American football (American football), or American football
That is a kind of football, the most popular sports in the United States, for the four major North American sports occupation first.
Since the origin of American football Rugby
Spread to the United States, after the rule change, to take the line of scrimmage round, no movement restrictions, and can be thrown forward pass, the purpose of this exercise is to advance the ball to the opponent's end zone score, score a variety of ways, including the ball crossed the line, drop to the bottom line after teammate, or to direct the ball on the ground over the middle two branch post Shoot
. Game time after scoring more a team win. American football is a very strongantagonism contact sports, the game will often have a strong body collision with the other players, so players should wear helmets and armor appearance.
American football The development of competition
American football Nineteenth Century
The early American football team
American football history from various early "football" movement in England in the middle of nineteenth Century is a popular public school, Rugby
Direct development. Rugby initially by The British Army
In Canada Montreal
The McGill University
The game is introduced into North america. The first intercollegiate football game on November 6, 1869, by the New Jersey
The Rutgers University
Yes Princeton University
At the end of the game, by Rogers with a 6:4 win over Princeton - although it by 25 people each against the modern football game with not too much alike.
The type of modern football in 1874 Harvard University
Developed three series of wheat in Montreal Keele University. At that time Mackie play similar to rugby, football and Harvard is a more approximate "Boston". Because there is no uniform ball cases, so the two teams take turns to the ball as a fair match of their cases. The love of football players at the run, so in 1875 to persuade Yale University
In cases of rugby ball as the ball when two teams compete for their cases. 1875, Yale
Princeton, and Columbia University
In cases of rugby ball formed the intercollegiate football association "(Intercollegiate Football Association), but the score is slightly changed with the ball.
"The father of American football" - Walter Camp
1880, Yale University coach Walter Camp
(Walter Camp) introduced a line to replace the rugby style parallel formation, each party member 11 people, including 4 people, 7 people back forward, substitutes. The game is divided into 4 sections, each 15 minutes, between first and 2 and third, 4, second, the rest 2 minutes, 20 minutes rest between the 3 section. The game in the 120 yards long and 160 feet wide on the site. Before the end of 10 yards each with a goal line, the distance between the two goal line for 100 yards, the goal is the same with the median line system, rugby, but the ball is smaller than British american. The game when the player with the ball to each other in front of the goal zone touchdown 6 points; can also play another one Ball
Such as, kicked out of the ball across the goal bar, can also be 1 points, other shots are 3 points; the player with the ball is the extrusion line, defending 2 points.
In 1882, in order to stop Princeton
and Yale University
Use the ball but don't try to score "delaying tactics, the ball with limited offensive opportunities began to be used. In 1883, at the suggestion of Camp, the number of players on the field was reduced to eleven people, and also regulate the 7 offensive line, a quarterback
Two and a half, and a whole Wei Wei up. Camp later in April 1925 to The state of Ohio
Canton (Canton) to attend a meeting rules to improve the misfortune he died in a car accident, to improve the rules of American football, away from the British color contributed, is regarded as "the father of American football" (Father of American Football).
In September 3, 1895, in the The state of Pennsylvania
Latrobe held the first occupation football field, by Latrobe YMCA Club of Jeannette Athletic. The results by Latrobe to win 12:0.
Early popular t formation
By 1890s, a series of attack formation (interlocking formation), such as the "flying wedge" (flying wedge), and the ball player teammate forcibly dragging forward makes football to become very dangerous. Despite such matrix restrictions and other preventive measures implemented in 1905, there are 19 players in the game injured in the death record. The then president of the United States Theodore I
In order to take him to the game forced the University safety concerns, even if there is no threat will compel Congress to improve football as a federal crime be banned.
American football Twentieth Century
American football game
In 1906, two former opposition Organization Rules Committee (Intercollegiate Rules Committee school) and Intercollegiate Sports Association (Intercollegiate Athletic Association) - meeting in New York, agreed to make several football more secure with the new ball, including setting up the neutral zone in line, and each team must have at least 7 players in a line array, but the most important reform is to throw forward legalization. This ball cases is controversial at the time, and was sent by pure sarcasm. In order to make the players in the game is more dispersed, Camp proposed that the widening of the court; but the representative of Harvard University refers to their newly built Harvard stadium no expansion of space, so we suggest throwing. This ball were also established with other football with the football movement evolved by the differences between football.
In 1910, more deaths, serial attack formation was banned. 1912, Touchdown
The score increased to six points, and every time the ball entering the fourth chance to attack. At this time, the match has to be modern reform.
American college football talent started early. In 1876 four, the University of Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Columbia formed the first American Universities Rugby League
. More than and 600 American college football team under 60 rugby union, one of the most important management organization is The National University Sports Federation
National (Collegiate Athletic Association, referred to as NCAA
The National Football League (NFL) logo
1920, The United States occupation football association
(American Professional Football Association, referred to as APFA) in The state of Ohio Canton
A Hupmobile car dealer was legendary player Jim Thorp (Jim Thorpe) was elected president. This organization has 11 teams, in addition to a team in the Midwest, the original is not too like a coalition, but more like a mutual non poaching agreement. In the early days, APFA members and non members of the APFA team to continue the game. In 1921, APFA began to list the official ranking, and renamed the following year The National Football League
( National Football League
Referred to as. NFL
). However, when the NFL is difficult to call for a large coalition, the team frequently, and performances of Gou Xiu, until the University's star began to join the competition, occupation slowly become more and more popular. By 1934, all the small market teams have moved to the big city. Another factor NFL increased popularity is due in 1933 to start building the annual championship.
At the end of the Second World War, occupation football began to compete with the college game fans attention. The fast pace of the widely used T-shaped formation and high score has attracted many fans. In 1945, the Cleveland rams (Cleveland Rams) to become the west coast of the first major league sports teams. From 1950, NFL (now defunct) National Football Federation (All-America Football Conference, referred to as AAFC) received 3 teams, for the expansion of the 13 teams. In 1950s, occupation football finally won big league sports status. NFL embrace television, for all Americans the chance to follow the star. New York city in 1958, the NFL Championship Unitas and his Baltimore Colts team became a national figure. American Football
In mid 1960s the rapid growth, become the most love to watch baseball beyond American sports in some survey. Because the NFL cannot provide opportunities for many people to benefit the growth in popularity, and a rival League, the American Football League (A Merican Football League, referred to as AFL) was founded in 1960. AFL introduces some NFL features not like wider-open, offensive players in shirt embroidered on the name of an official clock, let the audience know that game time remaining (NFL the table to calculate time and periodic time announced). The new alliance is also in the team to establish broadcasting rights sharing and cable television network broadcast games convention, to solve the financial problem.
