Oat (Latin name: <i> Avena sativa</i> L.) to gramineous plants, "Compendium of Materia Medica" called Brome, wild wheat. Oat is not easy peeling, so called skin oats, a low sugar, high nutrition, high energy food. Sexual flavour Ganping oats. Can the spleen Yangxin, sweating. Have a high nutritional value. Can be used for body empty spontaneous sweating, night sweats or pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Jiantang clothes, or "face and Chung peeled steamed cakes." (the "Materia Medica"). Oat cold, drought, soil adaptability is very strong, can self reproduce. Oats are rich in dietary fiber, can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, conducive to defecation, low calorie, low glycemic index, glucose and lipid metabolism, but also one of the high-grade tonic, in poor areas is an indispensable food.
In 1997 the United States FDA identified oats as functional foods, can reduce cholesterol, blood sugar stable effect. The U.S. "time" magazine's "ten global health food" Zhong Yan Mai ranked fifth on the list is the only cereal.
Grain for grinding food or feed, high nutritional value. In Chinese daily consumption Wheat
9 kinds of food, oat's economic value was the highest, which is mainly manifested in nutrition, health care and nutritional value are high. The increase in oat beta glucan can reduce blood glucose levels, the prevention and control of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Oats are rich in dietary fiber has the effect of cleaning intestinal waste.
oats History of Botany
Oat belongs to minor cereals
, there are mainly two kinds, one is a skin of oats, naked oats.
Naked oats mature without shell, which is commonly known as lettuce, naked oats, oat is the most domestic. Pi Yanmai after the mature with shell, such as the import of Australian oat.
In our country, oat (OAT) is one of the main Alpine crop, for fine grains. Mainly produced in the upper dam alpine region, Gramineae, annual herb (Cramineae). The long term and wheat are roughly the same, but the adaptability is very strong, cold and drought tolerance, like sunshine.
China is one of the origin of oats, Inner Mongolia Wuchuan County
Oat is one of the world's birthplace,
Known as the "hometown of Chinese oats". The ancient books have been documented. In "Er Ya interpretation grass" named "Yue", "historical records" biography of Sima Xiangru "called" Shai "," Tang Bencao "called" in brome". "Compendium of Materia Medica" said: "to eat wild oats, because the bird, named". In addition, the "herbal medicine" and "agricultural policy book" and other books, are described.
Liu Meng of the Tang Dynasty have "Eranthis oats, shake the spring breeze" sentence, that oat cultivation in China with long history, and there are around the distribution, especially in North China and the Tibetan Plateau, the Great Wall and Inner Mongolia, northeastern areas or semi pastoral areas cultivated more. North of the the Great Wall in Shuozhou and Shanxi and Qinba mountainous alpine areas, because of the cool climate, has widely cultivated oats.
"In the Tang Dynasty, Tubo biography" recorded in Tibet have been planted with a barley oats (also known as naked oats). All these show that China is one of the centers of origin of oat.
To whether the seeds shell is divided into strip lemma (Fu) type and bare grain type. With lemma type of oat shell long and hard, mature grains wrapped in a shell, often called skin oats, mainly used as feed and forage cultivation, mainly around the world with the oat hull.
oats Morphological character
Annual herb roots, culms erect smooth, Leaf sheath
Smooth or have small hair back, Ligule
No, auricles, flat leaves; Panicles
(panicle), rachis erect or pendulous, to carry around, pedicel droop; spikelets large herbaceous, hard lemma glabrous, with or without awn; caryopsis ventral with longitudinal grooves are sparse pubescence when mature; palea to grain, not easy to be separated, and the Naked oats
With terminal panicles. 2 to the number of spikelets with flowers, mostly longer than 2 cm, stem bending, divorced from the above and the small Ying has been between 7 to 11, Ying Mai, longer than the lower floret, lemma 5 to many hard
texture, 9 veined, awned or not, from the middle out lemma awn awn, torsion and curved; stamens 3, ovary hairy.
This kind of like wild oats Avena fatua
Linn., the main characters for spikelet containing 1 to 2 florets; rachilla nearly glabrous or sparsely pubescent, not easy to fall off; the first lemma back glabrous, base only with a few short hairs or nearly glabrous, without awn, or only 1 back straight awn, second lemma glabrous, usually without awn.
oats geographical distribution
Northeast China, North China, northwest, southwest and Guangdong, Guangxi and other provinces of central China for cultivation. Grain for grinding food or feed, high nutritional value. The type specimen was collected from europe.
