Masson (scientific name: Pinus massoniana Lamb.
Is Pinaceae, Pinus) Tree
And, up to 45 meters high, 1.5 meters diameter; bark
Red brown, branches spreading or oblique, crown wide pyramid or umbrella, Branch
The annual growth (Guangdong round two), winter buds ovoid, cylindrical or cylindrical, coniferous, soft, slightly distorted, both sides have stomatal lines, margin serrulate; Leaf sheath
Persistent. Male flowers reddish brown, terete, poly in lower shoot bract axils, spicate, female ball has to shoot near the top, purple red, seed
Long ovoid, 4-5 flowering, cone second years 10-12 month.
Pinus massoniana is widely spread from Henan in the north and South Shandong, South Hunan, Guangdong and Guangxi (Cili county), Taiwan, east coast, West to central Sichuan and Guizhou, throughout central Southern China around. In the lower reaches of the Yangtze River middle reaches above the altitude of 600-700m, about 1200m, about 1500m upstream of the following are distributed. Is the main tree species in southern China material. High economic value.
Masson not decay. Heart sapwood distinction is not clear, yellowish brown, long crack, flake peeling; wood texture straight, coarse structure containing resin, water wet. The proportion of 0.39-0.49, elastic, rich resin, weak corrosion resistance. Is an important timber tree species, but also of afforestation Pioneer species
. The economic value is high, wide use, pine timber is an important industrial and agricultural production, mainly for the construction, sleepers, pillar, plate making, packing box, furniture and wood fiber (rayon pulp and paper industrial raw materials etc.). The trunk can be cut into resin, medicine, chemical raw materials. The root of the resin content is rich; the tree trunk and root cultivation of Poria, mushrooms, herbs and bark for food, can extract tannin extract. To the south of the Yangtze River Basin an important afforestation tree species.
Masson Morphological character
Trees, up to 45 meters high, 1.5 meters diameter; bark red brown, lower gray brown, split into pieces of irregular scaly; branches spreading or oblique, crown wide tower or umbellate, branches grown every year round, but in the south of Guangdong is usually growing two rounds, light yellow brown, no pigment, rare white, glabrous; winter buds ovoid, cylindrical or cylindrical, brown, tip, bud scale margin filiform, apex acuminate or long pointed, micro music.
Conifer needles in bunches of 2, thin needles in bunches of 3, 12-20 cm long, slender, slightly distorted, both sides have stomatal lines, margin serrulate; cross section skin layer cells single layer, the first layer is composed of second consecutive individual cells intermittently arranged, about 4-8 resin on the back side,, there are also 2 or ventral edge; leaf sheath at the beginning of a brown, after gradually into the black, persistent.
Male flowers reddish brown, terete, bent, 1-1.5 cm long, crowded on lower branches in bract axils, spicate, 6-15 cm long; female flowers solitary or clustered shoots was born in 2-4 near the top, purple red, round or oval fruit annual ball, diameter of about 2 cm, brown or purple brown, the upper ovuliferous scale the umbo with short spines on the upright, blunt umbo lower ovuliferous scale unarmed.
Cones ovoid or conical ovoid, 4-7 cm long, 2.5-4 cm in diameter, with short stems, drooping before mature green, cooked chestnut brown, gradually glabrescent; middle scales near oblong obovate, or nearly oblong, ca. 3 cm; placoid rhombic, slightly raised or flat, slightly obvious transverse ridge umbo, slightly concave, unarmed, was born in the dry environment often with short spines; seed ovoid, 4-6 mm long, with wings 2-2.7 cm long; cotyledon 5-8; 1.2-2.4 cm long; primary leaf shaped, 2.5-3.6 cm long, leaf margin with sparsely serrate bristles. Florescence 4-5 month, 10-12 month cone for second years.
Masson The main varieties Yajiasong (varieties) (Journal of plant taxonomy)
The variety is different from that of Pinus massoniana Bark red brown, split into irregular flakes off branches; branchlets spreading, oblique cone oval cylindrical extension.