The competition between NFL and AFL reached a climax in 1966, both sides continue to raise prices of good players in the League University of mining with high salaries, continued opposition caused the beginning to pay expensive for both sides to cope with. In June 8, 1966 two, the alliance agreement announced plans to merge to form a new alliance with 24 teams, nine teams of the original AFL three teams with NFL to form a new alliance in American Football Federation (referred to as American Football Conference. AFC
NFL), while the rest of the team into the National Football Federation (referred to as National Football Conference. NFC
). In 1967, the first AFL-NFL Championship (later known as the first "super bowl", Super Bowl 1) in Los Angeles
At the NFL Championship The Green Bay Packers
35 to 10 victory over the Champions AFL Kansas City Chiefs
. In 1970, the new coalition government approved the merger process in finally completed, and retained the name of NFL, in the four year history of the AFL-NFL Championship also officially renamed" Super Bowl
The 2011-2012 season Super Bowl
In 1970 and 1980s, the important role of NFL to strengthen its "America's top sports audience" status and in American culture. "Monday night football" (Monday Night Football) was first launched on 1970, because of its hybrid sports entertainment brought high ratings. NFL is at the end of 1970s changed the rules to ensure many pass fast paced competition to attract non loyal fans. The NFL season is shorter than the other North American occupation Sports League is also one of the attractions, it is always a winner, can win all second rounds of the loser has no chance to revenge. And every city or inter state war, the game is full of fight at outrance atmosphere, and the feud showdown the atmosphere on top. Americans see their city team of the city as the "army", the residents of the NFL enthusiasm from the venue can All seats are occupied. can appear, every game can make tens of thousands of people in the stadium is full, this is definitely the remaining three league unmatched achievements.
In early 1980s the United States Football League (United States Football League, referred to as USFL) was the biggest challenge in the combined period of NFL. USFL is a famous player with competitors financial stability and national TV contract, but failed in making money and close in three years.
In recent years, NFL expanded to new market and business venture. In 1986, game show alliance began a series of pre-season, known as the America's cup, held in the United States in the international locations. In 1991, the world alliance Football League was founded, is the American Football League in europe. NFL in 2005 in Mexico city for the regular season, intends to continue this game in other countries. In 2003, NFL started his own cable channel, NFL television network (NFL Network).
American football Popularity
The Super Bowl Champions League - Vince long Bardi trophy
Since 1960s, American football has surpassed the basketball and baseball become the most popular sport in the United states. Every January and February, Vince Lombardi will compete for the championship trophy in a designated City Council of two AFC and NFC (Vince Lombardi Trophy), the championship is" Super Bowl
"(Super Bowl, in the American football stadium is often known as the" special bowl "), with more than half of the American family television ratings, and the world has more than 150 national TV broadcast the game. "Super Bowl Sunday" (Super Bowl Sunday) has become an annual drama, basically become an unofficial holiday, the event is also the nation's highest rated TV sports programs. NCAA
The college football is also very popular, especially popular in places no NFL team. Some university courses with more than 100 thousand seats, and often sold out all the tickets. Even high school football also often has attracted more than ten thousand spectators; in football the most popular places, such as The state of Texas
, The state of Ohio
, The state of Florida
, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi and other southern regions are particularly common. But in many American city, held in autumn every week the University and high school events and the accompanying music instrument together with the team. Cheerleaders
Performance has become one of the important characteristics of local culture into the.
Outside the United States, Europe has only one composed of six teams including Germany and Holland, the European football league. In other places such as Japan, Australia, Mexico, American football is also popular, but only an amateur event.
American football The rules of the game
American football The basic goal
American football in two up to 53 people (NFL rules) of the team, the two sides were sent 11 players to play the game, and some or all of the players on the field at any time to change.
Get the ball is on the side of the offensive, is as far as possible to promote the ball the other positions, win over the score line into the other end. There are two kinds of attack methods, players run with the ball array (red ball, Rushing) or throwing the ball forward (pass, Passing). The defending team is to score as much as possible to stop attacking each other, forcing the loss of control ball. If the offense scored success or loss of control ball, both offensive and defensive team swap take turns, the game and go on, until the four quarter the end of time.
American football Game ball
American football ball (NCAA events)
Early American football basically is the use of rugby ball, in late nineteenth Century after the reform reduces the size and change the shape. The current use of football is a length of about 11 to 11.25 inches (27.94 to 28.58 cm), the center of the sphere position is about 21 to 21.25 inches (53.34 to 53.98 cm), weighs about 14 ~ 15 Ounce
(396.89 to 425.24 grams) long ellipsoid (prolate spheroid). Although the sphere is olive shaped, but unlike Rugby as close to the standard elliptical, but both ends of micro tip is "fish" (vesica Piscis, meaning sharp ends, the shape is oval) with one hand before throwing long time the most efficient shape. Canada Rugby similar (also called Canadian Football
) looks closer to rugby than football, the size is slightly different, but the two movement of the ball can be used in most cases.
Each football consists of four pieces of leather (leather or plastic), each weighing and crack after a series of quality inspection workers, before the official start of production process. Two of them are in connection side and perforation, wearing rope tightly tied together. One has to wear the leather Block tied up two rows of holes and reinforcing the central, in order to fix the pneumatic piston. The sphere of all or part of block structure of leather can press manufacturer brand, game or alliance name, signature or other mark. Each piece of fur lined four pieces of leather to form reverse suture, and a rope hole position without suture, the hull will rip from the inside to the outside will finally flip, a polyurethane or rubber manufacturing, weighing about 12.5 ~ 13.5 ounces (354.37 to 382.72 grams). Bladder
From a stuffed, and then along the perforation for PVC or thong attached rope rip tightening. Before use, the ball needs to be inflated to 12.5 ~ 13.5 PSI
(from 86.2 to 93.1 KPa
The air pressure).
The ball shell with NFL or NCAA game occupation college competition must be used in leather manufacturing, and natural leather dyed Coffee
Play with a ball, amateur entertainment is sometimes made of rubber or plastics. The modern tanning process can increase the friction on the leather surface pressure on the pebble, make the ball both dry or wet environment will not slip. American football usually ends in the sphere coated with white semi circle (two pieces of leather suture on both sides) thick strips, used to increase the striking degree in low light conditions, but the NFL ball is not the white stripes. Due to the early American football by air Pig Bladder
So, also known as the "pig" (pigskin).
According to the official NFL team for home court, two hours before the start of the 36 game ready for outdoor ball and 24 ball for the indoor game let the ball card with pressure measurement in order to comply with the provisions of the union. Twelve new football, sealed in a special box by the manufacturer shipped in two hours before the start of the referee in the locker room opened. These football need special plus English letter "K" mark and dedicated to a football game.