Oat (Avena sativa L). The world is cultivated crops, distributed in five continents in 42 countries, but is the focus areas of the Northern Hemisphere The temperate zone
The latitude 41 degrees to 43 degrees is the world recognized gold oat latitudes there is growth, an altitude of 1000 meters above the plateau, with an average annual temperature of 2.5 degrees, the average sunshine hours up to 16 hours, is the best natural oat growth environment. oats
In China cultivation has a long history, all over the mountains, plateau
The northern and alpine cold zone. The planting area of 18 million acres, of which about 16000000 acres of oats, oat accounted for 92% of the sown area. The main plant in Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, Gansu, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Sichuan, Ningxia, Guizhou, Qinghai and other provinces and autonomous regions, of which the first 4 provinces and autonomous regions in the planting area accounted for about 90% of the total area.
Planting oats in 210 counties, but the focus areas of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Yinshan
North and south of Hebei Province, Shanxi province and Yanshan Yinshan area, Shuozhou Xishan mountain, Taihang Mountain
and Lvliang mountain
District, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai Six Panshan
, Helan mountain
and Qilian Mountains
Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan, the, Small Liangshan
In high altitude area. In recent years, the planting area decreased to 15 million acres, but due to the continuous promotion of new varieties and cultivation technology level, the average yield increased from 50 kg to 75 kg.
oats Growth environment
Oat hi cool but not cold. In the northern temperate zone is most suitable for oat planting, seed germination in 2-4 C can, Seedling
Can bear -2 ~ -4 low temperature environment, is one of the most cold resistant in wheat crops in. China cold northern and northwestern regions, only in the spring and winter, more southern regions can be sown in autumn, but must mature before the advent of the summer heat.
oats Water content
Oat Growth in the alpine desert area, but the germination takes about 65% of the water is equivalent to its own weight. Transpiration coefficient of oat than barley and wheat with high water consumption, and more and more, such as lack of water during the growth period, often not full and grain yield decreased. So the roots of oats often up to one meter, in order to draw more water.
In the cultivation of excellent conditions, various kinds of soil can have a good harvest, but rich in humus
The best soil moist. Oat on Acidic soil
The ability to adapt than other cereal crops, but not suitable for Saline-alkali soil
oats cultivation techniques
After shooting the oat art photographer
60 ~ 120 cm high, The fibrous root system
Buried deep. The seedlings have erect and semi erect, creeping 3 types of drought resistance; most are creeping type, lodging resistance and more for the upright. Leaves with prominent membranous tooth Ligule
No, but the ear leaf. Panicles
A tight, ear type, side scattered type and scattered type of 3 weeks. The common cultivated oats for weeks scattered type, oats for lateral dispersion type. Branches produce 10 ~ 75 spikelet
There are two pieces; each spikelet glumes, florets in 1 ~ 3 flower, sometimes 4 roses, naked oats has 2 to 7 flowers. Self pollination
Outcrossing rate is low. In addition to the naked oat grains are tightly wrapped, and lemma. Grain weight 20 to 40 grams, oat hull rate from 25 to 40%.
Oats is a long day crop. Hi cool moist, avoid high temperature drying, Birth
During low temperature, but not suitable for cold weather. The seed in the 1 ~ 2 degrees began to sprout, Seedling
Ability at low temperature for short time, Absolute maximum temperature
25 degrees above time cooperation with blocked . The transpiration coefficient of 597, in the wo Cereal crop
In the second crop rice
Therefore, effects of high temperature and drought on Oat significantly, this is an important reason to limit its geographical distribution. On the strict requirements of the soil, can pH5.5 ~ 6.5 Acidic soil
. stay Podzol
The content of zinc in less than 0.2ppm will be severely cut, reduce the starch content of copper deficiency.
Sowing period varies by region. China north, northwest, northeast spring sowing area, growth period of 80 to 115 days; the southwest winter sown area, growth period of 230 to 245 days. Oats need water more, and Chinese and belongs to the main producing areas of dry farming, therefore, through the early autumn ploughing, harrowing, smoothing, repression and water conservation measures is very important.
Should be selected alfalfa
, Broad bean
As for previous legume crops. soil Barren
The plots can take continuous cropping system from casual dressing wheel. Irrigation should choose lodging, fertilizer, water resistant varieties.
