V: Element symbols V, silver white Metal In the periodic table, belonging to the VB family, Atomic number 23, atomic weight 50.9414, body centered cubic crystal, valence +5, +4, common +3, +2. The melting point of vanadium is very high, often with niobium and tantalum, tungsten and molybdenum are called Refractory metal . Yes Ductility No matter, hard magnetic. Resistant to hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid ability, salt resistance, water resistance performance and corrosion resistance than most, in Stainless steel Good. In the air is not oxidized, soluble hydrofluoric acid , nitric acid And aqua regia.

vanadium Study of history

Vanadium has been found for the two time. The first time was in 1801 by the Mexico City Professor of mineralogy at Riva discovered chastity. He found it in the vanadite sample, the sample is Pb Five (VO Four ) Three Cl, because of this new element Salt solution Is bright red when heated, so called "aliette Ronnie", "red", and the goods sent to Paris. However, the French chemist concluded that it is a kind of polluted chrome ore, so not to be recognized.
The second time was in 1830, the Swedish chemist Saif J Thrun (Sefstrom.N.G, 1787-1845) in the study of Ma Lan, the iron ore mining area, dissolved by acid iron Vanadium was found in the residue. Because vanadium compounds color riotous with colour is very beautiful, so I used. The ancient Greek myth A man called Vanna Di S "Vanadis" the beautiful goddess name for this new element called Vanadium".
 vanadium vanadium
According to the Chinese transliteration named vanadium. The saf director, Vhailor Jjberzelius, et al have studied to confirm the existence of vanadium, vanadium, but they never separated Elemental V. Later 1830 Write the wood in the temple by Hitler Sweden It was found that the iron ore extracted iron, and this is certainly a new element called V, he can prove that it is a kind of new elements, and thus defeated a competition with him in Zimapan (from the chemist. Mexico Waller (Friedrich W), hler), he is also on another kind of vanadium ore was studied.
Found after vanadium for thirty years in the SAF director, in 1869 the British chemist Roscoe (Roscoe.H.E, 1833-1915) two reduction of vanadium oxide with hydrogen, was first prepared with pure metal vanadium, and he proved that metal samples before it is vanadium nitride (VN).

vanadium Content distribution

Vanadium found throughout the world. In the earth's crust, vanadium content and a lot of on average twenty thousand atoms, one more than the content of vanadium atom, copper, tin, zinc, nickel, but the distribution of vanadium is too dispersed, almost no content of more deposit. In the sea, in the Sea urchin Marine organisms, in magnetite In a variety of mineral and ash in asphalt, the spectral lines in the meteorite fell to earth and the sun, people have found traces of vanadium. Vanadium is widely distributed on the earth, its content accounted for about 0.02% of the crust of the earth, is relatively easy to obtain.
The world known vanadium reserves is produced in 98% Vanadium titanium magnetite . In addition to vanadium titanium magnetite, vanadium resources also occurs in Phosphate rock Ore, uranium bearing sandstone, siltstone, bauxite Carbonaceous. crude oil And coal, oil shale and Asphalt sand In.
The vanadium titanium magnetite ore reserves are large, and concentrated in a few countries and regions, including the United States, CIS, Chinese, South Africa Norway, Sweden, Finland, Canada, Australia, and concentrated in the South Africa, North America and other regions. According to the statistical data show that in 1988 the U.S. Bureau of mines, the world reserve base of 1.6 tons of vanadium (V to gauge). According to the mining of the present calculations, vanadium resources in the world are proven to be mined for 150 years. From the reserve base, South Africa accounted for 46%, accounted for 23.6% of the CIS, the United States accounted for 13.1%, China accounted for 11.6%, other countries combined is less than 6%.
In South Africa, usually in vanadium Vanadium magnetite The ledge. The average grade of the ore is 1.5%. It is estimated that South Africa vanadium reserves of about 12 million 500 thousand tons, the first in the world.
Minerals carnotite, Brown. and Patronite Stone coal, etc.. Chinese vanadium resources
The country, vanadium reserves of 20 million 550 thousand tons (V Two O Five Meter) occurs mainly in vanadium titanium magnetite, and concentrated in the Sichuan Panzhihua City Chengde City, Hebei. Panzhihua vanadium reserves of 12 million 950 thousand tons, accounting for Chinese vanadium reserves of 63%.
The content of elements in seawater 0.0016ppm
The content of elements in the sun 0.4ppm
In the earth's crust 160ppm

