molybdenum

Mo (M connected) must be human and animals and plants trace element . The silvery white metal, hard and tough. The organization of all kinds of molybdenum in the human body, the total 9mg content in liver and kidney of the highest.
molybdenum
Molybdenum is a Transition elements That is very easy to change its oxidation state in vivo. Redox reaction Function in electron transfer. In the form of molybdenum oxide, is likely to be in the +6 valence state. Although the electronic transfer period it is likely to revert to the first +5 valence state. But after reduction of the enzyme was found to have other oxidation state of molybdenum. Mo is xanthine oxidase / dehydrogenase , Aldehyde oxidase and sulfite Composition of oxidase, to know the human body and trace elements essential to plants.

molybdenum Related parameters

CAS number: 7439-98-7
 The molybdenum rod in the ampoule The molybdenum rod in the ampoule
(cm / cubic Mole ): 9.4
element The content in the sun (PPM): 0.009
The content of elements in seawater (PPM): 0.01
In the earth's crust (PPM): 1.5
Relative atomic mass : 96
Atomic number : 42
The number of protons : 42
neutron Number: 54
The cycle: 5
The group number: B
Electronic layer arrangement : 2-8-18-13-1
Electronic layer: K-L-M-N-O
The peripheral electronic layer arrangement: 4D 5S
Oxidation state:
Main Mo+6, Other Mo-2, Mo0, Mo+1, Mo+2, Mo+3, Mo+4, Mo+5
ionization energy (kJ /mol)
M - M+ 685
M+ - M2+ 1558
M2+ - M3+ 2621
M3+ - M4+ 4480
M4+ - M5+ 5900
M5+ - M6+ 6560
M6+ - M7+ 12230
M7+ - M8+ 14800
M8+ - M9+ 16800
M9+ - M10+ 19700
crystal structure The cell is: The body centered cubic lattice , each cell containing 2 metal atoms.
Lattice parameters :
A = 314.7 PM
B = 314.7 PM
C = 314.7 PM
Alpha = 90 degrees
 molybdenum briquette molybdenum briquette
Beta = 90 degrees
Gamma = 90 degrees
Mohs hardness : 5.5
The voice in which Transmission rate : 5400m/s
Heat: 252.7J/kg.K (300K).
The thermal conductivity of 140.6W/m.K (300K).
Liquid density: 9330kg/m3.
Density: 10.2 g / cm3.
The melting point of 2620 DEG C.
The boiling point of 5560 DEG C.
+2, +4 and +6 valence, stable price of +6.

molybdenum The basic characteristics of

 molybdenum concentrate molybdenum concentrate
1782, Sweden Elm, with Linseed oil Adjusted charcoal and molybdate mixture closed burning, and molybdenum.
1953 known trace elements molybdenum of human and animals and plants must.
The main mineral is Molybdenite (MoS2).
MoS2 is a kind of natural molybdenite soft The black mineral, similar appearance and graphite. Before the end of eighteenth Century, the European market in both the "molybdenite" name to sell. In 1779, Scheler pointed out that the graphite and molybdenite (molybdenite) are two completely different substances. He found nitric acid No effect on graphite, reaction and molybdenite, obtain a chalky white powder, it will boil with alkali solution together, the crystallization of a salt. He believes that this is a kind of white powder Metallic oxide When mixed with charcoal, intense heat, no metal, but with sulfur heat after they get the original molybdenite. In 1782, a Swedish mine Lord Elm the separation of metal from molybdenite, named molybdenum, Element symbols For Mo. Chinese into mo. Get it Berzelius Others admit.
-99 is Mo Mo Radio isotope One, for the preparation of technetium -99 in the hospital. Technetium -99 is a radioactive isotope, the patient for visceral angiography can be taken after. For the purpose of molybdenum is usually used -99 alumina powder Absorption after stored in the container is relatively small, when the Mo -99 decay generated technetium -99, when necessary, to take out the technetium -99 from the container to the patient.
Molybdenum is an important element in steel and alloys, commonly used metal molybdenum, molybdenum containing molybdenum, sometimes can also be used to concentrate molybdenum oxide direct reduction smelting molybdenum steel. The natural reserves of molybdenum in the crust is 19 million tons, recoverable reserves of 8 million 600 thousand tons.
Molybdenum is an important component of the iris of the eye. Iris pupil size can be adjusted, to ensure clear vision. Molybdenum deficiency, the effect of insulin regulating function, caused by the lens of the eye aqueous osmotic pressure increased, the increase of diopter and cause myopia. Containing high molybdenum soybeans, lentils, radish, and brown rice, beef, mushrooms, grapes and vegetables etc..
The excess molybdenum does great harm to human life and health. It can make the body energy metabolism disorder, myocardial ischemia and necrosis, prone to kidney stones and urinary stones, increasing the risk of iron deficiency anemia, causing dental caries. Mo is arch-criminal of esophageal cancer, it will lead to gout like syndrome, joint pain and deformity, kidney damage, growth retardation, weight loss, hair loss, arteriosclerosis, connective tissue degeneration and other skin diseases health risks.

molybdenum The physical and chemical properties

Mo in Mendeleev periodic table fifth cycle, the VIB group, as a transitional element molybdenum, atomic number 42, atomic weight 95.94, atomic electronic configuration is: ls2s2p3s3p3d4s4p4d5s. Because of the valence electron orbit is half full, Mo between lithophile elements (8 electron ion configuration) and copper (18 electron ion configuration) between typical.V. W. Geerdesimite transition state in geochemical classification of elements in known siderophile elements. In nature, Mo has seven stable isotopes of natural, nucleon number and their mixture in natural proportion as listed in table 1.
Table 1 molybdenum isotope and distribution
The same number.
92Mo
94Mo
95Mo
96Mo
97Mo
98Mo
100Mo
Sigma
The proportion (%) atomic weight
Fifteen point eight four
Ninety-one point nine zero six three
Nine point zero four
Ninety-three point nine zero four seven
Fifteen point seven two
Ninety-four point nine zero five eight
Sixteen point five three
Ninety-five point nine zero four six
Nine point four six
Ninety-six point nine zero five eight
Twenty-three point seven eight
Ninety-seven point nine Zero Five Five
Nine point six three
Ninety-nine point nine zero seven six
One hundred
Ninety-five point nine four