Seed treatment and Sow
Oat like wet like fertilizer but barren, spring harvest, the longer growth period, suitable for a wide range. To fine soil preparation, and shizujifei, maintain Soil moisture
. To do a good job of seed processing. To select high-quality seed varieties, 800 times High lipid membranes
Seed soaking solution, after treatment can take out sowing.
Spring oats in order to avoid the harm of dry hot wind zone, the temperature can be stable at 5 DEG C of sowing. Dryland oat should pay attention to adjust the sowing time, the water requirement period coincides with the rainy season and local. The organic fertilizer should be applied over the autumn half decomposed as base fertilizer, sowing seeds and fertilizer available. Sowing density of basic seedlings per mu of 20 ~ 220 thousand, 25 ~ 350 thousand per mu of irrigated land.
Tillering stage topdressing, watering, to control the excessive growth of late. Water to lodging. After the emergence of oats to maintain adequate moisture and fertility, and spraying high lipid membranes insulation moisture increases efficiency, increase effective tillering rate. To timely apply sufficient fertilizer fertilizer to eliminate weeds, grouting, strong implant, prevent lodging. At the heading stage to spraying a strong spike spirit, enhance pollination ability and grouting quality, increased grain number and grain weight.
The main disease of oats is smut, Ustilago and red leaf disease; local area stem rust, Crown rust
and Leaf spot
Etc.. The use of resistant varieties and more taken before sowing seed disinfection, early sowing, crop rotation, prevention and control measures such as water exclusion. The main pests Armyworm
, Two adult aphids
So, through deep plowing, weed control and spraying agent. Wild oat
Is a worldwide weed, through the rotation and row crops, the seeds of wild oat seeds removed, or in shallow tillage before sowing oats to wild oat germination, and soil weed, re seeding method control, also can use chemical herbicides.
oats Oat planting Sow
The soil is not strict requirements of oat, clay, loam, slope and floodplain can be planted. But although oats suitable for cultivation in various soil conditions, but to achieve high yield of oats, or planting in high organic matter content, nutrient rich, soil structure loose loam is better. We should choose organic rich humus, pH pH value in the 5.5-6.5 plots of planting oats. The election should be noted, most avoid continuous cropping of oat. Continuous cropping oats will make the incidence of pests and diseases increased, the spread of weeds.
The rotation benefit is balanced nutrition, anti hybrid disease, so people used the method of rotation, improve the yield of oat. The best crops are potatoes, beans, mung beans, beans, vegetables. The second is the flax and grass.
Oat growth period is generally 90 days or so, we advocate enough base fertilizer and topdressing fertilizer, can not or less fertilizer.
Shizujifei is an important technical link has high yield of oats, the amount of applied fertilizer, should be required, so the oat whole growth period, generally larger amount. Fertilizer should be used rotten manure. Manure and fertilizer compared with comprehensive nutrient, improving soil structure and other advantages, so that guarantee the manure dosage is based oat harvest yield, fertilizer fertilizer can be carried out in deep soil before. General per mu of manure fertilizer to the field 2000kg, broadcast, broadcast should be uniform, in order to facilitate the growth of oat.
Oats are drought resistant crops, mostly dry. It should be combined with basic fertilizer for deep plowing. Ploughing depth is generally 500px. Slope 375px-450px. 500px-625px beach. Roots can enhance soil tillage layer for rain, increase soil fertilizer capacity and ventilation. The land, in a timely manner to rake pressure. The soil tillage rake, destroy the clod. It can prevent wind erosion, soil moisture plays a role. It is helpful to improve the quality of sowing.
Seeding is an important link of high yield cultivation techniques of oats. You must select excellent varieties with high yield and disease resistance. At the same time must be selected for the local environment variety. Here we have to introduce some good growers naked oats bayou 1, bayou 1, strong growth potential, growth period of 86-95 days, a mid maturing varieties. The seed setting rate, grain weight 24 ~ 25g. With low rate of oat. Lodging resistance, drought resistance, barren resistance, strong tillering ability, high spike rate, good population structure. The sense of light yellow dwarf, is more resistant to Smut, and good adaptability. Bayou 3, bayou No. 3 in the late growth period of 100 days. Compact plant type, erect, height 3000px. 1.5g grain weight per spike and 1000 grain weight of 22-24g. Lodging, drought resistant barren, with BYDV resistance and smut in production of oat without soaking germination, dry seeding. But the oat grain size is not uniform is the physiological characteristics of its own. Before sowing, seeds should be selected, and the small grain grain removed. Seeds small batch, can also be manually selected. In addition to pick out the small grain and grain. Also need to pick out other seeds, such as barley, barley, buckwheat seeds, etc..