Located in Guangdong Hainan Island China Ya Ling (type locality) increase. Use the same with masson.
Masson The origin of habitat
Produced in Jiangsu (Liuhe, Yizheng), Anhui (Huaihe Valley, the Dabie Mountains in South Western Henan, Shaanxi), south of Hanjiang River Gorge, the Yangtze River provinces, South Fujian, red, green, Guangdong springs springs, north of Taiwan low mountain and west coast, West Central Sichuan Daxiangling Dongpo Guiyang, Bijie, southwest to Guizhou and Yunnan funing. In the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and its vertical distribution in an altitude of 700 meters below the altitude of 1100-1200 meters below the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in the west, located in 1500 meters below sea level. A Masson Pine Plantation in northern vietnam.
Masson Growth habit
Positive species, intolerant of shade, light and warm. Suitable in annual mean temperature of 13-22 DEG C, the annual precipitation of 800-1800 mm, the absolute minimum temperature to 10 DEG C. Roots, taproot, root fungus. No strict requirements on the soil, like micro acidic soil, but not afraid of waterlogging, salinization, erosion in thin stone soil, sandy soil, clay, ridge and sunny slope, and steep mountain cliffs can grow.
Masson Breeding method
Masson Root cutting seedling
Department of pine tree planting Pinus massoniana taproot, cultivated field on root, root diameter, lateral root small, low survival rate of afforestation. Slow seedling early growth of young long, slow. Use Plastic bag
Or the root type seedling cultivation device, can improve the quality of seedlings of Pinus massoniana and The survival rate of afforestation
But, because of breeding high cost, seedling transportation costs increase, the promotion difficulty. In the growth of Masson Pine Seedling in field period, with iron root cutting shovel proper cut part of the original seedling root, promote seedling root growth, increased lateral root number increased mycorrhiza
The infection rate, reduce the ratio of height to diameter, crown root ratio, can significantly improve the field bare root quality and survival rate of afforestation of Pinus massoniana. Root cutting seedling
Masson root seedlings to choose open terrain, xiangyang. Gentle slope, near water, loose texture, little or no stones, Gravel
The acidic loam or Sandy loam
. Preparation for bed
3-6 months earlier dug nursery
Preparation, depth of 20-25 cm. Combined with land to broadcast ground ferrous sulfate
Powder or 15-20 kg per mu Quick lime
30-40 kilograms per mu for Soil disinfection
Then, P fertilizer per mu 60-100 kg fertilizer. Then Hengshan
Out of the box as the high bed, the bed is 1 meters wide, 20 cm high, 30 cm wide trail. As a nursery before non Masson Pine forest
Or pine seedlings, is also required the withdrawal of a uniform bed layer pine mycorrhizal soil. Sow
In order to ensure the root when pine seedlings can meet the requirements, to appropriate early sowing time, the best in late February to early March, not later than the end of March. The way for sowing Drilling
From sowing, 15-20 cm, and the best sowing ditch direction parallel to the direction of the seedbed. After the selection, disinfection of seed sowing quantity of Pinus massoniana, 3-4 kg per mu. Early sowing covering film or seedbed straw
And for insulation and moisture, promote seed germination and early, unearthed. Prophase management
One is the emergence of attention to film management, to prevent the "burn" seedlings; two is the seedlings of Qi, spray once every 10-15 days 1: 1: 120 Bordeaux
2-3, continuous time, in order to prevent Cataplexy
The three is a combination of weed occurrence; Ripper
Qin shi. Light fertilizer 3-5, in mid June after the water 1-2 of urea, the concentration of 0.3-0.5% is appropriate, to promote the growth of seedlings; four is hilly area even in case of fine high temperature, to drought seedlings, in Summer
After the end of time and seedling, Dingmiao
. Will be too thick and thin. Cutting time
In order to ensure the effect of seedling root, root of seedling height up to 12 cm long, 15 cm above. Therefore, every summer before the investigation of seedling roots Growth
Has reached the requirements, in mid July to be the end of root cutting, or drought, autumn after the arrival of the late August to early September for trenching; 800 meters above the sea level, no or little effect in summer drought, root cutting time completely as the seedling growth, but not later than mid September, or root seedling growth time is too short, the poor effect of root cutting. Cutting depth