vanadium Physical property

Vanadium is a silver metal. The melting point of 1890 - 10 DEG C, which belongs to the high melting point Rare metal The column. It is the boiling point of 3380 DEG C, pure vanadium quality hard, non-magnetic, with Ductility But, if they contain small amounts of impurities, especially nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, can significantly reduce the plasticity.
Atomic volume (cm3 / mol) Eight point seven eight
Relative atomic mass Fifty point nine four
Mohs hardness Seven
In the sound propagation rate (m/s) Four thousand five hundred and sixty
Density (g/cm3) Five point nine six
melting point 1890 + 10 C
boiling point 3000 C
Atomic number Twenty-three
The number of protons Twenty-three
The number of neutrons Thirty-seven
The number of electrons Twenty-three

Crystal: crystal body centered cubic cell, each cell containing 2 metal atoms.
Lattice parameters:
A = 303 PM Alpha = 90 degrees
B = 303 PM Beta = 90 degrees
C = 303 PM Gamma = 90 degrees

vanadium Chemical property

vanadium Basic properties

The properties of vanadium and tantalum and niobium are similar, the British chemist Roscoe studied the nature of it, sure it is similar to tantalum and niobium, which is three of them on Periodic table of ele ments The Communist Party of China to build a family foundation. Vanadium is a reactive metal medium, Valence +2, +3, +4 and +5. Of which 5 valence is the most stable, followed by 4 valence compounds, pentavalent vanadium is oxidation, reduction of low valent vanadium is. The lower valence of vanadium reduction is stronger. ionization Energy is 6.74 EV, resistant to hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid ability, salt resistance, water resistance properties and corrosion resistance, in the most stainless steel than good. Vanadium air is not oxidized, soluble in hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid and Aqua .
The cycle Four
What is the number of family VB
Electronic distribution layer 2-8-11-2
Electronic layer 2-8-11-2
Valence electron configuration K-L-M-N
Oxidation state V+3, V+4, V+5, V-3, V-1, V0, V+1, V+2
The peripheral electronic layer arrangement 3d3 4s2
Nuclear charge number Twenty-three

Ionization energy (kJ /mol):
M - M+ 650
Six hundred and fifty
M+ - M2+ One thousand four hundred and fourteen
M2+ - M3+ Two thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight
M4+ - M5+ Six thousand two hundred and ninety-four
M5+ - M6+ Twelve thousand three hundred and sixty-two
M6+ - M7+ Fourteen thousand four hundred and eighty-nine
M7+ - M8+ Sixteen thousand seven hundred and sixty
M8+ - M9+ Nineteen thousand eight hundred and sixty
M9+ - M10+ Twenty-two thousand two hundred and forty

M - M+ 650

vanadium Chemical compound

Vanadium can respectively two or three, four, pentavalent to oxygen and then form four kinds of oxides, a vanadium oxide, three of two vanadium vanadium oxide, two, five of two vanadium. Following their properties:
The density of g/cm3
Melting point temperature
The heat of formation
Kcal per mole
One thousand eight hundred and thirty
One hundred and six
V Two O Three
Four point eight five
One thousand nine hundred and sixty
Three hundred
VO Two
Navy Blue
One thousand five hundred and forty-five
One hundred and seventy-one
V Two O Five
Red and yellow
Three point three two
Six hundred and ninety
Three hundred and seventy-three

The density of g/cm3
Melting point temperature
The heat of formation
Kcal per mole
One hundred and six
V Two O Three
Four point eight five
One thousand nine hundred and sixty
Three hundred
VO Two
Navy Blue
One thousand five hundred and forty-five
One hundred and seventy-one
V Two O Five
Red and yellow
Three point three two
Six hundred and ninety
Three hundred and seventy-three
Under high temperature, metal vanadium easily with oxygen and nitrogen. When the metal vanadium when heated in air, oxidation of vanadium into dark brown Three of two vanadium Four, deep blue two vanadium oxide, and eventually become orange Five of two vanadium :
Vanadium in nitrogen heated to 900~1300 DEG C will generate vanadium nitride. Vanadium and carbon can generate vanadium carbide at high temperature, but the carbonization reaction must be carried out in a vacuum. When vanadium under vacuum or inert atmosphere with silicon, boron, phosphorus and arsenic together when heated, forming the silicide, corresponding boride, phosphide and arsenide. Vanadium ions with different valences have different colors: (VO Two ) The color is light yellow or dark green, (VO) The color is blue, V Green V Purple.