The same number.
92Mo
94Mo
95Mo
96Mo
97Mo
98Mo
100Mo
Sigma
The proportion (%) atomic weight
Fifteen point eight four
Ninety-one point nine zero six three
Nine point zero four
Ninety-three point nine zero four seven
Fifteen point seven two
Ninety-four point nine zero five eight
Sixteen point five three
Ninety-five point nine zero four six
Nine point four six
Ninety-six point nine zero five eight
Twenty-three point seven eight
Ninety-seven point nine Zero Five Five
Nine point six three
Ninety-nine point nine zero seven six
One hundred
Ninety-five point nine four
According to historical records, has found eighth kinds of natural isotopes exist. In addition, also found that there are eleven kinds of molybdenum artificial radioactive isotope, because the data is unknown, this does not repeat.
Molybdenum is a silvery metal, molybdenum atom radius 0.14nm, atomic volume 235.5px/mol, the coordination number is 8, the crystal is Az type cubic in structure with space group Oh (lm3m), has been found it has heterogeneous change. Under the normal temperature of molybdenum lattice parameters between 0.31467~0.31475nm, with impurity content changes. Mo very high melting point, ranked sixth in the elemental nature, called refractory metals, see table 2. The density of molybdenum is 10.23g/cm, about half of the tungsten (tungsten density 19.36g/cm). Mo low coefficient of thermal expansion, 20~100 C 4.9 x 10/ DEG C; the heat conduction rate of molybdenum is higher, 142.35w/ (M - K). Mo: low resistivity at 0 C for 5.17 * -10. Cm; 800 degrees is 24.6 * -10. Cm; 2400 DEG C for 72 * -10 cm. Mo is paramagnetic, 99.99% purity molybdenum at 25 DEG C than the susceptibility of 0.93 * 10cm/g. The specific heat of molybdenum at 25 DEG C for 242 8J/ (kg - K). The larger the hardness of molybdenum, Mohs hardness is 5~5.5. In the heat of evaporation for the boiling point of Mo 594kJ/mol; melting heat is 27.6 + 2.9kJ/mol at 25 DEG C; the heat of sublimation is 659kJ/mol.
Table 2 refractory material and the melting and boiling points
material
Carbon (C)
Tungsten (W)
Rhenium (Re)
Osmium (Os)
Tantalum (Ta)
Mo (Mo)
The melting point (c) boiling point (c)
3650~3697
Four thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven
3410 + 10
Five thousand six hundred and sixty
Three thousand one hundred and eighty
Five thousand six hundred and twenty-seven
Three thousand and forty-five
5027 + 100
Two thousand nine hundred and ninety-six
5425 + 100
2622 + 10
Five thousand five hundred and sixty

material
Carbon (C)
Tungsten (W)
Rhenium (Re)
Osmium (Os)
Tantalum (Ta)
Mo (Mo)
The melting point (c) boiling point (c)
3650~3697
Four thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven
3410 + 10
Five thousand six hundred and sixty
Three thousand one hundred and eighty
Five thousand six hundred and twenty-seven
Three thousand and forty-five
5027 + 100
Two thousand nine hundred and ninety-six
5425 + 100
2622 + 10
Five thousand five hundred and sixty
The molybdenum atom radius, ionic radius and tungsten, rhenium is very close.
 
The atomic radius (nm)
4 ionic radius (nm)
6 ionic radius (nm)
molybdenum
tungsten
rhenium
Zero point one three nine
Zero point one four zero
Zero point one three eight
Zero point zero six eight
Zero point zero six eight
Zero point zero six eight
Zero point zero six five
Zero point zero six five
Zero point zero six five

The atomic radius (nm)
4 ionic radius (nm)
6 ionic radius (nm)
molybdenum
tungsten
rhenium
Zero point one three nine
Zero point one four zero
Zero point one three eight
Zero point zero six eight
Zero point zero six eight
Zero point zero six eight
Zero point zero six five
Zero point zero six five
Zero point zero six five
The electronic arrangement of molybdenum atoms reflects the typical nature of the transition elements: a 5S track the outermost five 4D orbitals, the secondary layer on the electron was semi abandoned full status. The outer electron ionization potential for molybdenum atoms:
The outer electrons (a)
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
The ionization potential (eV)
Seven point two
Fifteen point one seven
Twenty-seven
Forty-six point five three
Fifty-five point six
Seventy-one point seven
One hundred and thirty-two point seven
One hundred and fifty-three point two

The outer electrons (a)
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
The ionization potential (eV)
Seven point two
Fifteen point one seven
Twenty-seven
Forty-six point five three
Fifty-five point six
Seventy-one point seven
One hundred and thirty-two point seven
One hundred and fifty-three point two
Obviously, Mo to lose seven or eight electrons is extremely difficult. This determines the chemical properties of molybdenum is relatively stable. At room temperature or the temperature is not too high, molybdenum is stable in air or water. Molybdenum heating in the air, from the beginning of the white color (color) and dark gray; temperature rise to 520 degrees Celsius, started by the slow oxidation of molybdenum, molybdenum trioxide to form yellow (MoO3, the temperature dropped to room temperature after white); over temperature rise to 600 degrees Celsius, molybdenum rapidly oxidized to MoO3. Molybdenum in water vapor heated to 700~800 DEG C began to generate MoO2, it will be further heated, two molybdenum oxide was oxidized into molybdenum trioxide. Molybdenum in pure oxygen can generate spontaneous combustion, molybdenum trioxide. Molybdenum oxide has been reported a lot, but many are reaction intermediates, not thermodynamically stable phase. There are only nine very reliable, the structure and transition temperature as shown in table 3.
Table 3 molybdenum oxide
oxide
Generation temperature range (c)
Crystal structure
MoO2
 
diamond
Mo4O11
<615
monoclinic system
Mo4O11
615~800
Is oblique
Mo17O47
Five hundred and sixty
 