American football field
American football stadium
American football stadium is often nicknamed" Pan
"(Gridiron), because the pitch line and style to the stadium looks like a barbecue food can help put on the fire wire rack. For this reason, American football and Canadian Football similar called" Gridiron football
"(gridiron football). Because two American football is more representative in other English speaking countries, or even simply referred to as "Pan ball" (gridiron) refers to the American football. NFL
The standard use of the stadium is a 360 foot long (120 yards or 109.7 meters), 160 feet wide (53.33 yards or 48.8 meters) of the rectangular lawn (some indoor games use imitation grass carpet), long known as the boundary Side line
(sideline), a short called boundary Goal line
(end line). Mark the end line before the call score line
(goal line), each side line and pitch lines between a depth of 10 yards (9.1 meters) of the partition is called End
End (also known as zone. Touchdown zone
The four corners of the region), one is about 1 feet long orange rectangular columns (pylon). Two lines from 100 yards (91.44 meters), the area between is The game area
(playing field). The game area distance lines every 5 yards (4.6 meters) from a standard Yard line
(yard or line. The 5 yard line
Every 10 yards), mark number, until the 50 yard line arrived Midfield
(midfield). In the middle of the park and the two sides and parallel to the line arrangement of designated short transverse lines, called Code standard
(hash or marks. The whole line of code
), which is called the code line is close to the edge inbounds line
(inbounds line). Any of the players must serve in the code marking on or between.
American football goal
According to the rules of NFL, in the range of pitch in non line and the line itself, if the ball is on the lines or end line will be found out (out of bounds). The score line count is part of a region, if the ball is the score line in the ball carrier even if successful touchdown.
At the end of the central part of the erection of two end spaced 18.5 feet (5.64 meters) of the goalposts
(goalposts, also known as uprights), by the middle of a 10 feet (3.048 meters) of the rail links together. The ball must be above the beam, through the two goalposts is only successful shot. In some low level of competition, the goal post will sometimes be widened to 23.33 feet (7.11 meters) in order to increase the success rate of shoot.
American football Body equipment
The use of the American football helmet and protective clothing
Football is a fierce confrontation contact sports. Because the game is common in violent collision, players must wear protective armor. These include protective mask and helmet with cage shoulder, chest protector connected to the upper body armor, in addition to the league level will be included, covering the elbows, gloves and a waist, hip, hip, thigh, knee crotch Pad
According to statistics, the use of equipment can be reduced by more than half of the probability of various injuries. Nevertheless, the intense nature of football still makes difficult to avoid injury. Because the body caused by blunt force impact concussion is particularly common, will be tens of thousands of players injured every year.
American football Game time
American football game
The football game is divided into four sections, each 15 minutes, the first and the two section called the first half, third, section four is called the second half, the second half is between 12 minutes (20 minutes of game intermission). The beginning of the second half, and at the start of the game as the restart. In the first half at the end of the first quarter and the second half of the third quarter at the end of the two minutes of rest, the two players exchange site, the original with the ball right side will continue to attack in the exchange site.
The offensive on the offensive end, must start the next attack in 40 seconds, otherwise will be punished. In addition to the exchange of the ball, the game clock pause in the following situations: pass fail, the player holding the ball out of bounds, the referee whistles fouls, coach suspended punishment (only three). When the referee to put the ball at the ball and let both sides began to attack, the game began to clock timing. Overtime
If the two sides draw in normal games at the end of the four quarter, will be in 3 minutes interval for 15 minutes after extra time (Overtime), each party is allowed to have a ball and suspended for two times. Overtime at the start of the toss, guess a party can choose is to attack or defense. Usually in the NFL regular season in the first quarter after extra time if the score remained unchanged, while the normal game ended in a draw. But because the playoffs is a knockout must be the winner, so in accordance with the A sudden death
Decide the outcome, the team scored the first win. There is a drawback to this rule, which is to win the team often choose to guess the coin to get the ball attack, then advancing to the front after a short distance by scoring a goal scored in overtime, the other team is almost no chance to get the ball back. In the 2010 season NFL made changes to the rules, the provisions of either party must Touchdown
The score will cause sudden death, if you rely on to score each other round ball can still have the opportunity to overtake.
College and high school competition by the Kansas rules
(Kansas playoff), which is the first offense by any other score, after get the ball rotation will still have a chance to recover. If the first day after extra time is still tied to an additional second section, second section is still tied on an additional third day...... Until the game winner so far. When and if you hit the third quarter touchdown team needs 2 points to get the conversion points (see below "score" to explain).
American football kickoff
In the game Kick off
(kickoff) start. The defending team will kick off hand ball in the ball 30 yards on the line, and then kicked the ball to the offensive. Offensive attack back hand to catch the ball after will try to move forward, until being defensive tackle. The attacker then from the ball is intercepted at the start of a attack.
If the back of hand in the end zone to catch each other's kick-off, he has two choices: either the ball out to the other end, site run array, until being intercepted so far; or the ball to the knee touchdown touch back
(touchback), said that stopping signal, then the ball will be placed on the offensive side of 20 yard line by attacking first round attack.
American football method of attack
Report the number of staff on the sidelines
American football is taking the game method round contest, the attack method and 6-a-side football and Rugby Union
Be similar。 The offensive had four chances to the front (the defending zone) accumulated 10 yards, every opportunity is called a" files
"Attack (down, which is a chance to intercept each other.). When the offensive success in the four offensive to promote more than 10 yards, you can get four new offensive opportunities -- called the new" The first file
1st (down, also known as " First attack
). By constantly get new first attack, the attacker can attack series continuous forward steadily, until the score. While defending the purpose is very simple, is as far as possible to prevent the other advance enough at the distance of four offensive, forcing it to exchange the ball.
If the offense cannot in four offensive within the reach of cumulative 10 yards of tactical target, to put the ball in the end position of the fourth attack to the opponent. In general, if the offense in fourth when the attack is still not enough to grasp the advancing distance, mostly by punt
(punt) way to transfer the ball to the opponent.
In addition, the opening half and scored again after kicking, each attack to the same Serve
(SNAP) way to start: both offensive and defensive line on both sides of the arrangement, facing each other. Offensive Center-forward
Single hand into the neutral zone within the ball, then put the ball between his legs to pass to a teammate. The ball team is usually the offensive team quarterback, but in special circumstances may also be the rest of the team (such as special teams to help players). In the center before serving, both offensive and defensive who can't cross the line, otherwise you will be fined. From the service in that game, will officially start, the two sides continue to scramble for the ball and scoring chance.