vanadium Vanadium salt

We usually say the vanadium salt refers to these: containing V (VO, containing Three ) The (vanadate), containing VO ( Four ) The (orthovanadate), they include: ammonium metavanadate, sodium metavanadate, potassium vanadate, sodium orthovanadate, sodium vanadate; tetravalent salt: vanadyl sulfate and oxalic acid vanadyl chloride four; vanadium vanadium halide; three oxychloride vanadium vanadium oxide type halogen.
Vanadium salts color is green, resplendent with variegated coloration, red, black, yellow,
Green jade blue, black as ink. Such as the two valent vanadium salt often purple; trivalent vanadium salt is green, tetravalent vanadium salt was light blue, alkaline derivatives tetravalent vanadium is usually brown or black, and five of two vanadium is red. These colorful vanadium compounds, were made in bright pigment: add them to the glass, made Color glass Can also be used to manufacture all kinds of ink.

vanadium isotope

A total of 31 vanadium isotopes, which are 50 natural vanadium and vanadium 51, all by artificial synthesis. The following table properties:
Symbol Z (P) N (n) The quality (U) half life The nuclear spin Relative abundance Changes in the relative abundance ratio

Excitation energy          
V40 Twenty-three Seventeen Forty point zero one one zero nine   2-    
V41 Twenty-three Eighteen Forty point nine nine nine seven eight   7/2-    
V42 Twenty-three Nineteen Forty-one point nine nine one two three <55 NS 2-    
V43 Twenty-three Twenty Forty-two point nine eight zero six five 80ms 7/2-    
V44 Twenty-three Twenty-one Forty-three point nine seven four one one 111 MS (2+)    
V44m 270keV 150ms (6+)    
V45 Twenty-three Twenty-two Forty-four point nine six five seven seven six 547 MS 7/2-    
V46 Twenty-three Twenty-three Forty-five point nine six zero two Zero Zero Five 422.50ms 0+    
V46m 801.46 keV 1.02 MS 3+    
V47 Twenty-three Twenty-four Forty-six point nine five four nine zero eight nine 32.6min 3/2-    
V48 Twenty-three Twenty-five Forty-seven point nine five two two five three seven 15.9735 D 4+    
V49 Twenty-three Twenty-six Forty-eight point nine four eight five one six one 329d 7/2-    
V50 Twenty-three Twenty-seven Forty-nine point nine four seven one five eight five 1.4 x 10A 6+ Zero point zero zero two five zero 0.002487-0.002502
V51 Twenty-three Twenty-eight Fifty point nine four three nine five nine five Stable 7/2- Zero point nine nine seven five zero 0.997498-0.997513
V52 Twenty-three Twenty-nine Fifty-one point nine four four seven seven five five 3.743min 3+    
V53 Twenty-three Thirty Fifty-two point nine four four three three eight 1.60 min 7/2-    
V54 Twenty-three Thirty-one Fifty-three point nine four six four four zero 49.8 s 3+    
V54m 108keV 900 NS (5+)    
V55 Twenty-three Thirty-two Fifty-four point nine four seven two three 6.54s (7/2-)    
V56 Twenty-three Thirty-three Fifty-five point nine five zero five three 216ms (1+)    
V57 Twenty-three Thirty-four Fifty-six point nine five two five six 0.35s (3/2-)    
V58 Twenty-three Thirty-five Fifty-seven point nine five six eight three 191 MS 3+    
V59 Twenty-three Thirty-six Fifty-eight point nine six zero two one 75ms 7/2-    
V60 Twenty-three Thirty-seven Fifty-nine point nine six five zero three 122ms 3+    
V60m1 150keV 40ms 1+    
V60m2 101keV >400 NS      
V61 Twenty-three Thirty-eight Sixty point nine six eight four eight 47.0ms 7/2-    
V62 Twenty-three Thirty-nine Sixty-one point nine seven three seven eight 33.5ms 3+    
V63 Twenty-three Forty Sixty-two point nine seven seven five five 17ms (7/2-)    
V64 Twenty-three Forty-one Sixty-three point nine eight three four seven 10 ms [>300 ns]      
V65 Twenty-three Forty-two Sixty-four point nine eight seven nine two 10ms 5/2-