The high yield planting oats and oat germination rate have great relationship. Be quite different germination rate of different varieties and different batches of seeds. In addition to buy seeds formal Department of agriculture, the farmers themselves before sowing seeds germination test is also very necessary. In a Petri dish in the paper and the appropriate water will be 100 grains of Oat Seed in a Petri dish, cover the lid into the incubator for germination, the incubator temperature should be controlled at 30 DEG -35 DEG right. Place the 3-4 day, check the seed germination, the germination rate should be higher than 95%, otherwise it is not suitable for field planting.
Oat is sensitive to nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizer can significantly increase. Application of phosphate fertilizer can form seedling. Potash fertilizer can enhance plant lodging resistance. When seeding, according to the situation of land fertility and base fertilizer to determine the kind of fertilizer. In the production of diammonium phosphate and compound fertilizer, suitable for fertilizer. According to the experience of using compound fertilizer has obvious yield increasing effect. Before seeding fertilizer and oat seeds were mixed according to the ratio of 1:2. That is to say 1kg oat seeds with 0.5kg fertilizer. Stir evenly.
Before sowing with carbendazim mildothane yaojibanzhong is effective prevention measures of smut. The effective rate is usually 95% ~ 100%. For seed dressing in mixing fertilizer when, according to the total dosage of 0.2%~0.3% seeds, and then stir.
Sowing time of late sowing is an important technique to improve the quality and yield of oat link. Oats generally mean daily temperature could germinate at 2~4 degrees. Seedlings can endure -3~-4 degrees of low temperature, if the temperature is below -5 degrees would be damaged. Suitable late sowing can reduce the possibility of the critical period of frostbite from jointing to heading the water, should be arranged in the rainy period, the most simple and effective way is to postpone the sowing period. Oats are especially sensitive to high temperature, if the temperature reached 38-40 degrees in the filling stage, will lead to strong bad and shrunken grains. Suitable late sowing can avoid high temperature weather in filling stage. Late sowing can get beautiful grain appearance.
For example, North Hebei dam area, "bayou 1" in early June sowing. Good water and fertilizer plots, in late May sowing. "Zhang Ji You No. 4" in 5 months, late sowing. At the end of August, the temperature is not high in filling stage.
According to the specific soil moisture before sowing should decide whether watering, such as moisture is not good to be watered in time. Oats mainly planted in Hebei, Inner Mongolia and other Alpine arid areas. Effective use of limited water resources is very important. Therefore planting oats should be the efficient use of water resources. In addition to cultivating the soil outside. The use of sprinkler irrigation equipment is an effective way. The amount of water should not be too much before sowing. Dry and wet. With the popularization of agricultural production and the progress of agricultural machinery, the main method of sowing oats from human and animal acerba backward into mechanical sowing sowing. Ordinary farmers land is relatively small, small seeder available 8-9 row seeding labor, labor and money. Relatively large plots can be used for 20 medium sowing machine, the methods they use the same. Oat row spacing is 750px. According to specific plots, row spacing can be reduced to 375px. Reasonable close planting, improve yield. The sowing depth depends on the moisture content. The general moisture, with 4 ~ 150px is appropriate. Early sowing due to some deep, late sowing some appropriate shallow. Drought and soil moisture is not a good year to the appropriate depth.
Due to drought and sandstorm, the effective tillering of oats, basically rely on the main spike to increase production. So, sowing quantity and sowing density should be based on the principle of reasonable density. General seeding rate is about 10kg per mu, mu Baomiao 25-30 10000, per mu yield 150-200kg. Mechanical sowing or fertile land may be appropriate to increase the seeding rate of 1-2kg. Poor sowing rate should not be more than 9kg per mu. Mechanical sowing, sowing machine should be adjusted on the shaft wheel to adjust the seeding quantity. After sowing must be suppressed, soil compaction, filling gaps, preventing wind erosion, soil moisture plays a role, is conducive to the emergence of.