An offensive there are two main ways to move forward:
1, after receiving the quarterback after serving his center, the ball or the ball pass to other players (usually Ran Wei
By the player) the ball ran forward, called Hurtle
(rushing, or Run array
2, the quarterback threw the ball to a distance of one's own any eligible receiver (eligible receiver), called the ball
(passing). The prequel
(forward pass) is an American football Offensive Characteristics of the party in every offensive can only be a prequel, and must be in line behind the position allowed to throw the ball forward. The distance of the episode is often referred to as " Mary pass prayer
(Hail Mary pass)", because this ball too difficult and easy to be blocked, the success rate is too low, the passer are secretly praying to God.
There is no limit to the number and location of transverse and backward pass, but when the attack will have a great chance to be copied each other off, so football rarely appear to cross or pass, is a very difficult skill. Some lose a chance to attack.
Pass the ball
1, the person with the ball is defensive tackle fell on the ground caused by the contact of the ground
(down by contact), or not fell but the referee think its attack has been intercepted
the other player (tackle).
2, quarterback thrown forward ball out of bounds, or in any person has received prior to touchdown, known as the " unsuccessful pass
" (incomplete pass). After failing to put the ball before the line back to the original position, with a fall attack and then re start.
3, the ball player with the ball out of bounds
(out of bounds).
In addition, if one team scores, or a player's helmet will fall, the opportunity to attack the end, called the dead
(dead ball). The referee will blow the whistle notice.
Players and spectators often need to know at that time is the time to attack and how much code will be re again four chance. For example: first before the attack, TV or scoreboard will write: "1st & 10" (1 of 10 yards), meaning "this is the first offensive, goal is to move forward 10 yards (10 yards to total)". If an attack moved forward 3 yards, it will become: "2nd & 7" (2 of 7 yards), namely "the second goal is to continue to attack, 7 yards"...... Wait。 If the attacker has scored distance lines within 10 yards of the area, it is no longer the code number required to report, to report a few attempts to score "1st & Goal" (1 attack score) etc..
American football And reciprocity
A party may have a way to attack the ball, until:
1, the offensive failed to obtain new merit -- in other words, in four attack within ten yards to. The defense in the last offensive end place began to counterattack. This exchange is called offensive Gear type AC change
(turnover on downs).
2 offensive touchdown, or score. Then the original scoring team sent on special teams to give each other up.
3, the offensive punt
(punt). Usually if the offensive before three have failed to move ten yards, and the position can be more than shooting distance, in order to avoid and exchange after let the other side have the opportunity to start the attack before it, will use abandoned in the fourth files play Bigfoot siege.
4, the defending player received the offensive volley ball, called steals
(interception). Steals the ball to the defending player can immediately move to the other end, until grappled, out of bounds or score. If he is not any offensive players touch caused parts of the body outside the hands and feet touch the ground, this does not form a contact ground, he can continue to run until grappled or touch other players after lying on the ground so far. The same rules apply to players offensive.
5, the offensive player the ball fell to the ground, which dropped the ball
(fumble), and was the defending player first. And as the defenders get cut off, dropping the ball can be real-time counterattack, until grappled, out of bounds or score.
* offensive off the ball and is referred to as the exchange and
6, the offensive failed to try a shot. The defenders can start the attack before kick-off at a time (in NFL, was shot at). If the shot is before the bottom line within twenty yards of the original defensive offensive began on the twenty yard line.
7, an offensive in their own end zone, out of bounds in grappled or foul, called security division
If the above situation is offensive and defensive offensive -- reciprocal loss of control for contingency ball defender, and the defending party to attack.
American football Punt
Usually when the offense in the third after the attack is not enough to promote the accumulation of distance, and did not grasp the offensive in fourth reached 10 yards from goal, but because the distance is too far can not guarantee the successful shot, the ball will choose Punt
(punt). Methods the punt is composed of offensive players' (usually a full-time SWAT punter) threw the ball and the ball before landing hard volley kick it to the other half. Although lost the ball, but the ball can be the other place as far as possible to push back, it must promote the further distance can score, can reduce their defense pressure.
American football Score
Both offensive and defensive scores in the following ways:
(touchdown, abbreviation TD
6 points). When the player holding the ball ran into the other end zone, or to pass each other in the region within (and before landing without dropping a ball or grabbed when the ball is launched in the process, must have the feet touch the ground), is Touchdown
. English "touchdown" meant "touchdown", from Rugby
(must be in the region when the ball is ball touchdown score, but effective) football is not "must ground" rules, as long as the ball when the ball passing through the end zone above it. The NFL rules, as long as any part of the globe, no matter how much it can form into a touchdown in the end. In addition, the contact angle of four sphere end any standard column is up front, the premise is not captured before contact ball holding ground.
After scoring a touchdown. The team won a try extra points
(extra point, or conversion conversion
opportunities). The ball will be placed on the other side of the 3 yard line (NFL line is 2 yards). Can choose the scoring team kicked the ball into the goal, and 1 points after touchdown points
(called point after touchdown, referred to as PAT); or to run, such as a method of array, have 2 conversion
(2-point conversion). In the University match and occupation match, most of them is to shoot 1 points. Occupation competition into the 1 points in the success rate of 94%, there are 93.8% University League, and two points of the success rate of only about 43%. If the defenders successfully prevented and 2 minutes, catch the ball and successful offensive touchdowns, can get 2 points (not NFL).
(field goal, abbreviation FG
3 points). The method is to kick the ball over the bar and two between the posts, if the ball hit the post bounce will be sentenced Shoot
Failure. Shot the ball must first, usually by The golfer
(Holder) take the ball upright on the ground, and then by kicker
(Placekicker) the ball kicker shot, called Ball
(placed kick). Another method is not common is by playing hand normal straight kick tactics threw the ball, but the foot slightly delayed, the ball just ground bounce and suddenly the ball kicked out, called Off the earth
(drop kick). Usually when the offense is close to the score line but difficult to attack in fourth before the end of advancing the code number enough, or time not in any other way to score, will choose to shoot. If the shot failed to match high loss of control the ball to the defense, but the University match if not fourth offensive words can continue to keep the ball.
(safety, commonly known as "suicide ball"), 2. When the offense was forced back to its own end, then grabbed or off the ball, playing a 2 points. Some attackers will be sentenced to defensive security in their own end zone is foul.
American football Foul
When there is a violation of the rules of occurrence or disrupt the fair order of the game, the referee will be in foul place near throwing yellow. Most of the penalty is the ball foul to party a certain number of end mobile code, if the code number of the defender was sent back to the code number enough to attack, the attackers will automatically get a new first attack. In the game after the stop, no foul party shall have the right to choose to accept the penalty or accept the results of the competition. For example, the defender is offside or moved, but the offensive offensive in this to promote the success of 8 yards, then the attacker can choose to accept the penalty, that is to get 5 yards and re first offensive (need 5 yards); or choose to accept the penalty for the next race results give up attack (also need 2 yards).