Mo5O14
Five hundred and thirty
 
Mo8O23
650~780
 
Mo18O52
600~750
The three oblique lines
Mo9O26
750~780
monoclinic system
MoO3
 
diamond

oxide
Generation temperature range (c)
Crystal structure
MoO2
diamond
Mo4O11
<615
monoclinic system
Mo4O11
615~800
Is oblique
Mo17O47
Five hundred and sixty
Mo5O14
Five hundred and thirty
Mo8O23
650~780
Mo18O52
600~750
The three oblique lines
Mo9O26
750~780
monoclinic system
MoO3
diamond
In addition, there are three kinds of MoO2 in the generation before the intermediate product of Mo2O3, MoO and Mo3O, but they also fail to produce their products with pure.
This series of molybdenum oxide, except the highest valence of MoO3 acid, the remaining oxides are alkaline earth oxides. The most important molybdenum oxides are MoO3 and MoO2.
The molecular weight of MoO2 was 127.94, with Mo74.99%. The pure MoO2 was dark gray, dark brown powder. 25 degrees, the heat generated MoO2 550kJ/mol, density 6.34~6.47g/cm. MoO2 is a rutile monoclinic crystal structure, crystal unit (cell) consisting of two MoO2 molecules, lattice parameter of a= 0.5608nm, b= 0.4842nm, c=0.5517nm, d=11.975nm. MoO2 is soluble in water, soluble in hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, but not soluble in ammonia solution. Continue to heat MoO2 in the air, steam or oxygen, it will be further oxidized, until completely generated MoO3. Heated to 1520~1720 DEG C in vacuum, the solid MoO2 sublimation and decomposition of the oxygen is not local, but most of the MoO2 is decomposed into MoO3 gas and solid Mo. Jette. E. R (1935) reported: MoO2 at 1980 - 50 Deg. C, 0.1MPa (inert gas) under the condition of decomposition of molybdenum and oxygen. MoO2 is the final product of molybdenum oxide.
MoO3 is white powder green or pale blue. The molecular weight was 143.94, with 66.65% Mo. 25 degrees, the heat generated MoO3 668kJ/mol density is 4 692g/cm, the melting point is 795 DEG C, the boiling point of 1155 DEG C below the melting temperature. In has been sublimated. At 520~720 DEG C, three in gas phase oxidation sublimation of MoxO3x molecular mixture, including x=3~5, x=3. MoO3 generated molybdate is slightly soluble in water. 18 C, the solubility of MoO3 was 1.066%, 70 C 2.05%. MoO3 and water soluble in water according to different proportions of a series of isopolyacid, nMoO3 and mH2O, wherein n = M. This series is more important compared with the acid molybdate H2MoO4 (n=m=1), molybdic acid (n=7, H6Mo7O24, m=3), four H2Mo4O13 (n=4 m=1, molybdenum molybdate). These isopolyacid can be regarded as two or more of the same simple oxygen acid molecules and shrink. For example, 7H2MoO4 vs. H6Mo7O24+ 4H2O. The X analysis showed that the structure of Mo7O24 consists of seven MoO6 are connected into eight sides. MoO3 soluble in ammonia water, alkali lye, and generate the corresponding salts isopolyacid. MoO3 in alkaline medium (pH>10) is often the existence of MoO4, and in acidic medium, it tends to Mo7O24 (pH 6~8) or Mo8O24 (pH=1.5~2.9) form. As an important chemical industrial ammonium molybdate molybdenum products, this is also a series of mixture acid ammonium salt.
At room temperature, molybdenum can react with F2. 250 C MO to start with the Cl2 reaction, 700~800 C MO can react with Cl2 to form MoCl2. In the hot temperatures, molybdenum can react with Br2. Molybdenum and halogen reaction products can be MoX6 (such as MoF6), but also MoO2X2 (such as MoO2Cl2) or MoOX4 (such as MoOCl4) or MoX. More than 600 DEG C, molybdenum began embrittlement in N2. More than 1500 DEG C MO began to react with N2 to 2400 DEG C and N2 reaction of molybdenum nitride. However, until the melting (2622 - 10 Deg. C), molybdenum can react with H2. Therefore, the industry generally in the production of metal molybdenum powder reduction of MoO3 by H2. The reaction process may be: 450~500 degrees, MoO3 reduced by H2, Mo5O14, Mo17O47, Mo4O11 generated by the intermediate oxidation state after the formation of MoO2; 1000~1100 C, H2 MoO2 will be further reduced to metallic molybdenum powder. Molybdenum heating in CO2, can be oxidized to MoO3; and the reaction product of MoO3 and CO and reaction again, the reduction of Mo:Mo + 3CO2 vs. MoO3+ 3CO. Molybdenum or molybdenum oxide in CO or CH4, H2 common heating mixture can generate molybdenum carbide. 600 degrees of Mo2C formation, its brittleness, density is 8.9g/cm, the melting point of 2380 DEG C; and the product at 800 DEG MoC, its density is 8.4g/cm.
Molybdenum at room temperature with HF, HCI, HNO3, H2SO4 and the reaction of dilute dilute alkali solution. Molybdenum is only soluble in concentrated HNO3 and concentrated H2SO4 aqua regia or heat, boiling HCI.

molybdenum Physiological function

The biological properties of molybdenum is also very important, it is not only the essential trace elements for plants is animal. Molybdenum is one of the main ingredients of molybdenum flavoprotein plants in Azotobacter; one of the main ingredients and plant nitrate reductase; can stimulate phosphatase activity, promote the synthesis and transportation of the crop of sugar and starch in favor of early maturing crops. Molybdenum is one of the seven important trace elements. One of the basic ingredients of animal liver, intestine or molybdenum in xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, the basic component of sulfite oxidase and heparin. Research shows that there are significant anticaries effect of molybdenum, molybdenum has a strong inhibitory effect on the formation of urinary calculi, human molybdenum deficiency is prone to kidney stones. A healthy person body weight 70kg, molybdenum containing 9mg. For human beings, is the only one of molybdenum essential elements of second known and third kinds of transition elements, compared with other transition elements, molybdenum toxicity is very low, even can be regarded as non-toxic. Of course, excessive intake will accelerate the elasticity of plasmalogen oxidizing substances in human arterial wall. Therefore, the soil moisture in molybdenum, the incidence of cancer is low but the incidence of gout, systemic atherosclerosis rate. And the ingestion of excessive amounts of molybdenum containing forage animal, especially animal susceptible to stomach.
Metabolic absorption
Molybdenum compounds in drinking water and diet, easily absorbed. Soluble oral intake ammonium molybdate About 88%-93% can be absorbed. All in the diet Sour The absorption of the molybdenum compounds have a strong inhibitory effect,
After oral administration of molybdenum sulfide can only absorb about 5%. molybdate After being absorbed in the form is still in the blood and molybdic acid Macroglobulin Combined with Red blood cell With loose. Most of the blood in the liver and kidney uptake by mo.
In the liver the molybdate part into molybdoenzymes, combined with the rest of the pterin cofactor formation containing molybdenum stored in the liver. The main body in the form of molybdate by renal excretion of molybdenum, dietary molybdenum intake increased renal excretion of molybdenum also increases. Therefore, the human body is mainly excreted by the kidney rather than by controlling the absorption of molybdenum to keep the body balanced. In addition, there are a number of molybdenum with biliary excretion.
physiological function
As of 3 molybdenum molybdenum Metal enzyme The auxiliary function. Hydroxylation enzyme catalyzed substrate some molybdenum. xanthine Enzyme catalysis Hypoxanthine Converted to xanthine, and then transformed into uric acid. Aldehyde oxidase All kinds of catalyst pyrimidine , purine , Pteridine Oxidation and detoxification and related compounds. Sub sulfate Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the conversion to sulfate. The researchers also found that in vitro, molybdate can protect Adrenal cortical hormone The receptor, retention of activity. Presumably, it may also have a similar effect in vivo. There has been speculation that molybdate has been able to influence Glucocorticoid receptor That is because it is known as an endogenous regulator of similar compounds ".
Physiological needs
In 2000 China nutrition society according to the foreign material, made Chinese dietary reference intake for adults of Mo, intake was 60 g/d; maximum tolerable intake of 350 g/d.