Here a little attention to the friends of farmers, planting oats will not recommend the use of herbicide, herbicide has two disadvantages. One is easy to cause the production of oat. Two, the shell will increase the rate of oat grain, resulting in decreased quality of oat, affects the economic benefit. About 10 days after sowing oats can emerge. Field management
Field management is another important link of high yield. Because you can not use the herbicide field management is an important one is weeding. Should master the "early, small hoe, hoe hoe" principle.
Oat seedling stage should be timely weeding, weeding should be carried out in the first time, oats grow to about 250px when the cultivator can increase the ventilation of the soil, prevent denitrification phenomenon, promote a large number of new roots, improve the absorption capacity, increase the tiller. Cultivating to shallow hoeing fine hoe buried seedlings. Don't hurt the oat seedling leaves. Don't damage the roots when seedlings of oat, oat seedling root is also very fragile, if the damage is difficult to recover. The second row in jointing stage. This can not only eliminate the cultivation, weed and loosen the soil, improve the soil temperature, reduce soil evaporation, increase soil water storage capacity, but also can promote oat root growth, improve the resistance of oat. If conditions permit can be third different, in jointing stage, before sealing ridge.
Oats are generally planted in irrigated plots without conditions. But the high field is need watering, we should be in the critical period of oat need fertilizer, fertilizer and irrigation time. The management of water and fertilizer to three to see, see see, see growing seedlings. Oat seedling water demand is relatively large, when soil moisture is not good moisture watering, watering should be timely. The amount of water each time should be poured enough jiaotou. In the absence of irrigated conditions should be carried out in the row block, before the rain, improve soil water holding capacity. Effective utilization of water resources.
Oat from jointing stage to heading stage is the key period for water and fertilizer, farmers should be timely watering according to soil moisture. Oat jointing growth amount of fertilizer, qualified farmers in accordance with the standard of 5kg-15kg per mu urea topdressing fertilizer. There are irrigated conditions in the applicator after watering, non irrigated conditions should be in direct scattering in the ground before the rain, the rain, promote crop absorption.
In late July to late jointing heading stage of oat. Oats before heading need large amount of fertilizer, topdressing before heading in oat is an important measure to ensure high quality and high yield of oat. In order to meet the nutrient requirement of oat at heading stage, topdressing should be a foliar fertilizer in oat as soon as possible before heading, dressing rate should not be too much, otherwise it will cause severe physiological disorders of oat. Can 200g with potassium dihydrogen phosphate with per mu, against the water 1000 times after spraying. Spraying should be carried out in a sunny or cloudy afternoon. Can play a double role of potassium phosphate supplementation. If the plant is short, at the end of oat Ye Fahuang, stems thin, with lodging phenomenon should be in accordance with the potassium dihydrogen phosphate 300g per mu, add water 1000 times after spraying. Spraying every 10 days time, a total of spraying 2-3 times is appropriate. Specifically, growth period, especially after heading pumping can not use nitrogen, so as not to delay the date of maturity.
It should be noted that less water oat pumping after heading, to prevent and control excessive growth of oat. Resulting in production. If the rain is too big, should pay attention to drainage, prevent lodging.
Timely spraying, pest and disease prevention is the priority among priorities for high yield cultivation of oats. Oat Growth in later period, the temperature at 18-25 degrees, is a multiple of plant diseases and insect pests. Growers should pay attention to prevention and treatment. There is a common disease of oats: smut, leaf rust disease.
Oat pest control to control the impact of current and long-term effects on the natural ecological system with the consideration of prevention measures, to be safe and harmless, economically feasible and effective. We must implement the "prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control of plant protection policy.
This is basically the same as the prevention of common diseases, a selection of resistant varieties, such as bayou 3, bayou 1, etc.. Two is the choice of sterile seeds were planted three is rational rotation, like potatoes, flax and other rotation. Such as a serious condition, prevention of using chemical methods. Advocate the use of low toxicity, low residue pesticides, such as carbendazim, thiophanate methyl, with per mu of thiophanate methyl 60g-70g standard diluted 500 times liquid after treatment, spray evenly. Every 7 days a jet, the jet can be 2-3 times. The more common pest of meadow moth, aphids, spider mites. When the pests, such as serious insect pest, prevention can be done with 5% chlorine and hydrogen permethrin, in accordance with the administration of 35ml-45ml per mu, diluted 1000-1500 times liquid after spraying to kill aphids and spider mites. 10 days after spraying a better effect. Acre by imidacloprid 50g diluted to 1000 times liquid spray control of meadow moth. Harvesting and storage
Oat harvest is a time of strong work, once mature, it should be timely harvest, usually in early September harvest. Can not be delayed, otherwise it will cause the loss of grain, yield no harvest results. The upper and lower parts of the panicle oat grain maturity is not the same, when the wheat in the upper kernels into the dough stage, should be timely harvest. Dough stage performance, oat stalk toughness, and not easily broken, with the fingernails of wheat, wheat should not brittle toughness. At this point in time to harvest. Artificial harvest harvest, artificial harvest, should be on the part of oats with a sickle full harvest, even plant harvest.