In the depth of root cutting shovel is retained on the seedbed seedling primary root length, called cutting depth. I stand according to the test results, cutting depth to 8 cm as well, which cut off the original seedling root length of about 1/2. The master, Miao Kogan
Long a little deep, seedling root short slightly shallow point, with not more than 10 cm or less than 6 cm. Cutting method
Cutting method are beveled, sliced two. A miter sliced saving, high efficiency, suitable for mountain slope
The drilling bed, or soil is clay, gravel more difficult, the flat shovel drill bed. During the operation, the first from the inside line to start the seedbed seedlings, with the shovel in the seedling side from the seedling diameter 5 cm, oblique direction of seedling was 60 degree angle insertion, take the opportunity to advance, can cut off 6-10 cm below the root of seedling. If the bed flat, and no loose gravel, or sow seedbed, can be sliced. Sliced, with root cutting shovel were determined from the bed on both sides of the root depth, to the central level to promote the seedbed evenly, 50 cm, to prevent the upward or downward deflection. With every shovel cut after the exit, the original direction of root cutting shovel, shovel down a little hard, the slit is a bit wide, easy to exit, avoid blade upward, dragged down stock. Water and fertilizer management
In order to prevent root seedling wilting and conducive to root growth and mycorrhizal root formation, immediately after a management of water and fertilizer. All out before the end of August, the water and fertilizer Calcium superphosphate
The concentration, were not more than 0.5%; if in the middle of September, is no longer the root, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer can only water. The amount of fertilizer application in seedbed soil for irrigation water. Lifting and transportation
Masson pine seedlings with root cut in the bed until the end of November or early December stopped growing after seedling afforestation can. The lifter must adhere strictly to pull the hand hoe to dig, to prevent tearing, fibrous roots and mycorrhiza. With the hoe hoe lifter, seedling of 10 cm from the mouth should be high, progressive backwards digging, flick, try to pay attention not to hurt or hurt less side roots and mycorrhizal seedlings. Root of pine seedlings in transit for wind and water loss on drying dry, must build a film or straw. Tranport to afforestation
After timely planting afforestation, planting the endless pine seedlings, should be close to the heel.
Masson Seed breeding Seed
When 15-40 should be born in crown symmetry, straight trunk shape, no strong tree pests. In late November to early December. From green to brown, not cracking acquisition scales. Artificial Heating method
The threshing seed (seed rate 3%), collected seeds by screening, winnowing, dry bags, ventilated and dry place storage device. Seed purity
For 80-95%, weight 10.4 grams, per kilogram of pure grain seeds 76000-90000, 85% indoor germination rate. Masson pine seed general storage for a period of 1 years, if the dry seeds with a plastic bag sealed, placed in the 0-5 degrees Celsius temperature can be stored in 1-2. Grow seedlings
Selection of fertile soil, good drainage, wet, loose sandy loam, loam for nursery. Shizujifei after bed preparation, to break the clods, intensive and meticulous farming flat bed. The planting season in early February to early March. Before sowing with 30 warm water soaking 12-24 hours. A distance of 10 cm, seedling, sowing trench to spread a layer of fine soil. With the seeds of 5 kg per mu. Seed after sowing to thin soil cover, available coke Marl
To cover, still can see part of the seed is appropriate, then cover the grass. About 20-30 days after sowing, seedling emergence. For most seedlings unearthed after the removal of grass cover. 40 days after seedling emergence should pay special attention to keeping the seedbed moist. 5-7 months of monthly application chemical fertilizer
1-2 times, each unit application Ammonium sulphate
2-5 kg. Pinus massoniana seedlings can be too condensed, thinning transplanting is usually divided into 2 times, first times in 5 months, late transplanting, second were transplanted in the middle of July. After the rain cloudy or rainy days, slightly Old territory
That can not only survived, good seedling growth.