molybdenum Origin distribution

The distribution area of China molybdenum mine, South Africa accounted for molybdenum reserves of 35.7%, ranked first. The second is the Northeast 19.5%, 14.9%, 13.9% in the eastern North China, northwest and southwest 12%, accounted for only 4%. On the provinces (area), Henan's largest reserves, accounting for 29.9% of the total reserves of molybdenum, then Shaanxi accounted for 13.6%, Jilin accounted for 13%. The reserves of more province (area) and Shandong accounted for 6.7%, Hebei accounted for 6.6%, Jiangxi accounted for 4%, Liaoning accounted for 3.7%, Inner Mongolia accounted for 3.6%. More than 8 provinces (regions) of total reserves accounted for 81.1% of the total reserves of molybdenum ore, the top three in Henan, Shaanxi and Jilin provinces accounted for 56.5%. The following table shows the molybdenum deposit and its development and utilization situation of China's major.
The main origin of China molybdenum list
number
deposit
position
scale
Grade (Mo%)
Use
One
Five Ling Mo
A Cheng City, Heilongjiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one six seven
Unmining
Two
Daheishan molybdenum deposit
Yongji County of Jilin Province
large
Zero point zero six six
Mine has
Three
Yangjiazhangzi molybdenum mine
Liaoning city of Huludao Province
large
Zero point one four one
Mine has
Four
Lanjiagou molybdenum mine
Liaoning city of Huludao Province
large
Zero point one four one
Mine has
Five
Then the door Mo Dai gou
Hebei County of Fengning Province
large
Zero point zero seven six
Unmining
Six
Wild arc molybdenum
Hebei County of Laishui Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero eight seven
Unmining
Seven
Large family of Zhuang Mo
Beijing City, Yanqing County
Medium-sized
Zero point one zero zero
Unmining
Eight
After Yu Mo
Shanxi County of Fanshi Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero six one
Unmining
Nine
SHANG Jia Zhuang Mo
Shandong County of Qixia Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero five three
Unmining
Ten
In Jinduicheng Molybdenum Mine
Shaanxi Huaxian
large
Zero point zero nine nine
Mine has
Eleven
Huanglongpu Mo
Luonan County, Shaanxi Province
large
Zero point zero eight three
Unmining
Twelve
SHANGFANGGOU molybdenum mine
Luanchuan County of Henan Province
large
Zero point one four zero
Mine has
Thirteen
Leimengou Mo
Henan Province, Songxian
large
Zero point zero seven three
Unmining
Fourteen
The stone Pingchuan molybdenum ore vein 25
Zhejiang County of Qingtian Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one nine zero
Mine has
Fifteen
Chilu Mo
Fu'an County of Fujian Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero seven zero
Mine has
Associated type
Sixteen
Cui Hong Shantie polymetallic ore
Xunke County, Heilongjiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one two two
Unmining
Seventeen
The Duobaoshan copper molybdenum ore
Heilongjiang County of Nenjiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero one six
Unmining
Eighteen
Xiaojiayingzi molybdenum ore
Mongolian Autonomous County of Liaoning province Kalaqin left
Medium-sized
Zero point two two five
Mine has
Nineteen
The Xiaosigou Cu Mo deposit
Hebei County of Pingquan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero eight six
Mine has
Twenty
Wan zinc deposit
Hebei County of Laiyuan Province
large
Zero point one one seven
Unmining
Twenty-one
Xing Mo Shan
Shandong city of Yantai Province
large
Zero point zero eight zero
Unmining
Twenty-two
Three Zhuang Mo
Luanchuan County of Henan Province
large
Zero point one one five
Mine has
Twenty-three
Nannihu molybdenum deposit
Luanchuan County of Henan Province
large
Zero point zero seven six
Unmining
Twenty-four
Yechangping molybdenum mine
Lushi County of Henan Province
large
Zero point one three three
Unmining
Twenty-five
Xiatongling tungsten bismuth mine
Fenyi County in Jiangxi Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero five four
Mine has
Twenty-six
The virtue of copper mines
Jiangxi city of Dexing Province
large
Zero point zero one one
Mine has
Twenty-seven
Rich tungsten copper
Jiangxi Province
large
Zero point zero three three
Mine has
Twenty-eight
Baoshan lead zinc silver mine
Hunan County of Guiyang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one four six
Mine has
Twenty-nine
Huangshaping Lead Zinc Mine
Hunan County of Guiyang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero four two
Unmining
Thirty
Shizhuyuan tungsten tin Koechlinite
Chen County in Hunan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero six four
Mine has
Thirty-one
Enteromorpha nickel Mo
Hunan County of Cili Province
Medium-sized
Zero point five nine five
Unmining
Thirty-two
Tianmenshan Mountain Daping Mine
Xiao - ping mine
Dayong County in Hunan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point three four six
Mine has
Thirty-three
ERON copper mine
Jomda County of Tibet Autonomous Region
large
Zero point zero two eight
Unmining
Thirty-four
Xingluokeng tungsten molybdenum ore
Qingliu County in Fujian Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero two four
Mine has
Thirty-five
The horse factory wells copper molybdenum ore
Auspicious clouds County of Yunnan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero eight zero
Unmining
Thirty-six
Dabaoshan Mine
Guangdong District of Qujiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero seven six
Unmining
Thirty-seven
Zhang Bai Shi Mo Tungsten mine
Guangdong County of Wuhua Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one one six
Stop

