Chongming orange, to improve the forest coverage rate, green rate, improvement of the ecological environment has a positive significance.
Orange flower, leaf, peel is a good raw material for extracting essence, the essential oil content in citrus peels can be as high as 3%. Citrus essential oil is widely used in daily chemical and food industry, is the deployment of balm, perfume and cosmetics essential raw materials, flavoring agent is senior drinks, snacks. The pectin content is very rich in citrus peels, up to 3.5%. The international and domestic market is very tight pectin materials, mainly used in the food industry. In addition, pectin in pharmaceutical, textile industry also has a wide range of uses. Citrus peel is also used as a sugar processing raw materials or processing production of health beverage by enzyme method. If the remaining residue after extraction of juice extractable pigment, pectin or animal feed, in the domestic market are more popular products.
citrus Storage technology
citrus The interior brick storage pool
Dig in high and dry room, deep, 60 ~ 80 cm, width 80 ~ 100 cm, with a brick wall, or in the indoor floor brick pool size and similar underground pool. To be sterilized and dried in the pool bottom on clean river sand or dried rice straw, and then neatly placed 5 to 8 layers of citrus. Early storage pond does not cover tightly, let the water evaporation; low temperature cold pool covers the mouth should be stamped with straw bag, quilt insulation to prevent chilling injury.
citrus Sawdust storage
When the storage in the wash, dried and sterilized box (barrels) at the bottom of a water content of 7% fresh sawdust, one layer of a layer of Citrus sawdust hierarchical storage container, the top cover 8 ~ 10 cm sawdust with the box cover (not covered), stored in a cool ventilated place you can. The sawdust is too dry, improve the humidity should be sprayed 0.2% Topsin solution, kill bacteria.
citrus The natural ventilation of Citrus storage
The specific method is fruit processed into orange fruit box pad of paper or film, bins according to the glyph code neat piles, each pile of not more than 500 kg, not higher than 7 layers. During the storage period (10~11 months should pay attention to ventilation window to cool wet day and night. The ventilation to the appropriate 12~2 month, the minimum temperature is less than or equal to 4 DEG C to shut the doors and windows, thermal insulation, combined with the Library) sprinkler and other measures, as far as possible to make stable temperature base at 6~12 DEG C, humidity 85~95%, can effectively keep the fruit fresh. Every 20~30 days after storage fruit inspection 1 times, remove rotten signs and storage of fruit. Turn the fruit to gently, to prevent the increase of new mechanical damage, the application of rotten fruit paper bag, gently into a covered bucket, from the outside with deep concentration; fruit box on contact with rotten fruit and good fruit to use with a wet cloth to disinfect 0.2% Topsin disinfectant etc. to prevent cross infection. Citrus storage after March, the temperature gradually increases in the storage, and volatile gases such as carbon dioxide, ethylene, ethanol, acetaldehyde and other substances increased, the management should try to strengthen the ventilation cooling after midnight, with 1% Potassium Permanganate liquid on the ground when necessary, neutralize the harmful gas, slowing down the senescence of fruit and decay. This way can make the mandarin orange storage by March to May.
citrus The preservation of Citrus
1 garlic juice: take a fresh citrus suanbandaolan into mud into 10 portions of boiling water stir take liquid, cooling to room temperature, and then immersed in Citrus garlic liquid selected in 10 minutes to dry, placed inside the box or plastic bag storage, can be preserved for 3 months.
2 fresh citrus soda: 2 copies of 1 copies of soda water dilution mixing into a liquid, add orange soak for 2 minutes remove and dry in a plastic bag, tie the bag, can make the orange storage for 3 months.
(Note: the above data are from the " Quzhou Citrus Association
"President" Quzhou citrus cooperatives
"President Wu Gentu's speech related information described encoding Abstract)
citrus Recovery of sales
For different purposes, different harvest time. Usually, the sale of fresh fruit can be earlier than the processing of fruit, fresh market field recoverable earlier than the local sale of fresh, fruit storage can be earlier than the sale of fresh fruit. As the sale of fresh fruit, for cleaning, waxing, grading and packing of the post harvest treatment, in order to improve commodity fruit, increase income.