Qualified farmers can harvest small machinery. Should pay attention to when harvesting machinery, the speed should be maintained at 6-8km per hour. Otherwise it will not only cause damage and cause harvester, oat mining, lodging and other leakage phenomenon, seriously affecting the yield by the two harvest, will need to continue to dry after the harvest oats in 3-4 days. Then returned to the threshing yard. The use of combine harvester threshing can directly, but the harvest time should be later than hand harvested 5-8 days. Farmers can be determined according to the following standards directly, pick a wheat, with the palm of the hand twist, and can be easily separated from the wheat bran. Too late, will increase out of grains and particles, reduce production. The use of combine harvester, the speed should be at 8km per hour.
The new crop of oats contain water, breathing characteristics of temperature during the harvest season. The more water, the higher the temperature, breathing more intense, more heat is generated, the higher the risk of deterioration. After threshing grain shipped back to the yard after drying should be made a small ridge. 2 ~ 3 hours over time. The moisture content is less than 13.5%. Test method is generally used nails of wheat, wheat can be broken easily when it. Grain can also be placed in the mouth, chewing test, feel grain brittle, show that the drying degree is appropriate, can storage. Then with a broom sweeping cereal winnowing. To the grain storage requirements should be immediately transported into the bagging dry and ventilated storage room storage.
oats The main value
According to the comprehensive analysis and research of China Academy of medical science and health, Chinese naked oat crude Protein
There are 8.5%. starch
release Quantity of heat
as well as phosphorus
Other elements, compared with other 8 kinds of food are among the best. Water soluble oat dietary fiber
Are 4.7 times and 7.7 times of wheat and maize.
In Oats Vitamin B
, folic acid
, Pantothenic acid
Are rich, especially Vitamin E
Every 100 grams. Oat flour
Up to 15 mg. In addition, oat powder also contains cereal food were missing saponin
(the main component of ginseng). Protein Amino acid
Which is more comprehensive, in both the first 8 amino acids necessary for the human body, especially the content of Lysine
Up to 0.68 grams.
Oat rice congee is rich in magnesium and vitamin B1, also contains phosphorus, potassium and iron, pantothenic acid, copper and fiber, can reduce cholesterol in fatty liver, Diabetes
Also, there are secondary effects such as constipation. Without the cooked oat bran rich in magnesium, vitamin B1, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, also contains iron, folic acid, pantothenic acid and copper. Oatmeal can improve blood circulation, promote wound healing.
Nutrient content (100 grams)
Vitamin A 0mg
Vitamin B1 0.3mg
Vitamin B2 0.13mg
Vitamin C 0mg
Vitamin E 3.07mg
Nicotinic acid 1.2mg
Oats lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol, medical value and health care effect of prevention and treatment of heart disease prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer, and has been recognized by the medical profession at all times and in all countries.
From July 2011 to October, which lasted 121 days, Peking University Health Science Center expert group in Inner Mongolia Baotou city launched a full naked oat rice germ conditioning of the patients with type II diabetes intervention research, 404 patients with diabetes from 15 provinces and cities nationwide, 96.5% of the sugar friends before a meal after meal blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and fatty liver islet cell repair and other health indicators were improved. All over the world for the first time with a food to diabetes, and achieved fruitful results.
For liver and kidney disease, diabetes, secondary hyperlipidemia fatty liver caused by the same obvious effect. Long term consumption of oat rice, is conducive to the control of diabetes and obesity.
Oat leaves, straw juicy tender, good palatability. According to the "livestock" reported that oat straw containing crude protein
5.2%, crude fat
2.2%, nitrogen free extract 44.6%, than the straw, wheat straw, corn stalk; fiber 28.2% difficult to digest, wheat, corn, millet straw than low 4.9 ~ 16.4%, is one of the best. The seed is the quality of feed, livestock and livestock disease in old animals and heavy draught animals, chickens and pigs and other livestock poultry.