number
deposit
position
scale
Grade (Mo%)
Use
One
Five Ling Mo
A Cheng City, Heilongjiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one six seven
Unmining
Two
Daheishan molybdenum deposit
Yongji County of Jilin Province
large
Zero point zero six six
Mine has
Three
Yangjiazhangzi molybdenum mine
Liaoning city of Huludao Province
large
Zero point one four one
Mine has
Four
Lanjiagou molybdenum mine
Liaoning city of Huludao Province
large
Zero point one four one
Mine has
Five
Then the door Mo Dai gou
Hebei County of Fengning Province
large
Zero point zero seven six
Unmining
Six
Wild arc molybdenum
Hebei County of Laishui Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero eight seven
Unmining
Seven
Large family of Zhuang Mo
Beijing City, Yanqing County
Medium-sized
Zero point one zero zero
Unmining
Eight
After Yu Mo
Shanxi County of Fanshi Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero six one
Unmining
Nine
SHANG Jia Zhuang Mo
Shandong County of Qixia Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero five three
Unmining
Ten
In Jinduicheng Molybdenum Mine
Shaanxi Huaxian
large
Zero point zero nine nine
Mine has
Eleven
Huanglongpu Mo
Luonan County, Shaanxi Province
large
Zero point zero eight three
Unmining
Twelve
SHANGFANGGOU molybdenum mine
Luanchuan County of Henan Province
large
Zero point one four zero
Mine has
Thirteen
Leimengou Mo
Henan Province, Songxian
large
Zero point zero seven three
Unmining
Fourteen
The stone Pingchuan molybdenum ore vein 25
Zhejiang County of Qingtian Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one nine zero
Mine has
Fifteen
Chilu Mo
Fu'an County of Fujian Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero seven zero
Mine has
Associated type
Sixteen
Cui Hong Shantie polymetallic ore
Xunke County, Heilongjiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one two two
Unmining
Seventeen
The Duobaoshan copper molybdenum ore
Heilongjiang County of Nenjiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero one six
Unmining
Eighteen
Xiaojiayingzi molybdenum ore
Mongolian Autonomous County of Liaoning province Kalaqin left
Medium-sized
Zero point two two five
Mine has
Nineteen
The Xiaosigou Cu Mo deposit
Hebei County of Pingquan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero eight six
Mine has
Twenty
Wan zinc deposit
Hebei County of Laiyuan Province
large
Zero point one one seven
Unmining
Twenty-one
Xing Mo Shan
Shandong city of Yantai Province
large
Zero point zero eight zero
Unmining
Twenty-two
Three Zhuang Mo
Luanchuan County of Henan Province
large
Zero point one one five
Mine has
Twenty-three
Nannihu molybdenum deposit
Luanchuan County of Henan Province
large
Zero point zero seven six
Unmining
Twenty-four
Yechangping molybdenum mine
Lushi County of Henan Province
large
Zero point one three three
Unmining
Twenty-five
Xiatongling tungsten bismuth mine
Fenyi County in Jiangxi Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero five four
Mine has
Twenty-six
The virtue of copper mines
Jiangxi city of Dexing Province
large
Zero point zero one one
Mine has
Twenty-seven
Rich tungsten copper
Jiangxi Province
large
Zero point zero three three
Mine has
Twenty-eight
Baoshan lead zinc silver mine
Hunan County of Guiyang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one four six
Mine has
Twenty-nine
Huangshaping Lead Zinc Mine
Hunan County of Guiyang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero four two
Unmining
Thirty
Shizhuyuan tungsten tin Koechlinite
Chen County in Hunan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero six four
Mine has
Thirty-one
Enteromorpha nickel Mo
Hunan County of Cili Province
Medium-sized
Zero point five nine five
Unmining
Thirty-two
Tianmenshan Mountain Daping Mine
Xiao - ping mine
Dayong County in Hunan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point three four six
Mine has
Thirty-three
ERON copper mine
Jomda County of Tibet Autonomous Region
large
Zero point zero two eight
Unmining
Thirty-four
Xingluokeng tungsten molybdenum ore
Qingliu County in Fujian Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero two four
Mine has
Thirty-five
The horse factory wells copper molybdenum ore
Auspicious clouds County of Yunnan Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero eight zero
Unmining
Thirty-six
Dabaoshan Mine
Guangdong District of Qujiang Province
Medium-sized
Zero point zero seven six
Unmining
Thirty-seven
Zhang Bai Shi Mo Tungsten mine
Guangdong County of Wuhua Province
Medium-sized
Zero point one one six
Stop