The citrus processing products up to more than 1000, mostly orange (citrus juice), followed by sugar orange canned, candied fruit and wine etc.. In addition, citrus essential oil, pectin, limonin, seed oil and carotenoids and other by-products can be extracted, citrus peel can also be made of fermented feed. The world's citrus production in Brazil, the United States 35% for processing citrus fruit juice processing was 70% ~ 75%, orange juice juice accounted for 3/4, China Citrus
Annual processing capacity of 10% of the annual output of practical problems.
The world's citrus production, in 1998 the first fruit, yield 102 million 822 thousand tons, far more than 59 million tons of bananas, 57 million tons and 56 million tons of grape apple. The world from the middle of 70s every year is 3% ~ 5% of the excess at the end of 1980s to start domestic citrus, some varieties of unsalable inferior by comparison.
China citrus should strengthen the adjustment of product structure, a special and excellent citrus development of market demand, changing from quantity to quality in the past, improve fruit quality and fruit commodity.
citrus Purchase method
Buy: buy citrus, citrus fruit shape should be selected straight, no deformity and flesh bright, fresh fruit stalk varieties.
Buy: when the purchase of citrus citrus, should choose the bottom shoulder wide, deep and muster, umbilical into the deeper the better. From both sides of the shoulder lightly, slightly flexible, fruit body is larger and heavier, the orange is good.
Buy: Pomelo grapefruit varieties, with pale red soil at the bottom of the coil for Shatinyu, with narrow neck gourd shaped is preferred; other varieties are not to buy such a shape of grapefruit. The same size to weight, shiny grapefruit is preferred.
citrus Plant culture
citrus Folk legend The origin of the "orange"
There is an old Yaonong east coast, often to the island for the people to treat herbs.
One autumn, the old Yaonong shook a boat came to a nameless Island, walked, suddenly by the distant valley attracted a tree. This tree is like an umbrella, green leaf layers, golden autumn has little, still full of vigour.
He walked along the rugged rocks to the bottom, found that tree orange tree species to his house almost, decorated with small branches with fruit. He casually picked a fruit in the mouth, feeling is sweet aroma, but also delicious than that of oranges. The old farmer was very happy, put the fruit on the tree were picked to take home. The old farmer found Jinguo news spread in the village, many people also visited the old Yaonong look wonderful, eager to serve, and take the fruit you taste, but dare not ask them to eat, he does not know the characteristics of the fruit.
A few days later, a miracle occurred, two neighborhood children, the original eat fruit, emaciation with sallow complexion, face become red. Old Yaonong wondering, this fruit not only taste good, but also is the best medicine. Tangerine and stone adult
Long long ago, there is a stone on the lotus throne intention Bodhisattva in front, and sucking nectar, absorbing the essence of heaven and earth, after listening to thirty-six thousand years of Buddhist scriptures, gradually through spirituality, a boy around Avalokiteshvara.
One day, Avalokiteshvara asked the boy: "after you work around the fruit into rows, what good?" The other said: "I don't, just want to put on the tree outside the southern gold fruit brought to earth to grow, for the sufferings of the people." Avalokiteshvara nodded and said.
Shiren turns into a poor young man himself, he traveled to China with golden fruit. One day, Avalokiteshvara had to seat Huang Yanlian fengshan. I saw in front of a green green nine of Chengjiang, the environment beautiful, fertile land, mild climate, is really a good place to grow the fruit. So, he built a hut in the lotus mountain side, to settle down. To the riverside pick three hundred and sixty loads of mud, built three feet six feet high mound, with thirty-six Dan Tian in, and then remove the golden radiance of fruit from the bosom, put it in the mound. After three years and six months, pier grow a green tree. In the autumn, the trees are covered with numerous light water to Chengjiang golden fruit. The distributed only a fruit to the poor people of the river, please teach them to cultivate their taste. People are very happy, the fruit is planted in the garden of my own. After a few years, the two sides of Chengjiang jinguoshu fragrant a wild profusion of vegetation. Eat fruit, not all, prolong life. People will take it as an auspicious fruit, called orange fruit.