A common foul:
1, the first violation
(false start): move
the offensive line in addition to after the parallel movement of a player, someone before serving in the mobile. Penalty: back 5 yards.
(offside): before serving in the team over the position of the ball, the other team members, such as contact more into the neutral zone. Penalty: back 5 yards.
(holding): unfair use of the shirt pulling, hook or shovel way interfere with other players to act normally. If the offensive foul or just transition, sent back 10 yards; if the defender fouls penalty back 5 yards and the other automatically get new first attack.
4, pass interference
(pass interference): when the ball came after the defenders push, pull hook, or knock down the offensive catcher; or offensive catcher in the same way against the defending team to avoid the opponent's ball. If the defender fouls, the attacker can choose to accept or reject the foul foul, if attackers choose to accept, by up to 15 yards along the baulk line and automatically regain four attack; if the party refuses to attack (usually in a confrontation on the attacking side to promote the success of fifteen yards, more than punishment, or code number) the foul place serve again, and also won four new offensive. If the offensive foul, 5 yards back. If there is a similar team before passing a foul will be sentenced to "pull" or "illegal contact".
5 personal fouls
(personal, foul): package of six items: brutal impact passer and rough play, the impact of violent impact player player, mask, to pull each other with the top of the helmet, in blocking shots at each other after deliberate jump over pressure on each other (but if we have to keep on one's own a line of code will not be counted in the foul). Punished party back 15 yards, if the defender made 15 yards into the rules of each other and automatically get first attack.
6, delay of game
(delay of game): the offensive in 40 seconds timer number to zero serve not confrontation. The punishment, back 5 yards.
7, illegal forward pass
(illegal forward pass): the offensive line in position before the forward pass. Back 5 yards, and consume a.
8, illegal formation
(illegal formation): the offensive attack on the line less than seven array.
9, Too many people on the field
(too many men on the field): any more than in the service of 11 players will be sent back 5 yards. (Note: any less than 10 people in the confrontation are legitimate. For example, in the 2007 season Washington Redskins
In order to commemorate at home was robbed and murdered the defender Sean Taylor, specially in the week away after his death to the war Buffalo Bills
The game on the defensive, with ten array).
10, illegal Bianzhen
(illegal shift): the offensive player in the battle before serving to change the position, but only on the line after the array of players, and every time only one person, the attacking side to stop after the teammate can translocation, other players or illegal players will be punished 5 yards translocation. The defenders are permitted.
11, the illegal receiver front
(illegal man downfield): attack the legitimate receiver refers to the station in front of the two members and all the staff (who serve line after the offensive player); in passing attack the player players outside over the service line will be viewed as a foul, back 5 yards.
12, the lack of sports spirit
(unsportsmanlike conduct): there are many reasons for punishment, the referee decided. Common are: deliberate crash referees, verbal abuse referees, deliberately prolong the post goal, continuous use of suspended freeze kick players (the continuous playing players before the call is suspended for two times, in order to freeze each other and increase the psychological pressure and so on). 15 yards: penalty punishment.
If the number of fouls over the first attack line, but also to get a new first attack (for example: attack in the "2 of 3", the player is offside, attackers can obtain a new first attack). If both offensive and defensive fined back yard line is located in the end zone, the ball will be placed on the 2 yard line; if the offensive and defensive structures in the own 2 yard line in the foul, regardless of how much yardage of punishment, penalty code number will become a region with half the distance, until a portion of the ball into the end zone, the opponent for safety (Super Cup 2009, Pittsburgh Steelers
Just to be punished a same security branch).
American football Line and neutral zone
For the rugby ball in the corner (scrum) array of cattle
use Line of scrimmage
Line (of scrimmage, also known as The line of scrimmage
The contest is round) are characteristic of American football, but also from the Rugby
A key feature of the word Hydra parallel style started to promote their own businesses. The word "Scrimmage" comes from rugby in "scrum" (or scrummage), a game that players on both sides will hold together the array direction back to play for the ball. In American football defensive line is actually two lines parallel to the imaginary line, and the front end of a ball (defensive line, trimming defensive line of scrimmage), the other one with the ball back cezzi (offensive line of attack, scrimmage), used to separate the two players. Both offensive and defensive respectively on both sides of the line of scrimmage in the offensive and defensive array.
The virtual line (blue) and the target line (yellow)
The two line of defense of the middle distance is the length of the sphere itself, a virtual zone formed across the stadium called Neutral zone
(neutral zone). In the attack before any of the players of both sides are not allowed to enter or pass through the neutral zone, otherwise it will be fine in advance or offside - except of course mobile offensive center, because he must put his hand into the neutral zone within the ball to serve.
Usually mention "line" refers to the one side of the defense (defensive line), because the cumulative offense required to advance distance is the front position for the reference ball. NFL rules for the ball every time when attacking online column must be at least seven people, that is to say, in addition to the five front line, must have at least two Attack Front end
(Offensive End) on the offensive and defensive line (line array within 1 yards is the "line"), the two front end is usually Tight end
And left / right Wide Receiver
Two of the three. The offensive players in the array to attack, only two people in the outer end is Legal catcher
(eligible receiver), the rest are Illegal catcher
(ineligible receiver) are not allowed to directly touch the quarterback pass (unless the ball had been exposed to other legal catcher), quarterback is not allowed at the front line before launch. All but the defending team, as well as any of the players outside the offensive line after 1 yards, can catch.
Video broadcast technology can be used in modern computer screen sketch of virtual defense (usually blue line), the effect can be realistic to make people feel it is painted at the venue on the same. But the accumulative offense is necessary to promote the distance scale ("* * attack code) and virtual target line (usually yellow line) can also be instantly mapped out, in order to facilitate the understanding of the game TV audience.
American football The player positions
A qualified rugby player requires six basic skills: (running
Each round of attack and defense before the start of the "baotuan"
Run), pass (pass), the ball (CATCH), block (block) and intercept (tackle) and play (kick). Each attack and defense, both players will use at least two skills. According to the different skills, each have their own good rugby player and position task.
According to the tactical needs, American football players are usually divided into three groups: Attack group
(offense), Defense Group
(Defense) and The secret service.
(special team), each group usually has a captain (captain), so each team will have three. When one get the ball, the offensive team play and try to push for the front score; when the other ball, defense group is responsible for blocking other scores; special teams playing only -- punt, penalty and kick off in some special situations. The two sides at any time there can be only 11 players on the pitch. When the competition field can be part or all of the players in the team changed at any time, all 53 players are possible in every game was sent to play the game. In each contest before the start, both offensive and defensive on the field players usually get together Baotuan
(huddle) to discuss strategy and morale.