molybdenum Application and development of molybdenum

Molybdenum and tungsten is a rare refractory metal. Since 1778, Swedish scientists found C.W.SCHEELE Mo, after ten years of efforts to use the electric M.MOISSAN prepared molybdenum metal, so that the first human that has many excellent physical chemical and mechanical properties of metals. Molybdenum melting point of 2620 DEG C, the bonding between atoms is very strong, so at room temperature and high temperature strength are very high. The expansion coefficient is small, high conductivity, good thermal conductivity. At room temperature, reaction with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and alkali solution, only soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid or nitric acid, aqua regia, is also quite stable for the majority of liquid metal and non metal slag and molten glass. Therefore, molybdenum and its alloys have been widely used and good prospects in metallurgy, agriculture, electrical, chemical, environmental protection and aerospace and other important sectors, has become one of the most important raw material in the national economy and irreplaceable strategic material. Mo on earth is less, its content accounted for only 0.001% of the weight of the crust, the total ore reserves of about 15 million tons, mainly distributed in the United States, China, Chile, Russia, Canada and other countries. China's proven reserves of molybdenum is 1 million 720 thousand tons, the basic reserves of 3 million 430 thousand tons, after the United States, ranking second in the world. Molybdenum ore concentrated in Shaanxi, Henan, Jilin and Liaoning province four. The world metal reserves in a large 500 thousand tons of molybdenum is six, China's Henan Luanchuan, Jilin Montenegro and Shaanxi JINDUICHENG three molybdenum mine on the list. The rich resources for the development of China molybdenum, molybdenum smelting and processing, and vigorously promote the applications, provides favorable conditions and a solid foundation. In recent years, the rapid development of China molybdenum mining, smelting and processing. According to the data, in 2001 China's actual production of molybdenum concentrate 72000 tons, 33000 tons of molybdenum oxide, ferromolybdenum 7600 tons, 9500 tons of ammonium molybdate, molybdenum is 1183 tons, 1200 tons of molybdenum plate, molybdenum sheet 150 tons, 40 tons of molybdenum discs, molybdenum and other special-shaped products of about 50 tons, and the electric light industry mechanical processing of molybdenum wire 3 billion 150 million meters, as well as lubricants, catalysts, pigments and other chemical products of hundreds of tons. Not only that, our country occupies a pivotal position in the world molybdenum market, according to customs statistics, in 2001 China's exports of molybdenum calcine, molybdate, molybdenum and other molybdenum products 70274 tons, exports amounted to $262 million. In the form of industrial consumption of molybdenum molybdenum trioxide, accounted for 70%, accounting for about 20% of the metal molybdenum, molybdenum and molybdenum chemical products each accounted for 5%. The application field and the proportion is probably as follows: Iron and steel smelting consumption accounted for about 80% (including about 43% alloy steel, stainless steel is about 23%, about 8% of tool steel and high-speed steel, cast iron and roll about 6%), chemical products accounted for about 10% of the metal molybdenum products consumption accounted for about 6%, high temperature alloy and high strength special alloy accounted for about 3%, about 1% other molybdenum products. By the development of the iron and steel industry of visible molybdenum consumption plays a decisive role, but with the development of science and technology, will be applied in the high-tech molybdenum and other areas continue to expand and develop.
The iron and steel industry according to the world molybdenum consumption statistics, application of molybdenum in iron and steel industry still occupies the most important position. As the alloying element molybdenum steel, can improve the strength of steel, especially the high temperature strength and toughness; improve corrosion resistance in acid solution and the liquid metal in the steel; improve wear resistance and improve quenching steel permeability, welding and heat resistance. Molybdenum is a good carbide forming elements, oxidation in the steel-making process, use alone or together with other alloy elements. Molybdenum consumption growth in special steel regularly, the per ton of special steel molybdenum consumption has reached the level of 0.201 kilograms.
Molybdenum and chromium, nickel, manganese and silicon can be made in different types of stainless steel, tool steel, high-speed steel and alloy steel etc.. Made of stainless steel has good corrosion resistance, corrosion resistant steel pipe can be used for oil production, a molybdenum approximately 6% stainless steel can replace the titanium for seawater desalination device,
Ocean going ships, offshore oil and natural gas pipeline. This kind of stainless steel can also be used for automobile housing, sewage treatment equipment. The efficiency of molybdenum containing tool steel is two times that of tungsten tools with excellent performance, low cost and light weight. The molybdenum series has the advantages of high speed steel carbide, wear resistance, good toughness, high temperature plasticity strong, suitable for manufacturing molding tool. Molybdenum alloy steel structure can be used in the manufacture of machine parts, industrial vehicles and earthmoving equipment. Containing molybdenum alloy steel fine pearlite in rolling state, is important in the construction of steel rails and bridges.
As the iron molybdenum alloy additives, contribute to the formation of pearlite matrix completely, can improve the strength and toughness of cast iron, improve the uniformity of large castings, but also can improve the heat treatment of casting hardenability. Molybdenum cast iron has good abrasion resistance, can be used for heavy-duty vehicles brake drum and brake etc..
The agricultural fertilizer molybdenum in plants is necessary "trace elements" of the plant dry matter weight accounted for about 0.5ppm, is indispensable and irreplaceable. In recent years at home and abroad widely used ammonium molybdate as trace element fertilizer, can significantly improve the legumes, grasses and other crop quality and yield. This is mainly molybdenum can promote rhizobia and other biological nitrogen fixation on nitrogen in air, nitrogen and further into the required plant protein. Molybdenum can also promote the absorption of phosphorus and play its role in plants. Molybdenum can accelerate the formation and transformation of carbohydrates in plants, improve the content and stability of plant chlorophyll, increase the content of vitamin C. Not only that, but also improve the ability of Molybdenum Plant Drought Resistance and disease resistance.
The characteristics of Appling molybdenum fertilizer is less effective, low cost, is to improve the agricultural harvest in particular is an important measure of the soybean harvest. Mo is widely used in agriculture, but also for China's molybdenum production plant wastewater, waste residue and the comprehensive utilization of low grade ore, has opened up a new way. Electronic and electrical molybdenum good conductivity and high temperature performance, especially with the thermal expansion coefficient of glass is extremely similar, widely used in wire, spiral filament lamp manufacturing lead wire, a hook and a bracket, side rod and other components, as the gate and the anode support material in electronic tubes. In the ultra large scale integrated circuit for molybdenum metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit gate, the installation can eliminate the bi metal effect in molybdenum". Ultra thin type molybdenum seamless pipe (about 15 m) can be used as the anode support high definition TV kinescope, image scanning line of this television set up to 1125, 2 times higher than the average tv. Molybdenum discs can also be substrate and the heat sink power transistor heat shield and silicon rectifier.
In the modern electronics industry in addition to the use of pure molybdenum, Mo-Re alloy structural materials for electronic tubes and special bulb, Mo-50Re and TZM alloy can be used as high power microwave and millimeter wave tube thermionic cathode structure element, its working temperature can reach 1200 degrees Celsius, the current density of up to 10 AMPS / cm 2. As a pure molybdenum wire leads the recrystallization temperature is low, prone to embrittlement at high temperature, affect the service life, in recent years, people have developed K and add Si, C and other elements, in order to improve the recrystallization temperature, the production of "high temperature molybdenum wire". Take in the production of molybdenum oxide in the process of adding yttrium, cerium, lanthanum, can more effectively improve the recrystallization temperature, overcome the embrittlement of materials at high temperature. Molybdenum wire containing 0.1 - 0.3% zirconium, scandium 0.1%, 1200 degrees in the nitriding process, the diffuse throughout the SC alloy, the molybdenum wire at 20 DEG C tensile strength can reach 1 billion 400 million Pascal.
The rapid development of mold industry, which has been widely used in EDM technology, molybdenum wire is wire EDM wire cutting machine ideal, cutting all kinds of steel and hard alloy, machining complex parts processing, the discharge stability, can effectively improve the accuracy of the mold. The above is the molybdenum wire two most widely used, the rise of development and mold manufacturing industry of the bulb.
Flying mengjin. According to the China Lighting Association statistics, in 2001 the national production of molybdenum wire reached 3 billion 150 million meters, the actual production is estimated to reach 4 billion meters, consumption of nearly 800 tons of molybdenum, the number is very considerable. The line cutting of molybdenum wire production of more than 2 billion meters, accounting for more than half of the total molybdenum wire, its market prospect is very optimistic.
Tungsten copper alloy widely used fake electrode spark cutting tools, however, research in recent years to replace molybdenum tungsten electrode, the results show that the tungsten and molybdenum based electrode with copper (less than 50% by weight) and the corrosion resistance of the content is not the same. In the heating pulse and mechanical load pulse, the corrosion depends primarily on brittle fracture process, molybdenum ductile brittle transition temperature of tungsten is low, so the brittleness, strong corrosion resistance. Molybdenum - copper, molybdenum and silver alloy with false erosion resistance and good electrical contact, can be used as the air switch, high voltage switch and the contactor. Mo Cu composite film in continuous copper on the body of a large number of discrete particle entrainment of molybdenum, homogeneous microstructure, good wear thick thermal and electrical conductivity, can be applied to the metal core multilayer printed circuit board.
Recently, also developed a color changing MoO3, this material will change color in bright light, and can be easily recovered, can be used for electronic computer optical storage element and the repeated use of the copy material.
Auto spraying molybdenum high melting point of 2620 DEG C, and has good high-temperature properties and corrosion resistance of molybdenum and iron and steel, strong binding force, which is mainly in the production of automobile parts of the thermal spraying material. Auto parts using molybdenum wire flame spraying, spraying gas mixing and spraying device to produce high temperature gas combustion, the special design of the combustion chamber and the gas jet mixing chamber, the molybdenum wire in complete melting, with high speed spraying on the surface of the workpiece, spraying molybdenum density above 99%, with the strength of nearly 10 2 kg / mm. This process can effectively improve the wear resistance by grinding surface, but also provides a porous surface can be impregnated with lubricating oil. It is widely used in the automotive industry to improve the piston ring, synchronous ring, fork and other parts of the grinding performance, is also used to repair the wear of the crankshaft, roller, shaft and other mechanical components. According to the data of spraying molybdenum wires the European market with annual sales of up to 1000 tons, the annual consumption reached 600 tons, Japan's annual consumption of molybdenum wire 30 - 40 tons, China's spraying molybdenum wire market capacity of 30 tons per year of Shang Xiaoyu. But with the development of China's automobile industry, automobile gear and other components of the thermal spraying will be greatly developed, spraying molybdenum wire sales will be greatly increased.
The high purity molybdenum in high temperature and high temperature, vapor pressure and other characteristics, the heating body and structure material which is often used to manufacture high temperature furnace. In the production process of tungsten and molybdenum and tungsten carbide, mostly using molybdenum wire heating production reduction furnace and sintering furnace, some iron products with continuous sintering molybdenum rod heating row for the heating body, both sides of the molybdenum rod heating in molybdenum hook hanging on the stove. This kind of stove is reductive or non oxidizing atmosphere, the hydrogen and ammonia decomposition of molybdenum wire can be used to close to the melting point, nitrogen can be used up to 2000 DEG C. The use of higher than 1700 DEG C, the recrystallization of TZM alloy or La Mo alloy temperature higher strength, better as the heating element. Molybdenum has good anti erosion property in the melting quartz, used as electric melting electrode in glass industry, each producing one ton of glass molybdenum electrode loss is only 7.8 grams, the service life of up to more than a year. Except for the electrode, molybdenum is used in glass melting high-temperature structural materials, such as the guide groove, stirring rod tube, crucible, mouth and rare earth smelting. The molybdenum platinum substitute in glass fiber drawing furnace with good effect, greatly reducing the cost of production. Nuclear fuel in sintering furnace has recently been developed by molybdenum heating, with the 0.8mm diameter of molybdenum wire woven into the three-phase mesh heater, the working temperature can reach 1800 and 2000 C. In addition, molybdenum and its alloys can also be used for hot isostatic pressing sintering grate, heat shield, and evaporation material, SmCo magnet and boat UO2 sintered plate, thermocouple and its protective sleeve etc..