Oat, nutritional supplements control appetite
Nutrition experts Professor Chen explained that as an old oats grain crops
Growth, at an altitude of 1000 to 2700 meters in the alpine region, with high protein and low carbohydrate
Characteristics; oats also rich in soluble fiber and insoluble fiber, can absorb a lot of cholesterol in the body and excreted, which is consistent with the modern advocacy of "eating coarse grains" diet. And oats contain high Viscosity
The soluble fiber, can delay the emptying of the stomach, increase satiety and appetite control.
The diet containing oats contributes to the long-term control of energy intake, slowly digestible carbohydrates on blood sugar
The influence of. Oat fiber also can reduce hunger, it can help to reduce weight.
Oat apart from the natural health care function, also has the very high value of beauty. People are already know how to use oats to treat skin drying and cured itch. According to archaeological experts of ancient Egypt and Houfei had the habit of bathing water oat.
Oat contains Oat protein
Composition of oat peptide, oat beta glucan, oat oil etc.. The antioxidant effect and increase skin activity, delay skin aging, reduce wrinkles, stains, whitening and moisturizing anti allergy, etc.. In the United States, Japan, South Korea, Canada, France and other countries called oat as "family doctor" and "gold plant", "natural beauty".
Oat rice porridge soup can be directly deposited on the face, or soaking compressed facial mask at attaining. Moisturizing Lotion
Oat beta glucan is a linear non branching mucopolysaccharide, by beta (1-3) and beta (1-4) glycosidic bond linking beta -D- glucopyranose units, forming a high molecular polymer, because it contains a large number of hydrophilic group, can absorb water or lock the skin moisture, oat beta dextran has a very good moisturizing effect, can promote fibroblasts collagen synthesis, promote wound healing, skin repair has good function. In addition, the physicochemical properties of oat beta glucan is unique, can give the skin smooth and silky texture, pleasant, comfortable and elegant feeling.
Protein is one of the most important components of oat protein by enzymatic hydrolysis, peptides and amino acids can be small molecules, which are a class of molecules containing hydrophilic groups can absorb water or lock the skin moisture, has a very good moisturizing effect. The high molecular weight of oat protein can film in low concentration, play Embedding
Isolated or small molecules that can be active or timed release fast transmission, improve the hair and dry skin. Proteins, peptides and amino acids or tissue and cell growth Necessary
Nutritional materials, add these substances in cosmetics, can also nourish the skin, nutrition, promote the healthy growth of the cells of skin tissue.
Oats are rich in good fats, composed mainly of unsaturated fatty acids, lipid composition and hydration properties of oat oil in oil emulsion in a large number of water can be used as an effective carrier of epidermis hydrating agent; oat oil can form a layer of oil film on the surface of the skin play a long-lasting moisturizing effect of oat oil; unsaturated fatty acid composition, can soften the skin, skin moisture, skin feel comfort. Whitening
How many skin color depends on the melanin content in epidermis, the body of the melanin is produced by melanocytes, in melanoma cells, tyrosine in the tyrosinase catalyzed by a series of biochemical reaction of melanin. In the reaction, the formation of melanin, tyrosinase
Is the main The rate limiting enzyme
That generation, can inhibit the tyrosinase activity inhibition of melanin and biochemical reactions of antioxidants can inhibit melanin production, and thus can reduce the formation of melanin.
Contains bio active ingredients can inhibit the tyrosinase activity of oat extract, the inhibition ability and the commonly used cosmetic whitening agent - arbutin close, but oat extract costs are much lower than arbutin. In addition, contain large amounts of antioxidants in oats, these substances can effectively inhibit the formation of melanin in the process Redox reaction
To reduce the formation of melanin, desalt splash, keep skin white and beautiful. Anti wrinkle
Oats contain antioxidants of phenolic acids are: caffeic acid and ferulic acid, Coumaric acid
, benzoic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid; flavonoid compounds include: 5,7,4 '- three hydroxyflavone; 3', 4 ', four 5,7- and 4 5,7- of 3-hydroxyflavone', three ', 5' - hydroxy -3 two methoxyflavone, and living E, avenanthramides and so on, these substances can effectively remove free radicals and reduce the damage to the skin cells from free radical, reduce the appearance of wrinkles, fade melanin, maintain skin elasticity and luster.