vanadium Preparation method

Pure metal vanadium is generally used under high pressure will be five K two vanadium reduction obtained. Most of vanadium is a by-product of other mineral processing. The industry can also be aluminum, coke reduction five of two vanadium production of pure vanadium.
Five of two vanadium reducing coke production of pure vanadium is V Two O Five High purity carbon powder and mixed evenly, add 10% camphor ether solution or alcohol, pressing into vacuum induction furnace or carbon resistance furnace. The furnace vacuum pressure to 6.66 * 10-1Pa, up to 1573K, 2h insulation. After cooling the reaction product is broken. According to the first reduction product components and then adding vanadium carbide or vanadium oxide two reduction. Two reduction of vacuum pressure in the furnace is 2.66 * 10-2Pa, the temperature control between 1973 ~ 2023K, and insulation for a period of time. The reduction of vanadium metal vacuum carbon content (mass fraction m/%): 99.5 V, 0.05 oxygen, 0.01 nitrogen, carbon 0.1. The vanadium yield of 98% ~ 99%.
Thermal reduction of aluminium is five of two vanadium and aluminum on the reaction elastic reaction, generating vanadium Aluminum Alloy. Vanadium alloy dealuminated 2063K in high temperature and vacuum, coarse metal vanadium prepared vanadium containing 94% ~ 97%.

vanadium application area

vanadium Industrial uses

Adding a few percent of vanadium in the steel, can make the elastic strength of steel, increase abrasion resistance and spalling resistance excellent, high temperature resistance and resistance in the car, no wonder the bitterly cold, aviation, railway, electronics, defense industry and other departments, can be seen everywhere traces of vanadium. In addition, vanadium oxide has become one of the best catalysts in the chemical industry, the "chemical bread"
 vanadium vanadium
Said. Mainly used in the manufacture of high-speed cutting steel and other Alloy steel And catalyst. The vanadium doped into steel can be made. Vanadium steel . A more compact structure than ordinary steel vanadium steel, toughness, elasticity and higher mechanical strength. Preparation of vanadium steel penetrators, can penetrate 40 cm thick steel plate . However, in steel industry That is not the pure metal vanadium steel to make vanadium steel, the vanadium ore smelting vanadium steel.
Vanadium has many excellent physical and chemical properties, and vanadium are used widely, a metal called "vitamin". The original vanadium mostly used in iron and steel, through the refinement of microstructure and grain, improve the grain coarsening temperature, so as to increase the strength of steel, toughness And wear resistance. Later, people gradually found in vanadium titanium alloy Excellent improvement in, and applied to the field of aerospace, aviation and aerospace industry to make breakthrough. With the rapid development of science and technology, human new material The increasing demand. Vanadium is used more and more widely in the field of non steel, which covers many fields of aerospace, chemical, battery, paint, glass, optics, medicine etc..
V "modern industrial MSG", is an important material for the development of modern industry, modern national defense and indispensable in modern science and technology. The maximum amount of vanadium in metallurgical industry. From the view of the world, consumption in iron and steel industry accounted for 85% of the total production of vanadium. At the same time, the application of vanadium in other fields of chemical industry, vanadium battery and aerospace are also expanding, and has good prospects for development.
Vanadium in iron and steel industry is mainly used as alloy additives, the change and development of iron and steel industry is very important to the prediction of vanadium demand. That is to say, the demand trend of vanadium steel vanadium industry determines the fate of.
China steel production of about 6 tons, the average consumption per ton of vanadium strength increased 10g, equivalent to five of two vanadium is about 11 thousand tons. In the United States, steel and high strength low alloy steel is the largest amount of vanadium in the iron and steel industry, iron and steel industry accounted for more than 60% of the amount of vanadium, followed by high alloy steel.