American football Attack group
The most common attack group of word formation
A powerful offensive team is the team to win the key. Their only mission is to advance the ball as much as possible to the other end within a touchdown. The attack group is mainly composed of a defensive line array lineman
(Linemen) and The catcher
(Receivers), seven Forward
(Forwards) and the station is located on the line after the four attack guard
(Offensive Backs, referred to as Backs), but the level is usually from the strategy is mainly responsible for blocking the line front alone as a group (Defense), responsible for the breakthrough of the catcher and back into a group (called offensive tactics) Technical position
(skilled or position) Legitimate holding hand
(eligible ball carrier). Because the offensive team has possession of the ball, in the active position, so their formation and tactics is the most of all kinds of changes. Because the game rules of the offensive line must have at least seven variable array, little room for the most varieties are concentrated in the front rear formation position players.
Representative offensive formation: shotgun formation
The most common standard attack group system Word formation
(I formation), usually used to Ran Wei
As the core of the assault attack, based on a matrix is also derived from the many varieties of formation. In addition, the long history of the T-shaped array and its variants is one of the commonly used formations. Another common formation is stations scattered, deep behind the shallow Shotgun Formation
(shotgun, formation) is a representative offensive formation.
In front of the offensive group formation is composed of five striker players Offensive line
(Offensive Lineman, referred to as OL
), because this five array in a central location, so called offensive lineman
(interior offensive line). Offensive line from the inside to the outside in turn: Center
(Center, tactical code C
), left / right Attack Guard
(Offensive Guard, code OG
), left / right attack Tackle
(Offensive Tackle, code OT
). They are the strongest attack group, although the station front but the main task is actually defensive - they are responsible for the formation of "pocket" (Pocket) to protect the quarterback, and the like Sumo
As the impact of pushing and blocking the opponent interception for our teammates open run array. Apart from the center line of the front, the other for the whole game usually does not come into contact with the ball, especially the guard is absolutely not allowed to directly touch the quarterback passing. Every time the offensive and defensive contest are responsible for the center Serve
(SNAP), the center and match the beginning of offensive quarterback.
(Quarterback, code QB
Stood directly behind the center), in almost all cases are first received center service, indicating the password also started serving center he shouted: that is to say, the attack is actually initiated by the quarterback, so also known as the" Starter
"(signal caller). The quarterback is the offensive team captain, like in the army Captains and lieutenants
That is, the commander of the battle attack attack system and the center of the brain, all coaches pre assigned offensive tactics through him through to implementation. Have the right to run arbitrary quarterback, need immediate observation on the situation in the field of offensive and defensive shift, if the previous strategy is not consistent with the current situation and found that the other party has found the original plan, will pass the call Password
(audible) suggesting a way to inform the team temporarily change tactics. The center received after service, he can pass (handoff) and threw a long pass Ran Wei
, Tight end
and Wide Receiver
His ball, or charge. Pass and charge are good at the quarterback is usually referred to as Double quarterback
The online Feng "pocket" protection circle waiting to pass
The quarterback in tossing the standard posture is often facing their use of arms while standing sideways, his back to the side has become a blind spot, called the quarterback" Blind side
"(blind side). If the other defensive players from this direction rushing quarterback is difficult to find out the enemy and escape, even the risk of injury was sacked so great. Therefore, the most important of the five front line is responsible for the protection of a person is the quarterback in the blind side of the front side section (if the quarterback is right handed
That is, if it is left Jiefeng; Left-handed
That is the right tackle), usually is one of the strongest team physical, because in most cases they will concentrate on the run from this direction, Blind side tackle
(blindside tackle) must have the ability to block each other to take charge as chief of.
The quarterback must sell fast accurate, also can use Fake action
(fake) misleading to judge each other, and sometimes take special action to help his team get advantage. If you have several enough but the remaining attack time is not enough, in the hands of quarterback from center to serve directly to pound the ball in front of the ground, this is called Spike
(spike), from the technical level there is a prequel to failure, will therefore sacrifice a attack, but will make the game time suspended, can win the opportunity for the team to carefully discuss the offensive strategy or make special teams play shots; and if the game is close to half or the whole end of the ball and its lead, in order to make consumption time no other chance to overtake, the quarterback will often then serve immediately after a sacrifice on one knee attack and 1 yards (knee touchdown were counted from each other in technology for ground intercept) continue to delay time of 40 seconds, "the quarterback kneel" (quarterback kneel) also known as the tactical strategy" Victory Formation
The proximal circuitous line before serving in the front running after
(Tight End, code TE
) under normal circumstances there would be only one column, located outside the attack tackle, about whether (usually the right), is the offensive line stand by the players. The proximal front is both catch and defense ability of the double line players, and assist the front line defense barrier do and protect the quarterback, sometimes as a catcher to assist the attack -- that is to say, in the passing attack, he was the quarterback in the spear; rushing attack, he ran Wei shield. In the center before serves, proximal Feng also often take roundabout way of running in the front rear left and right position change, to disrupt each other's defense layout. The offensive has a proximal front side because the number of strong attack force, is also often called" Strong side
"(strong side), the other side is called" Weak side
(Wide Receiver, code WR
, also known as Wideout or Receiver, sometimes translated as A winger
or Running Back
Usually in the position close to the edge) of the array. They have high speed and agility, good at quickly turned to break through defense, and be good at catching flying volley ball. A good receiver according to the path indicated by the quarterback before serving in the front and behind each other, dodge defense and creating favorable conditions for the ball. Outside in the ball after ball can still take over forward, until being intercepted or run out.
According to the tactical deployment of receivers is subdivided into four:
1, loose ends
(Split End, also known as San Feng
, code) near end up depending on the position, and the proximal front lined up on the same side, and on the offensive line
code), near end position and lined up, with the near end lined up on the same side, but not on the offensive line
3, Sew over
(Slot receiver, code SL
), in addition to the extra ball end and scattered outside (such as intentional hand flanker wing parade direction Tight end
In the end, stations) between San Feng / flanker and front line, as in the flanker side, is on the offensive and defensive line array; as in the bulk end side is on line array.
4, joint guard
code) will appear at least a shotgun formation, lined up on the offensive line of defense, and back end / outside over the spaces between the station area, the main job is to stop the ball, and even act as a running back ball charge
The player won't play in every battle. The team in each battle can choose how many receivers, sent the proximal and front running back off.
(Running Back, code RB
Usually in the back row of the array) or next to the quarterback, is a full-time runback player, with strength, pace and speed change through defence is their work. Running back in some cases will also carry forward movement as empty handed catcher, in rare circumstances will replace the quarterback threw the ball to his teammates.