citrus Orange flower Good luck and happiness to you
, The most favorable auspices
The ancient "Yu Gong" recorded 4000 years ago The Xia Dynasty
China, Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei and other places of citrus production, has been listed as a tribute. Arrived Qin and Han Dynasties
The times, further development of citrus production. " Redords of the Grand History of China
Su - Biography "(Han Sima Qian) records:" Qi will cause fish to the sea salt, Chu will be tangelos Garden
." Explains Chu (Hubei, Hunan) of citrus with Qi (Shandong) both fish and salt production.
The Tang and Song Dynasties, with the development of economy, the regional distribution of citrus and citrus China roughly the same range of modern distribution. The new book of Tang Song Dynasty Ou Yangxiu, writing "geography". Sichuan, Guizhou, listed in Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Anhui, Henan, Jiangsu, southern Shaanxi, to the court. Gonggan
In the Tang Dynasty poet Censen poetry chant, "family tree of pure planted orange garden, half border tea." Tang dynasty Wei Yingwu
There is a poem: "when you think is new orange, try picking Judah acid also not yellow." During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, citrus has developed to commodity production era. The Qing Dynasty works "custom object records" record Nanfeng households in Jiangxi Nanfeng etc, the whole village "is not a matter of farming, designed with orange industry". " Fujian notes
"(Qing Shi Hongbao) recorded many outside the city of Fuzhou," dozens of acres, all kinds of citrus." "South of the Five Ridges miscellanies" (Qing Wu Zhenfang) records: "Guangzhou little arable land, the variety of citrus to profit."
citrus The difference between species
citrus The difference of orange, orange, grapefruit
Orange, orange, orange is three different varieties of citrus fruits, because they are similar in appearance, easy to be confused by the people. Orange is orange, orange, grapefruit, orange, kumquat, name, name and the long orange orange is very confusing. According to the scientific perspective, orange is the basic, small flowers, fruit peel, good seed is dark green and orange orange; orange and other citrus hybrids, flowers, fruit peel of orange peel as well, seed is light green. Therefore, in Mandarin, mandarin orange (Citrus) is not orange orange, orange orange orange is not Wenzhou. Orange and orange in Plant taxonomy
Is the same family belong to different species and woody plants. The other two orange and orange often referred to as "citrus". Citrus
The main plant is a plant of citrus fruit, a total of 17 species, divided into 6 populations: wing, Yichang orange, orange, pomelo, citron lemon and orange citrus reticulata. Citrus fruits, including oranges, oranges, grapefruit, orange, citron, Lime
And a large family of kumquat and lemon. In order to distinguish the following characteristics of tangerine, orange, orange, grapefruit:
| Mandarin orange
|| For the fruit of Rutaceae citrus and other citrus. Fruit large, nearly spherical, skin yellow, orange yellow or orange red, thick rind and spongy layer thick, loose and peeling, slightly hard, oval seeds. Taste sweet and sour moderate, resistant storage.
| A mandarin orange
|| Orange, as the fruit of Rutaceae citrus or other kind of orange orange zhu. There are many types of cloth eight orange, Kumquat Sweet orange, Acid orange , The palace of Sichuan Xinjin, orange, orange, orange, Wenzhou Wei Zhang Sichuan citrus varieties. The fruit is small, often flat round, orange red or orange color, Zhu Hong. Peel is thin and loose sponge, thin, flexible, easy to peel, cystic flap in 7 to 11. Sweet or sour, the seed is tapered, storage.