vanadium Vanadium battery

Vanadium battery is one of the strong momentum of development of the outstanding green battery (currently manufacturing, and use its waste process does not produce harmful substances), it has a special structure of the battery, the depth of high current density discharge; rapid charging; high energy; low price; application field is very wide: such as a building, the airport, program-controlled exchange station can be used as standby power; supporting storage solar and other clean energy generation system and device; provide electricity for power grid peak shaving for submarines and ships.
Vanadium battery cost and lead-acid batteries are similar, it can be used for the preparation of megawatt battery provides power for a long time electric energy Therefore, the vanadium battery can have lithium-ion batteries, nickel hydrogen batteries unparalleled price advantage in large-scale storage. vanadium Battery production process Simple, affordable, excellent electrical properties, and manufacture of complex and expensive fuel cell Compared, both in large scale energy storage and power supply for electric vehicle applications, are more competitive.
Compared with other chemical power, vanadium battery has obvious advantages, the main advantages are as follows: 1, power: by increasing the number of single cell and the electrode area, can increase the power of vanadium battery, the power of vanadium battery of American commercial demonstration operation has reached 6 mw. 2, capacity: increase the electrolyte volume can be increased by any arbitrary vanadium battery, up to GWH above; by increasing the concentration of the electrolyte, the battery can be multiplied vanadium. 3, high efficiency: the catalytic activity of vanadium battery is high, and the positive and negative active substances are stored in positive and negative electrolyte storage tank, to avoid the self discharge consumption of positive and negative active material, vanadium battery charge and discharge energy conversion efficiency as high as 75%, far higher than the lead-acid battery 45%. 4, long life: as vanadium battery positive and negative electrode active material respectively, Yu Zheng negative electrolyte, phase change the charge and discharge of battery without other common objects, the depth of discharge and no damage to the battery, the battery of long service life. The current commercial demonstration module of vanadium battery with the longest running time has been running for more than 9 years, charge and discharge cycle life of more than 18000 times, far higher than the fixed type lead-acid battery 1000. 5, fast response speed, the heap is filled with electrolyte of vanadium battery can be activated in an instant, in the process of operation state of charge discharge switch requires only 0.02 seconds, the response speed of 1 ms. 6, instant charging: by replacing the electrolyte of vanadium battery can achieve instant charging. 7, high security: vanadium battery potential explosion or fire hazard, even if the positive and negative electrolyte mixture without danger, but the temperature of the electrolyte increased slightly. 8, low cost: in addition to ionic membrane, vanadium battery components for carbon materials, engineering plastics cheap, abundant raw materials, easy recovery, no need of noble metal electrode catalyst, low cost. 9, the location of vanadium battery freedom, full automatic closed operation, no pollution, simple maintenance, low operation cost.

vanadium For medical purposes

Vanadium is an essential trace element content in the body is about 25mg, mainly in the form of fluid under the condition of pH4~8 vanadium VO That is, sub Vanadate Ion (metavandate); the other is the +5 oxidation VO Four The vanadate ion (orthovanadate). Because of the similar biological effect, general vanadate (Va) to refer to these two kinds of +5 oxidation ion. VO The ion transport system or free access to the cells, the intracellular by Glutathione Reduced to VO (+4 price Oxidation state ), namely vanadyl ions (vanadyl). Due to phosphate and Mg Ion exists widely in intracellular VO Similar structure of phosphate, VO With Mg The size ( Ionic radius Are 160pm and 165pm), and the two is possible with phosphoric acid and Mg Competitive binding ligands interfere with the cell's biochemical reaction process. For example, the inhibition of ATP phosphorylation hydrolysis Enzyme, DNA Ribozyme Phosphofructokinases And glyceraldehyde phosphate kinase, glucose 6- phosphate and phosphoric acid enzyme Tyrosine protein kinase . Therefore, a wide range of biological effects of vanadium into cells with. Vanadium compound has relatively easy synthesis, low price advantage, so the study of antihypertensive mechanism of vanadium compounds is conducive to the development and utilization of vanadium.
The existing domestic and international research on vanadium compounds in 20 years of history, the early research mostly concentrated in the hypoglycemic effects of vanadium compounds, also have isolated coronary artery diastolic pig can report vanadium. Recently, some foreign research started with vanadium compound treatment Essential hypertension Rats have access to certain experimental results. It has been reported that BMOV can reduce SHR Hyperinsulinemia And high blood pressure. Other scholars explore the drug effect of vanadium compounds on blood pressure in rats with SHR and WKY contrast, the visible vanadium compounds lowered the systolic pressure (149 + 3/mmHg, 184 + 3mmHgP<0.0001 non treatment group).
The normal growth of vanadium is likely essential minerals, a variety of vanadium valence, with biological significance is tetravalent and pentavalent state. Tetravalent vanadium as vanadyl cation, easy to combine with protein complexes and prevent oxidation. Pentavalent states of vanadium as vanadyl cation, and other biological substances complexes in many biochemical processes, vanadate and Phosphate Competition, or replace the phosphate. Vanadate by vitamin C, glutathione or NADH reduction. Its role in human health, nutrition, medicine is still not very clear, is still in the process of further excavations, but can confirm that vanadium plays an important role. Generally, it may help to prevent and reduce the excessive accumulation of cholesterol, prevent blood sugar dental caries Help the production of red blood cells, etc.. Every day after urine The loss of part V.
Very low vanadium content in human body, the total lack of 1mg. Mainly in the internal organs, especially the liver, kidney, thyroid and other parts, higher content of bone tissue. The normal need for the amount of vanadium is 100 g/d.
Vanadium in the gastrointestinal absorption rate of only 5%, the main absorption site in upper digestive tract. In addition, vanadium in environment by skin and lung is absorbed into the body. About 95% of the blood by vanadium ion state (VO2+) and transferrin binding and transport, therefore, vanadium and iron in the body can affect each other.
Vanadium on bone and teeth, normal development and calcification, can enhance the resistance of dental caries. Vanadium also can promote glucose metabolism, stimulate the vanadate dependent NADPH oxidation reaction , enhance Lipoprotein Lipase activity, accelerate adenylate cyclase activation and conversion of amino acids and promote Red blood cell Growth effect. Therefore, vanadium deficiency can occur when the teeth, bone and cartilage development blocked. Less phospholipid content in the liver, Nutritional edema And the abnormal metabolism of thyroid gland.
Only a small part of the human intake of vanadium is absorbed, the insufficient intake of vanadium absorption estimates of 5%, most of the feces. In the small intestine and low intake of vanadium molecular weight The material to form a complex, and then transported in the blood plasma Ferritin With the blood of vanadium in quickly transported to the organization, usually most of tissue per gram wet weight of vanadium containing less than 10ng. The 80%-90% absorbed into the body by the urine, can also be through the bile discharge per gram of bile containing vanadium 0.55-1.85ng.
Experiments suggest that the regulation of vanadium (Nak) -ATP enzyme and regulation of phosphoryl Transferase , Adenylate cyclase , protein kinase Class Cofactor , proteins and hormones, lipid metabolism is closely related. Can inhibit the production of cholesterol in the liver of young rats. May have the following functions: 1 to prevent overheating and fatigue and heat stroke. 2 to promote the growth of bones and teeth. 3 assist Fat metabolism The normalization. 4 Prevention heart Attack. 5 to assist the normal operation of nerve and muscle.
Daily diet can provide less than 30 g of vanadium, is 15 g, so consider the daily intake from the diet of 10 g can meet the needs of vanadium. Do not need special supplement; it is a reminder that the synthesis of vanadium uptake easily lead poisoning; besides smoking will reduce the absorption of vanadium.
Vanadium accumulation in the body is not easy, so the food poisoning caused by ingestion is very rare, but the daily intake of more than 10mg or per gram of food in vanadium containing 10 micrograms of -20, poisoning can occur. Usually can slow growth, diarrhea, intake and death.
The most recognized the lack of performance of vanadium from goats and rats reported in 1987, the vanadium deficiency goats showed increased miscarriage rates and reduced milk production. The rats in the experiment, vanadium deficiency induced growth inhibition, the ratio of thyroid weight and weight increase and plasma thyroid hormone The change of concentration. For the deficiency of the human body is not clear, some studies suggest that the lack of it may lead to cardiovascular and renal disease, wound regeneration loss and neonatal death.