Masson The growth process
The tree height growth process in the whole growth process, successive growth maximum value appeared in the 10 year, and close to the maximum value in the 20 years, the average growth rate of the maximum value appeared between 10-15 years (11 years), the average amount of growth curve and successive growth curves intersect at 10-15 years (12 years left and right), then the annual growth amount is less than the average growth rate, at this time should be thinning, to ensure adequate nutrition space to meet the needs of forest, canopy growth, so in the site and operating conditions, the first thinning at the age of 12 years left and right, but the actual production of first thinning in 18 years. It is late.
The average amount of growth and growth in 20 years or so, second intersection, this is because the first thinning (18 years) to improve the health status of the stand, expand the nutrition space of the forest canopy, the formation of a period of rapid growth period. The whole growth process is consistent with the operation and management of the actual production, 5-10 years old is the young growth stage, tree height growth; from tenth years -25 years, the tree height in successive years Growth
All over 0.6m, is Masson Songshugao
Vigorous growth period; after 20 successive growth and a sharp decline, high intensity thinning in 25, thus slowing the high growth fell sharply.
The growth process of diameter: diameter growth process is shown in Table 1 and Figure 2, the diameter of successive growth maximum value appeared in 10 years or so, and the average growth curves intersect at 20-25 years (about 23 years), the average growth rate reached a maximum value.
10 years ago, a young age, the diameter of slow growth, from 10-30 years old is the DBH vigorous growth period, the annual growth amount is between 0.64-1.22 cm, 30 years after the birth of DBH growth gradually weakened.
Masson Afforestation technology
The afforestation to 2 months late May from the mid to late 1, with 1 years of seedlings planting afforestation.
The planting density: 240-450 plants / mu. Plant spacing
1 * 1.5-1.7 * 1.7m. A height of more than 15 cm, diameter 0.3 cm above.
3 soil preparation: massive preparation of not less than 50 x 50 cm depth is not less than 20 cm, strip plough bandwidth less than 70-100 cm. The planting hole bottom diameter of not less than 30 cm deep, not less than 25 cm. Preparation requirements of topsoil to turn below, digging the soil backfill soil requirements, the heart.
The cultivation and management:
The annual planting management in raising 1-2 or more than 2 times, only grass, not songtu. Seedlings righting the appropriate soil. Second, 3 year tending 1-2 times, fourth years have not yet closed, continue tending 1 times. The plant cultivation area to expand year by year. Weeding and loosening the soil damage can not plant and roots, soil depth is shallow, less than 10 cm.
The thinning period: when the canopy density was more than 0.9, total number of 20-30% compression wood, thinning can be carried out. Thinning the initial period is generally 10 years or so. The lower layer thinning, thinning intensity of the first stand was 25-35%, after 20-30%, after thinning density not less than 0.7, thinning interval for 5 years.
The felling period: Plantation for 20 years, the general stand for 25-30 years. Forest tending
The reasonable pruning, 5-6 year old Masson began pruning, and master the "light repair, Qin Xiu" principle. 10 years ago, canopy height is the tree height of 2/3; 10-15 years later, the crown is the tree height of 1/2-1/3. From late autumn to early spring pruning is more appropriate. Pruning knife to smooth, level with the trunk, prevent torn bark.
The thinning degree was above 0.9 8-10 year old forest canopy closure, thinning should begin. The first thinning intensity of stand volume 10%-15%, combined with pruning; 10-20 thinning intensity of stand volume 20%-30%; 20 years after thinning 25%-30%. After thinning density should be maintained at between 0.6-0.7.