molybdenum The development and utilization of

molybdenum purpose

Molybdenum is mainly used for steel industry Most of them, in the industrial molybdenum oxide block is directly used in steelmaking or cast iron A small part of smelting ferromolybdenum.
 Molybdenum foil Molybdenum foil
Then used for steelmaking. The molybdenum content in low alloy steel is less than 1%, but the consumption accounted for about 50% of the total consumption of molybdenum. Molybdenum stainless steel, can improve the steel Corrosion resistance . Molybdenum in cast iron, can improve the strength and wear resistance of iron. Nickel molybdenum containing 18% super alloy with high melting point, low density and low thermal expansion coefficient and other characteristics, used in the manufacture of aerospace all kinds of high temperature resistant component. Molybdenum is widely used in electron tubes, transistors and other electronic devices rectifier. Molybdenum oxide And molybdate are excellent catalysts for chemical and petroleum industries. MoS2 is an important lubricant used in aerospace and mechanical industry. In addition, MoS2 due to its unique sulfur resistant properties, can catalyze carbon monoxide under certain conditions Hydrogenation Preparation of alcohols, C1 chemical catalyst is promising. Molybdenum is one of the necessary trace elements in plants, as a trace element in agriculture chemical fertilizer .
Molybdenum in the electronics industry may replace graphene.
The United States of California Nanotechnology Research Institute (CNSI) successfully using MoS2 (molybdenite, MoS2) produced molybdenum based flexible micro processing chip, the MoS2 chip based micro silicon chip 20% is only the same size, low power consumption, power transistors made of Molybdenite in standby condition for silicon transistor the 1/100000, and the ratio of graphene circuits of the same size cheaper. But the biggest change is the circuit has very strong flexible, thin, can be attached to the human skin.
In 2011, Swiss Confederation Institute of technology Lausanne (EPFL) scientists have created the world's first molybdenite microchips (with smaller and more energy-efficient transistors). Molybdenite is the future to replace the silicon chip powerful competitors. Professor Andras Kish led the research, said that molybdenite is the next generation of good semiconductor materials, has a very broad prospect in the fabrication of ultra small transistors, light-emitting diodes and solar cells.
Compared with silicon and graphene, one of the advantages of molybdenite is smaller, molybdenite single molecular layer is two-dimensional, and silicon is a kind of three-dimensional materials. In a 0.65 nm thick molybdenum thin film, electronic movement and the two nm thick silicon films as molybdenite is easy, can be processed to only 3 atom thick!
The mechanical characteristics of Molybdenite has also made it attention, there may be an electronic device (e.g. for elastic elastic thin wafer) in materials. Can be used in the manufacture of flexible computer or device can be attached to the skin. Can even be implanted in the body.
"The British journal Nature Nanotechnology" pointed out: molybdenite materials of single shows good semiconductor properties, some performance over silicon and graphene research hot now widely used, is expected to become the next generation of semiconductor materials.
pure Molybdenum wire For the high temperature furnace and electric spark Processing and Line cutting Processing; molybdenum sheet used for the manufacture of radio equipment and X ray equipment; high temperature molybdenum
 Molybdenum Crucibles Molybdenum Crucibles
Ablation, mainly used for lighting the gun bore, rocket nozzle, electric Tungsten wire Support manufacturing. Alloy steel In addition can improve the mo Elastic limit Resistance and maintain Permanent magnetism So, Mo is the plant growth and development in the seven trace Nutrient elements A, the plants cannot survive without it. Animal and fish and plants, also need mo.
Application of molybdenum in other alloy field and chemical field is expanding. For example, widely used in all kinds of mechanical lubrication molybdenum disulfide lubricant, molybdenum gradually applied to nuclear power, new energy and other fields. Because of the importance of molybdenum, governments as a strategic metal, molybdenum in early twentieth Century has been widely used in the manufacture of weapon equipment, the requirements of modern high precision and advanced equipment for the material is higher, such as alloy alloy molybdenum and tungsten, chromium, vanadium for the manufacture of warships, rockets, satellites and components.
Molybdenum in thin-film solar and other coating industries, as substrates of different membrane surface has been widely used.

molybdenum Medical

Ammonium molybdate (Ammonium Molybdate)
Function and application: Mo as a component of a variety of enzymes, molybdenum deficiency causes dental caries , Renal calculus And Keshan disease, Kaschin Beck disease , Esophageal cancer Other diseases. Mainly used for patients with long-term dependence on intravenous nutrition.
The main function of the organism in molybdenum is involved in sulfur and iron, interaction between copper. Molybdenum is xanthine oxidase , Aldehyde oxidase and Sulfite Essential factor oxidases play biological activity on the body, Oxidation reduction In the process of electron transport Purine substances and sulfur Amino acid Has a certain influence the metabolism. In these three enzymes, molybdenum exists in the pterin cofactor form of origin. Molybdenum can inhibit the absorption of iron and copper in the small intestine, which may be the mechanism of molybdenum can be Competitive inhibition Intestinal mucosa Brush border The receptor, or not easily absorbed copper - molybdenum compound, molybdenum sulfur or sulfur compound Molybdate Copper (Cu-MoS) and plasma and the Ceruloplasmin Containing Copper protein Combination。
Usage: oral, adult daily dosage of 0.1 ~ 0.15mg.
Children's daily dosage of 0.03 ~ 0.1mg.
[side effect]: excess molybdenum can cause adverse reactions.
[note]: daily intake of more than 0.54mg, molybdenum can increase the copper in the urine. More than 10 ~ 15mg, can appear gout Syndrome.
The amount of application in the dairy feed: 10mg/d

molybdenum Molybdenum alloy

To molybdenum matrix The addition of other elements and a non-ferrous alloy. The main alloying elements titanium, zirconium Hafnium, tungsten, and Rare earth element . Titanium and zirconium,
 Molybdenum alloy Molybdenum alloy
Not only for hafnium Molybdenum alloy rise Solid solution strengthening Effect of low temperature, keep the plasticity of the alloy, but also formed a stable, dispersed carbide To improve the strength of the alloy and the phase. The recrystallization temperature . The molybdenum alloy has good Heat conduction , Conductivity And low expansion coefficient, at high temperature (1100 ~ 1650 DEG C) high strength, easy processing than tungsten. Can be used as Electron tube The gate and anode Supporting material, electric light source, as well as for the production of die casting and extrusion die, spacecraft parts etc.. Because of a low temperature brittleness of molybdenum alloy and welding brittle, and prone to oxidation at high temperature, so its development is limited. The industrial production of molybdenum alloy titanium zirconium molybdenum, molybdenum and tungsten and molybdenum rare earth alloys, is widely used in the first class. The main ways to strengthen the molybdenum alloy is solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening and work hardening. The plastic processing can be made of molybdenum alloy plate, strip, foil, pipe, bar, wire and profile, but also improve its strength and improve the low temperature plasticity.