vanadium Safety measures

vanadium Environmental hazards

The concentration of vanadium in natural water is very low, generally in the river water is 0.01 ~ 20ppb, average 1ppb. The water content of vanadium is 0.9 ~ 2.5ppb. Although the water soluble vanadium content is very low, but the suspension in water containing vanadium content is very high. Suspended sediment in water due to vanadium migration to the sediment, and the purification of water. Vanadium mainly VO Anion state. The oxidation of soil is higher, the greater the alkaline, vanadium is easier to form VO Ion. When the acidity of the soil increased, VO Ions are easy to be changed into a multi vanadate composite anion. They are easy to be fixed and humus clay and soil colloid and lose activity of weak migration of vanadium in soil in.

vanadium Toxicological data

Vanadium toxicity was low. Vanadium compounds (vanadium salt) is toxic to human and animal, increase its toxicity increased with compound valence and the solubility increased, such as the five of two vanadium is highly toxic, can cause respiratory system, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and skin changes.

vanadium Hazard control

Skin contact: remove contaminated clothing, wash thoroughly with soap and water. Eye contact: immediately turn on the lower eyelids, irrigate with flowing water for 15 minutes. Medical treatment. Inhalation: from the scene to fresh air, dust and water to wash the nasopharynx. Medical treatment. Ingestion: oral intake for medical treatment. Symptomatic treatment.

vanadium Storage and transportation

Store in a cool, ventilated warehouse. Keep away from fire and heat source. Should be kept separate from oxidizing agents, acids, edible chemicals, avoid mixing reservoir. Equipped with the appropriate quantity and variety of fire fighting equipment. The storage area should be equipped with the right material for leakage.