|| Refers to the Rutaceae citrus subfamily, citrus family, a subfamily of the citrus plant. Varieties Jincheng , Navel orange Etc.. Mainly refers to the common Orange . Zhongyu 7 orange is seedless, China citrus research the breeding of high quality and high yield, storability, fresh and processing (juice) new varieties of sweet orange and. The fruit is round or oblong, smooth skin, thin, easy to peel cyst closely. Meat, sweet and sour moderate, rich aroma.
|| Pomelo is a citrus fruit, is one of the largest fruit. by Rutaceae Botany Evergreen fruit trees citrus grandis The ripe fruit, also known as Zhu Luan, ray pomelo, orange gas, Pomelo , pomelo Zhu Luan, purple, orange, pot, where a smelly orange. White heart, red grapefruit grapefruit, Pomelo 3. Such as Shatinyu, skin is actually not too thin, the skin is not particularly smooth appearance that most fruit is pear shaped. Fruit pomelo is very close, it is difficult to break, eat pomelo cut with a knife, each piece of flesh wrapped grapefruit peel intact, not explode. The taste is pure and sweet, sweet was no surprise no impurities in feeling, and not much slag. When the rich is not particularly the kind of water Lingling, but good. The general is more than one or two pounds, not more than three or four pounds. and Honey pomelo Just a three or four pounds, is big and round, and feel the skin is very smooth, if the same pomelo pomelo and together contrast, feel the obvious difference is not small. Honey pomelo The juice is very rich, richer than the pomelo.
citrus The difference between "orange" and "orange"
"Orange" and "orange" is the two Never mind words. In particular, it should be noted that the "simplified" orange orange "is not".
"Orange" read Ji, often consisting of the words "shadoof" and "platycodon". " Shadoof
Is a drawing tool," Chinese bellflower
Is a kind of " Perennial herb
Can be used as medicine.
"Orange" read the j case, which also refers to the orange orange tree.
"Orange" and "orange" should not be confused. In particular, it is not appropriate to use "orange" instead of "orange".
The second Chinese characters simplified scheme Reform Commission released the 1977 Chinese text "(Draft)", the "orange" simplified "orange", and "A.DC orange still read ji".
However, in June 24, 1986 the State Council approved the "National Language Commission" on the abolition of the second Chinese characters simplified scheme (Draft) "pointed out and corrected for the word social confusion:" notice "issued in December 20, 1977" the second Chinese characters simplified method (Draft) ", since the date of notification issued to stop the use of."
In this way, "orange" is not as "orange" simplified words.
Orange: fruit of Rutaceae citrus and other citrus. Fruit large, nearly spherical, skin yellow, orange yellow or orange red, thick rind and spongy layer thick, loose and peeling, slightly hard, oval seeds,. taste sweet and sour
Moderately resistant storage.
Orange: fruit of Rutaceae orange or orange and other citrus of the zhu. There are many types of cloth, eight orange kumquat, sweet orange, acid orange, Miyakawa, Xinjin, Wenzhou, orange orange Owari orange, orange and other varieties in Sichuan.
"Orange" J case is standard modern Chinese word "orange" Ji is the standard modern Chinese characters, when the "orange" Ji read the j case, J case is the "orange" characters, also known as the word at hand.
citrus Edible items
citrus Method Orange tea
The orange peel, wash, cut into thin strips, dried and preserved. When drinking with boiling water, taste fresh and delicious, appetizing ventilation. Fresh orange peel can also be boiling water for drinking. Orange peel porridge
: porridge, can put orange pieces so cooked porridge, fragrant and delicious, increase appetite. Marmalade
The orange peel and wash up, press 1:1 to add sugar into the pot, cooked with chopsticks, stir into a paste, then add a small amount if the conditions of pectin or agar, cooling after the orange sauce. Can assist the food Steamed Buns bread, etc.. Orange wine
The orange peel wash, cut into small pieces, dipped in liquor, after 4 weeks of orange peel remove, then press 15% to 20% transferred to sugar or sugar, can be made of orange wine. Every day to drink 30 to 50 ml, Qingfei expectorant effect.