molybdenum Harm

molybdenum Molybdenum deficiency

Dietary molybdenum is easily absorbed. But the sulfate (SO Four Because of the formation of sulfuric acid) of molybdenum and molybdenum (molybdenum sulfate) and the effect of molybdenum absorption. At the same time, sulfate can inhibit renal tubular reabsorption of molybdenum, which increases the excretion from the kidney. Thus in vivo Sulfur amino acid The increase in urine can promote the excretion of molybdenum. In addition to the main molybdenum from urine excretion, still a small part with bile.
Molybdenum deficiency dominantly inherited molybdenum metabolic defects, molybdenum happened some reports of total parenteral nutrition time. Mo deficiency showed growth retardation or even death, urinary uric acid, xanthine And increase the excretion of hypoxanthine.

molybdenum Molybdenum excessive

Human and animal body of molybdenum has strong stability in mechanism, oral intake of molybdenum compounds is not easy to cause poisoning.
 Sodium molybdate Sodium molybdate
According to the report, live in Armenia Area residents daily molybdenum intake up to 10~15mg; the local gout incidence is particularly high, and it's been linked to. Molybdenum smelter workers may also be due to inhalation of dust containing molybdenum and excessive intake of molybdenum. According to the survey, these workers serum levels of molybdenum and xanthine oxidase activity in blood and urine uric acid levels were significantly higher than that of the general population.

molybdenum Molybdenum pollution

The average of molybdenum in the crust abundance 1.3ppm, in Molybdenite Molybdenum, lead
 Mo Piercing Mandrel Mo Piercing Mandrel
The water in the iron ore mine, molybdenum. Fossil fuels also containing molybdenum. Natural water in molybdenum concentration is very low, the average concentration of molybdenum in seawater was 14 g / L. Molybdenum in the atmosphere mainly by molybdate and Molybdenum oxide The state of low concentration, molybdenum compound is usually less than 1 micrograms per meter.
In the environment of molybdenum from two sources :
The weathering of the molybdenum released from the rock. An estimated 1000 tons per year into the water and soil, and mobility in the environment. The uneven distribution of molybdenum, molybdenum deficiency caused in some areas and the emergence of "soil disease"; also caused some areas containing molybdenum high and "gout" (such as Armenia).
The human activity is more and more widely application of molybdenum and molybdenum containing combustion of fossil fuels (such as coal), thus increasing the circulation in the environment of molybdenum. The whole world molybdenum yield of 100 thousand tons per year, burning into the environment of molybdenum of 800 tons per year. The circulation of human activities into more than natural circulation. Molybdenum is the largest metallurgy, electronics, aerospace and missile, atomic energy Industrial and agricultural chemical, etc.. At present Molybdenum pollution There is not enough research.
In the environment of molybdenum oxidation migration in same environment and reducing conditions, pH and other media related. The water and soil Oxidation The higher, more alkaline, molybdenum is easily formed by MoO Han ion; plants can absorb this state of molybdenum. The increasing acidity or environment Reduction Higher molybdenum easily converted into complex ions, and ultimately the formation of MoO Xun; this state is clay and molybdenum Soil colloid Fixed and humic acid and lose activity, not for plant uptake. In the sea, the sea Reducing environment The Mo adsorbed organic matter after wrapped in manganese colloid, and ultimately the formation of tuberculosis submerged in the sea, from the biosphere circulation.
Molybdenum has little effect on the warm blooded animal and fish. The high content of molybdenum has adverse effects on plant test showed that the molybdenum concentration is 0.5 ~ 100 mg / l will produce different effects on the growth of flax; 10 ~ 20 mg / L on the growth of soybean have hazards; 25 ~ 35 mg / L on the growth of cotton with slight harm; 40 mg / l the sugar beet growth harm. The water in the molybdenum concentration reached 5 mg / L, water Biological self purification Can be suppressed; 10 mg / L, this effect was more inhibited, water has strong astringency; 100 mg / L, microbial growth slowed down, the water has a bitter taste. Chinese ground provisions of molybdenum in water The maximum allowable concentration 0.5 mg / L, soluble molybdenum in workshop air maximum allowable concentration of 4 mg / m3;, insoluble molybdenum is 6 mg / cubic meter;.

molybdenum The impact on the environment

Health hazards
Pathways: inhalation, ingestion.
Health hazards: irritating to the eyes and skin. Some contacts of pneumoconiosis disease, conscious of dyspnea, fatigue, dizziness, chest pain, cough, etc..
Toxicology information and environmental behavior
Acute toxicity: LD506.1mg/kg (rat oral)
Dangerous characteristic: the powder in high temperature and fire burning and explosion. It can react with oxidants.
Combustion product: molybdenum oxide (decomposition).
Emergency monitoring methods
A portable colorimeter (water)
Laboratory monitoring method
Thiocyanate colorimetric method
flame Atomic absorption spectrometry
Atomic absorption spectrometry
Environmental standard
China (TJ36-79 4mg/m3): the maximum allowable concentration of harmful substances in the air of workplace (soluble compounds), 6mg/m3 (insoluble compounds)
Chinese (GB/T14848-93): the groundwater quality standard (mg/L) class I 0.001; type 0.01; type 0.1; type 0.5; V >0.5
China: drinking water of harmful substances maximum allowable concentration of 0.5mg/L
Emergency treatment and disposal methods
1, emergency treatment
Isolation of contaminated area around, warning signs, cut off the fire. Recommended emergency personnel wear self-contained breathing apparatus. Chemical protective clothing . The use of non sparking tools carefully scan, avoid dust, transported to the waste disposal sites. Water scrubbing leakage pollution area, diluted washing water system of waste water. Such as a large number of leaks, recycling or waste harmless treatment.
2, protection measures
Respiratory protection: workers must wear protective masks. When necessary to wear a self-contained breathing apparatus.
Eye protection: wear chemical Safety glasses .
Wear protective clothing: Antistatic clothing .
Hand protection: wear chemical protective gloves.
Other: the work site prohibit smoking, eating and drinking. Take a shower after work. Pay attention to personal hygiene.
3, first aid measures
Skin contact: wash thoroughly with soap and water. Medical treatment.
Eye contact: open the eyelids, irrigate with flowing water for 15 minutes. Medical treatment.
Inhalation: from the scene to fresh air. Medical treatment.
Ingestion: drink oral intake amount of warm water, vomiting. Medical treatment.
Method: dry powder extinguishing.