The running back is subdivided into two:
1, the Wei
(Fullback code FB
) - lined up on the quarterback behind or beside, usually running back in a stronger physique, the main task is to protect the quarterback blocking the opponent's attack, or to help guard half open, occasionally need to charge the ball and the ball. The whole history of the first American football guard is a position on the array after (so called "Fullback"), but later because of the development needs of the tactical change, the Wei and the half guard stations were switched, full health while maintaining the past title, which is the past half guard the station.
2, half / tail Wei Wei
code) lined up on the array of attacking the last party, rushing attack most of the time the ball will be handed their hands, so they are scoring opportunities up to the player's physical consumption the most powerful players. Who is his half rely on agile footwork and running speed of the explosive force of single opportunity for penetration, but sometimes need to run as empty handed catcher (found in the shotgun array).
In charge of the attack, is usually open by the sturdy body full Wei in front, and half by Wei following the ball charge. They must be in receipt of the delivery of the ball after the first quarterback to hold the ball, and then view the situation on the field for any gap is selected as the most favorable routes to avoid the other defensive players sprint. In throwing attack, they can act as a joint front breakthrough defence into Wei catcher, or assist the front line to protect the quarterback.
American football Defense Group
Common defensive formation (upper part of Figure 4-3 defense)
The defense played only one purpose: to prevent the other advancing front and score, and the consumption of the attack number of files make it lose the ball as much as possible. If the opportunity (such as passing each other deviation or accidentally fall ball), the defense will grasp the opportunity to carry out special defensive counterattack suddenly to one's own score. Have a strong defense team can be invincible, completely sealed (shutout) all other action to do.
The array in front of the defensive line
(Defensive, Lineman, or defensive lineman
, code from three to four DL
) on the other side of the offensive line front against players, the whole team is usually the strongest man. They and the other front line direct confrontation, responsible for running back and passing across the offensive line to cut off the ball shot before the quarterback. Linebacker
(Linebacker code LB
) array on the defensive line behind 3 to 5 yards, the defense is a very important position, which is usually a defensive team captain, responsible for the release of tactical command. Who must have excellent skills to intercept the ball, running back one step in the Passover; throwing attack situation, must help each other to keep an eye on any other teammates may catch the personnel, damage or cut any thrown ball. At the same time, linebacker for the hook run to outflank the quarterback assault
The defensive line and linebacker called the " front seven
" (Front Seven), generally have a "front line linebacker x 4+ x 3" or "front line line Wei * 3+ * 4" two kinds of matrix, the former is called "4-3 defense", the latter is called "3-4 defense". Such as the use of 4-3 is the front line of defense, on both sides of the left / right defensive end
(Defensive End, DE
code), the left / right defensive tackle
(Defensive Tackle, DT
code, the defense is usually the strongest person); linebacker on both sides of the left / right outside linebacker
(Outside Linebacker, OLB
code) the middle, middle linebacker
(Middle Linebacker, commonly known as "Mike" or "Mac", " MLB
code, the defense quarterback"). Such as the use of 3-4 is the front line of defense, on both sides of the left / right defensive end, the central spike
(Nose Tackle, NT
code); linebacker on both sides of the left / right outside linebacker, the middle left / right inside linebacker
(Inside Linebacker, ILB
code). Responsible for marking each other deployed nearly end on the other side of the strong side Wei
(strongside linebacker, commonly known as the "Sam" code, SLB
, is usually left outside linebacker) is generally the strongest line of physical health, is responsible for the pressure over the other proximal front and full health and the impact of the ball running back. The weak side guard
(weakside linebacker, commonly known as "Will", the WLB
code is often the body) the best linebacker, primarily responsible for assisting the cornerback catcher block each other. Defender
(Defensive Backs, DB
code) is usually composed of four players, two star guard
code) plus two safetys
(Safety, also known as the defender
). The other is the receiver cornerback nemesis, speed and agility is their specialty, general duty is always at each other's over or proximal front, but also in the specific formation of assault and Adventure (Sack) quarterback sacks
. Two safetys are Qiang Wei
(Strong Safety, code SS
(Free) and tour Wei
code), standing on the defensive positions of the last party, when the offense through the lines or a receiver when they get rid of the defense to attack damage. Usually for offensive halfback tight end, when the attacking side by assault attack, like the line like Wei Qiang Wei Wei Ran intercept and prevent offensive; while throwing attack, is responsible for staring at the proximal front, to prevent him the ball. Long distance travel is mainly responsible for assisting the guard before cornerback quarterback mark, sometimes by surprise for large outflanking attack hiding online front "pocket" behind the quarterback.
Who will usually put in each other when the shotgun formation from 1 ~ 3 to third ~ five as a cornerback, then the defense will be 4-2-5, 4-1-6, 3-1-7, 4-0-7 and 0-4-7 (from New England Patriots
Coach Bill Belichick record). This extra cornerback respectively:
1, five point guard
(Nickelback), third cornerback, fifth defensive backs.
2, very Wei
(Dimeback), fourth cornerback, sixth defensive backs.
3, (Defensive Quarterback), defensive quarterback
for the fifth cornerback, seventh defensive backs.
4, if you find a front line, the defense becomes 3-0-8, there will be more defensive half Wei
(Defensive Halfback), sixth, eighth defenders cornerback.
American football The secret service.
Play hand play in the player's help help spanner
The secret service is only in the special case of tactics (e.g. punt, kick off, shooting and so on) will play. In addition to the special post player, member of the secret group general attack group and defense group is also responsible for the bench, playing catch enemy special teams make return. Punter
code) is usually in the region far away from each other and the fourth offensive has not accumulated enough yardage when playing for the punt. Kicker
(Kicker, also known as Placekicker, K
code), and additional points for tee shot. Only responsible for the kick-off of the play hand is called (kickoff specialist, full-time kick-off hand
). Hand and punter is usually a part-time university level team playing in the following. Help the player
(Holder, code H
Responsible for receiving) when shooting the ball and then hold the hand to help play accurate play, as backup quarterback or punter as.
Long hair player
(Long Snapper, LS
code) is shot, punt under the condition of serving people, mostly as a center. Because the tactical needs, reception staff are usually in comparison on the location, so a player must be able to put back the distance precision of serve in place. Back of hand
(Returner) responsible for the catch was kicked the ball into the air after the counterattack, divided into kickoff return hand
(Kick Returner, KR
code) and punt returner
(Punt Returner, two, PR
code) for wide receiver or running back as a substitute. Ball Wei
(Upback code UB
) in punt on array line 1 to 3 yards, equivalent to the punter's last line of defense - because the punter usually station is far away, the instructions are usually serve to protect the ball by the guard shouted. Sometimes they serve in pretending to punt tactics and rushing or passing attack. Stop run member
code) is responsible for tackling the other side of the back of hand to prevent the successful run array.