Masson Pest control
Masson Pine caterpillar
Generation by region and year vary, such as Henan has 2 generations every year, the Yangtze River provinces of Fujian, Guangdong 2-3 generation, 3-4 generation. The larvae overwinter in coniferous leaves or bark cracks, also under the tree weeds or stones under winter. In late April next year before and after overwintering larvae mature. The first generation larvae occurs uniformly. Pine moth fecundity, fecundity, egg block produced in pine needles. The early instar larvae have frightened droop silking habits, above the age of 4 larvae increased food intake, can be the best food like fire, needles, serious impact on pine growth, even the dead pine trees.
Prevention methods: prevention, comprehensive management.
The prevention and control of forest management measures:
Two is to create; Mixed forest
Increase, pine forest vegetation, increase in forest natural enemy
The barrier and migratory pests.
2. Biological control
The larger the occurrence of pests, Population density
In the case of low, using biological control measures. At present there are Beauveria bassiana
, bionic pesticide
Mieyouniao such timely application.
C. Chemical control
Chemical control of small area and high population of Dendrolimus occurrence area, good pesticides pyrethroids etc..
The following natural law control:
In the absence of human disturbance, Dendrolimus 4-5 big one. In the absence of the disaster, even the disaster area Pine caterpillar
No chemical agents for the control of general disaster. In high population density, decreased at the insect, no chemical control, let it die. Pestalotia funerea Desm
The disease mainly damage when new leaves, leaf early yellowish brown or grayish green spots, gradually extend to the upper and lower, then turn to red brown, and finally changed to gray white and black dots, that the bacteria fruiting body, since blast bent or broken needles. The major pathogens in mycelia in coniferous tree has winter disease in late April, producing spores infection, infection period in 6-7 months.
Control method according to the Guizhou and Sichuan experience, "621" smoke agent containing 30% sulfur powder or "621" smoke 0.75-1 kg per mu in the middle of June, put a smoke, the effect is good!
Masson Loose tumor disease
In addition to Masson, can kill a variety of other trees have been found in Mount Huangshan pine and Yunnan pine, Chinese pine
Black pine, Huashan pine, with an altitude of 400 meters in the area of Masson pine, Yunnan pine in the area more than 2500 meters above sea level, Mount Huangshan pine in the area more than 800 meters above sea level more susceptible. The tree trunk was formed at knar, usually circular, 5-60 cm in diameter, dense surface crack, heartwood filled with fat check. Every 4-5 months, the tumor is generated on the surface of many yellow pustulate, then burst out a yellow powder. There are alternate host Castanea
A variety of trees.
1. To avoid creating pine oak mixed forest in the area of serious disease, removal of understory shrub oak complex;
The combination of forest tending cut down trees or branches of disease serious illness.
Masson Nematode disease
Pine wilt disease is also called pine wilt disease. Is a devastating epidemic of pine trees. In China pine Cantori
It is the main media of insects. Strong pathogenicity, host death quickly spread quickly, and often be caught off guard; once it happens, the difficulty of governance.
Masson cryptothelea variegata snellen
A large moth larvae eat leaves, 7-9 months against the most serious, 90% of the enemy
0.1% solution sprayed kill insects. Also in the winter or early spring artificial cut cysticercus.
Is caused by pathogenic fungi. The early leaves appear brown spots, with purple halo around the visible mold shaped black spots. As temperatures rise, sometimes in a number of spots is off the last leaf scorch. The most suitable temperature range of the pathogen growth to 25 DEG -30 DEG, spore germination temperature 18 to 27 DEG C, at the proper temperature and humidity conditions, the spores can germinate for several hours. The region has now entered the rainy season, plant planting density, air and light difference between strains, the formation of a relatively stable high temperature and humidity suitable environment on spore germination and invasion is very favorable, and bacteria can be repeated infection, not seriously, may cause diseases. Control method: kill WP 1000 times or 50% carbendazim 1000 times liquid, 1000 times liquid spray.
Prevention should be carried out in the evening or early morning, controlavailable phoxim or chlorpyrifos spray control.
Masson Red spider
Available 1200-1500 times Pensha dichlorvos, dimethoate 1500 may be 40% times pensha. The Leaf Chlorosis caused by iron deficiency
: iron deficiency typically leaves the first yellow.