1 digestive system: it is the most important feature is the treatment of gastrointestinal problems, can reconcile the stomach, can stimulate gastrointestinal peristalsis, help exhaust; can calm the digestive tract, increase appetite, stimulate appetite.
Because it is gentle, can be used in infants, pregnant women and the elderly, especially the growth of infant digestive system is not yet complete, easy to burp or indigestion, after use is very effective.
Baby massage: sweet almond oil 10ml+ orange juice + 3 drops 2 drops dill sauce
The dilution ratio used by infants must be below 1%, but only the orange oil can.
2 skin: although it all with citrus oils as photosensitivity, but the scar with a pregnancy, especially in early pregnancy, began to use together with belong to other essential oils, the effect is more significant.
Anti striae / Massage: sweet almond oil, wheat germ oil, avocado oil 40ml+ 5ml+ 5ml+ orange juice + 6 drops Lavender juice + 3 drops 3 drops of frankincense juice (or orange flower)
3 emotions: boost spirit, soothe anxiety, help sleep
Orange juice + 4 drops Martin fragrant juice + 2 drops 2 drops of rosewood juice
Note: with photosensitivity not long, not daub after drying to the skin.
4 oranges are rich in vitamin C, can reduce the blood fat and cholesterol, coronary heart disease should eat citrus. Suitable for pregnant women to eat Citrus
Citrus variety, has rich nutrition, the body is treasure of common advantages. The juice is rich in citric acid, amino acids (amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty food), vitamins (vitamin food), calcium (calcium), phosphorus, iron and other nutrients (iron food), pregnant women love to eat food. 500 grams of orange contains vitamin C250 mg, vitamin A2.7 mg, vitamin B1 content in fruit of the crown. Contained in orange mineral in calcium is the highest, the phosphorus content was more than rice. Citrus peel and core network is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Eat citrus can prevent scurvy and night blindness. But can not eat delicious citrus. Pregnant women to eat citrus should not exceed 3, the total weight of 250 grams or less.
Orange is orange red, because the ingredients are rich in vitamin A. The National Institute of Fruit Tree Science in a study of carotenoids on human health effects research group conducted a survey of Sanmu Shizuoka Prefecture town of 1073 residents, these people usually eat a lot of citrus fruits. The results showed that the chemical composition of artery of liver disease, and the risk of these residents in blood sclerosis (atherosclerosis) and insulin antibody (diabetes related diseases) are at a lower risk of close relationship. They found that in the second study, drinking orange juice can reduce significantly after hepatitis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis symptoms and the risk of developing hcc.
The general population can eat, cold cough, phlegm cough should not eat.
Autumn and winter season, a large number of citrus market. Fresh citrus fruit is rich in vitamin C, vitamin C can improve the body's immunity, and can reduce the risk of Citrus cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Citrus though delicious, but every day should not exceed 3.
Required per person per day of vitamin C eat 3 oranges is enough, eat much is harmful to the mouth, teeth. At the same time, citrus leaf containing red, if excessive intake, blood content and a large number of surge accumulated in the skin, the subcutaneous fat rich parts of the skin, such as palm, finger, foot, nasolabial and nostril edge yellow.
In addition, citrus and radish nor with the food, eating carrot is not immediately after eating oranges, if two people often eat together, will induce or cause goiter.
In addition to radish, orange and milk should not be with the food, otherwise, citrus that the acid in the milk protein coagulation, not only affect the absorption, and there will be severe abdominal distension, abdominal pain, diarrhea and other symptoms. Therefore, we should be drinking milk in 1 hours after eating citrus.
Citrus should not eat. Orange contains a lot of carotene in the blood into vitamin A, stored in the body, make the skin yellow, which led to the "carrot in", commonly known as "orange", followed by nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, malaise and other symptoms. From the "orange", should be appropriate to eat more vegetable oil, and drink plenty of water, in order to accelerate the dissolution, transformation and excretion.