American football Basic tactics
Football in these layout
For many football fans, they are the most attractive place is to match both the coaching game battle of wits on the pitch. Each team has a Book On the art of war
(playbook), there are tens to hundreds of battle strategy strategy. These tactics have code, will guide the players in the games and go to do. Some confrontation strategy is more conservative, probably only a few yards to capture each other only; some counsel then has the ability to capture each other a lot of code number, but relatively lost position or runaway ball is increased.
In general, more security than rushing to pass. However, there are some of the more conservative and more adventurous rushing pass. In order to deceive the public, some will put a ball array rushing to punch the ball the way, which in turn also. American football has many tricks or gimmicks, such as sometimes play from formation, but suddenly try to pass the ball or charge to win new first attack. High risk strategy success all will see fans excited. Of course, if the opponent has insight into the strategy, also will bring misfortune to the team.
Maybe this is the reason, American football in the United States Army is undoubtedly the most popular. In fact, the United States military academy, United States Naval Academy
and The United States Air Force Academy
Have I-A group tournament teams to participate in the American League NCAA university. The army and navy has a long history and famous sports.
American football Gatorade bath
Competitive sports in the United States on useful iced drinks coach to celebrate the victory of the important tradition, this tradition is started by American football. In the year to win the most important game (for example Super Bowl
The finals), winning party at rest players will quietly touched the coach behind, while the unsuspecting will all mixed with ice bucket gatorade
The cold head poured poured him a Cool
. This tradition is called "Gatorade bath" (Gatorade shower, also known as Gatorade dunk). But this time, not only around other people will not be discouraged, but tacitly so calm, even deliberately to transfer the attention to be splashed water get Practical joke
. And that was the man crumpled and covered with lavage while shivering (usually Football Finals held in winter), but often because of the joy of winning it will no longer pursue what.
Reagan was "popcorn bath"
The coach made by cold soaked through behavior the most early in the New York Giants
In the 1985 season. At that time, the giants defense group spike Jim Bert (Jim Burt) because of dissatisfaction with coach Bill Passels (Bill Parcells) usually are too strict to him, want to tease coach but I'm afraid of retaliation design trouble, then letting friends inside (Harry Carson, David Harry Carson, Sayles's love love) and outside linebacker Lawrence Taylor (Lawrence Taylor) to celebrate the October 20, 1985 on the enemy Washington Redskins
17:3 victory grounds, on the spot to Sayles Palmer "initiations use cold drinks". And the following 1986 season, the giants with 17 wins and 2 losses record through, and eventually won the twenty-first Super Bowl champion cup, players are modeled on in each victory gave Passel J a "bath". And in 1987 the giants as the champion team was invited by convention to White House
To accept the president Ronald Regan
Congratulations, have never simply filled with Carson Popcorn
The bucket to the Reagan token to a bath". So the way to celebrate with the television audience into millions of eyes, and took the opportunity to Gatorade and made the advertising campaign, immediately formed a trend in the United states. Since then, in the final victory with a Gatorade lavage coach became the traditional project NFL and NCAA football.
Gatorade became a cultural phenomenon after bath Rugby has begun to affect other sports. 1987 MLB world tournament
In the same way to celebrate, and keep down, and even some players grand slam
After the bath may also be teammates. The 2008 NBA finals, Boston Celtic
Coach Docker Rivers
Because of the end of their 22 year Title Drought by teammate lavage once, became the first basketball Gatorade people enjoy bathing. Then, The Losangeles Lakers
Coach Phil Jackson
In 2009, 2010 for two times irrigation, The Dallas Mavericks
Coach Rick Carlisle
and Miami Miami
Coach Erik Spoelstra
Respectively in 2011 and 2012 "enjoy" cold bath "". In addition, Australia Rugby Union
Team Melbourne Storm Team (Melbourne Storm) since 2007 began such tradition, the coach Craig Bellamy
(Craig Bellamy) was 2007, 2009, three times in 2012 by lavage.
American football Exercise evaluation
American football Intense exercise
American rugby is a sport. In order to stop the offensive forward defense must grapple to intercept the ball player. Therefore, the defense team through physical contact, in accordance with the case of the ball case opponent stopped. The ball out defensive tackle cases can not play, playing opponents or tripping. The defense is not Korah his helmet with face mask and to intercept the opponent, or picked up and fall. In addition to these rough rules about excessive interception in other ways, sackin are regarded as legitimate.
A large body of American football is more dangerous than the impact to other popular American team sports. To this end, the players are required to wear a lot of special protective equipment, such as padded plastic helmet, shoulder, hip and knee support. The pad is launched in a few decades ago, and has been improved to reduce trauma to the player.
Although there are protective equipment and related cases to guarantee the safety of the ball, but football play is still common injury act. According to the National Center for catastrophic sport injury research (National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research) data show that 25 American football athletes -- most for senior high school students in 2000 to 2004 years for American football injury and death. Cerebral concussion
Is one of the most common injuries. according to Arizona
Brain Injury Association (Brain Injury Association of Arizona) data, there are about 62000 high school players every year have a concussion. The game injury is very common, and even occasional death cases. In the United States park recreation or amateur competition, because there is no standard equipment to a higher risk of injury. Grab type football have been banned in many American campuses, instead of playing with both hands to touch the grapple to replace the touch Rugby (touch football). Physical education adopts the most hands touch, and school sports after class is due to provide equipment and appropriate guidance and play tackle football style.
In addition, the body fierce collision and wounded high risks that football is not able to attract the participation of women. Women usually lack in muscle and weight will make them match with high risk. Moreover, to tackle American football to intercept big strong and agile player more favorable. Over the past few years, the average weight of NFL players are on the rise.
All these factors combine to make the debate, in the past few decades with American football Dodge Ball
, professional wrestling
, ice hockey
Boxing and equivalent is listed as "violence" movement. Critics of these movements are focused on body size, strength, brute force, cause children unhealthy and aggressive competition psychology. But also pointed out that sports with sports spirit -- although contact sports have a certain degree of violence, but they always emphasize technology and tactics rather than its belligerence.
American football In the face of the problem
Although in the past 90 years of non-stop change (such as the ban on "Ma yoke sackin") that American football injury rate decreased, but compared to other sports or high contrast. However, the protective equipment has been improved, such as the 1890s non essential leather helmet has gradually changed to today's high-tech plastic helmet with mask pad.
In recent years has set off on the use of illegal drugs dispute in the occupation, University, even high school football league problem.
Another problem is to play football to spend a lot of money. Special helmets, uniforms, cushions have to spend hundreds of dollars can not be. The general view is that schools and public recreation needs to go a lot of rugby league budget; but the intercollegiate football (and to a certain extent, the high school football) are able to profit by selling tickets.