Prevention and cure:
The "eat pills". Take on the trunk containing chelated iron directly into the "green Hengtiewang pill". The trees will absorb nutrients transported to the leaves to iron evenly, so as to effectively supplement iron. Only when the operation in the trunk base drill several holes, the tablets according to a quantity of embedding, then sealing holes can be. This method is suitable for mild or moderate degree of yellowing.
It hit the bottle". Is a special nutrient solution bottle hanging in the trunk is about 1.3 meters, similar to the patient to hit the bottle.
The spray drops". In addition, the root branch department to think of a way, can also be used for spraying on the leaf blade, by the absorption of iron.
The "injection". Is to give the trunk injection technology to control tree yellows. Use rechargeable electric drill in the trunk drilling injection hole, the depth of about 1.2-1.5 cm to the xylem, and then manually type trunk syringe ferrous sulfate + water + pure bactericide diluent. The maintenance of coarse wood wood rubbing surface. Is the clean surface wax layer and dirty color and then polished. Lasts 2 to 3 days for about 2-3 hours a day
Masson The main value
The wood pole water wet, the "water Millennium song", particularly suitable for underwater engineering. Wood cellulose containing 62%, degreased for papermaking and Man-made fiber
An important industrial raw materials, production is the main species of Pinus massoniana China fat, rosin
A number of important raw materials of light and heavy industries, mainly used in papermaking, rubber, paint, paint, adhesive and other industries. turpentine
Synthesis of pine oil, resin processing, synthetic spices, pesticides and synthetic raw materials for production, many valuable terpenes of spices. The volatile oil of pine needles containing 0.2-0.5%, extraction Pine needle oil
For cool, spray, soap flavor and preparation of other spices, can also extract Tannin extract
. The bark and wood-based panel adhesive. The seed oil of 30%, in addition to eat, can make soap, paint and oil etc.. cone
Crude oil can be refined. Morgan
Extraction of pine tar, but also can cultivate the precious Chinese herbal medicines - fuling. Pollen can be used as medicine. Rich in pine Turpentine
, strong firepower, is popular for firewood kiln, it can also be used to extract Ink pine
And dye. Because the wood fiber length, is an important raw material for papermaking and man-made fiber board.
Masson tall and majestic, the attitude of GUCCI, strong adaptability, strong wind resistance, resistance to dust, fine wood texture, hard, resistant, suitable for mountain, valley, rock, pool, road configuration and mountain afforestation. In front of the court, but also for the booth, Rockery
Among the isolated planting.
Medicinal part :
Pine oil and rosin
Leaves, roots, stems, leaves, and other medicine (commonly known as the heart of a tree). Taste:
bitter, warm, non-toxic. Can dispel rheumatism, activating blood circulation to remove blood more pain, bleeding. Function:
warm, taste joys; Qufeng Qi, promoting blood circulation and relieving pain. Shujin, hemostasis Indications
: cough, stomach and duodenal ulcer, constipation, eczema, impetigo, traumatic bleeding. Medicinal prescription: Traumatic injury
A fast: masson pine leaves when shoots, scrape skin and drying research, each serving a money wine delivery service, two times a day; the other with pine root bark (fresh) Daolan topical amount.
The arthritis: Masson side 50 grams, 50 grams of Caragana root, Sargentgloryvine root 50 grams, 50 grams of Celastrus root, water decoction.
The traumatic bleeding: pine pollen amount, and the wound.
3: pine tree core stomach 10-15 grams, at the end of the research, boiling water delivery service.
The chronic nephritis: Mayo Matsuya (fresh) amount, cut ends, smashed juice, 50 grams per serving, warm boiling water delivery service.
The bamboo pierced flesh: pine oil (resin), the amount of Glutinous rice, Daolan topical.
The Masson can also cure mumps, urticaria, mastitis, lumbago, toothache and other symptoms.
The pine into the boiling water, drinking soup can Qingrejiedu, beauty beauty, also has special curative effect on diabetes mellitus.