Avenanthramides, also known as oats is oat alkaloid, special material, avenanthramides not only has free radical scavenging anti wrinkle effect, but also has characteristics of anti irritation, especially when ultraviolet irradiation have adverse effects on the skin, it has the effective removal of skin redness function, has excellent effect on allergic nursing skin. Moisturizing conditioner
The hair has a certain defense and keeping warm function, but for humans, more important is the hair can be used as the second sex levy, hair density, quality and appearance of modified features, has great influence on people's appearance and temperament, therefore, hair care products occupy a large proportion in cosmetic and beauty industry.
The basic components of the hair keratin, oat protein can form a protective film on the surface of the hair, the hair surface lubrication, reduce friction, thereby reducing the damage caused by combing the hair. Oat protein can also provide nutrition, promote healthy growth of hair.
Changes of water content on the quality of hair and apparent characters of great influence, if the hair absorb too much, will cause the hair protein hydrogen bonds between damage, so that the original hairstyle and volume change, even if the hair combing difficult phenomenon; excessive water loss, excessive hair dry hair, electrostatic increase, lead to hair piaofa, etc.. Oat protein to form a protective film can keep the hair in the water on the surface of the hair is relatively stable, so as to keep hair smooth, supple and shiny.
oats edible Oat make people easy to satiety and energy lasting
Edible method is more common with oat oat rice porridge, oat powder can also be used for food, can also do collocation muesli into mixed food, muffins, wine and beverage, often add soup, meat porridge, can also be used for making a cake, jelly, beer and beverage. Oat bran can be edible, such as boiled swallow cake, cake and bread, and other foods can be eaten together.
The people in the long-term practice exploration of the variety of oats method.
People in Northwest China are "Sansheng three cooked" to eat.
Taking Wuzhai as an example, the panel can be pushed into particles like "flower cat nest"; twist long "fish"; with cooked yam mud and oat mixed "yam cake"; cooked yams and oats frust fry made "Valley base"; raw potato and you hang into the ground into a paste surface trace of "Ge egg"; Millet Congee boiled fish dial "fish drilling sand"; oats package "food corner"; wild herbs can fry oats, sugar or salt "Stir-Fried Noodles with Vegetables" and so on, with the flavor, eat a hundred tire, often with oatmeal in the hospitality, and as a gift a gift. Therapeutic efficacy
Rich in starch, protein, fat, vitamin B, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, calcium, iron and other nutrients, with Tonifying the liver and stomach, beauty care and other effects. Oats can also antibacterial, antioxidant, can effectively increase the body's immunity against influenza in spring. Affordable food
Oat + milk: conducive to protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, and trace elements absorption.
Oat + Yam: longevity, is patients with diabetes, hypertension and high blood fat diet.
Oat + pumpkin: tonifying the liver and stomach, laxative, lowering blood pressure, reducing blood fat. Oat rice
Oat by processing, can be made to shell broken oats rice, oatmeal, oatmeal cookies, oatmeal and oat cakes, food and more and more wide. In addition to eat oats, and health effects, for Maternal
Prolactin, baby dysplasia and frail elderly patients.
Oats contain high protein and low sugar, is an excellent food for diabetic patients, linoleic acid can reduce the accumulation of fat more, cholesterol in cardiovascular in reducing blood lipid of atherosclerotic coronary heart day, eat 100 grams of oat, clinical visible, cholesterol, B cholesterol, glycerin three fat and body weight were significantly reduced. There are also obvious curative effect due to liver and kidney disease, diabetes and other secondary hyperlipidemia. The following method of eating oat rice Yan check dam :
Electric cooker: rice water ratio of 1:15, about 35 minutes.
A, porridge to put some more water.
B, red bean, collocation pumpkin, purple sweet potato, green beans, it will taste better.
Cook: 2, the ratio of 1:4 (collocation of rice)
1 is the oat rice ratio, 4 rice ratio, and then follow the normal cooking water ratio can be Steamed Rice meters.
3, squeeze dew
The amount of oat rice and water into the juicer, according to conventional procedures can be matched with the juice, apples, bananas and other fruit squeezed together. Assorted fruit
2 spoons of steamed oat rice and 1 tablespoon sesame powder in a bowl, add diced apple and banana Ding, add boiling water after stir heating with microwave oven for 3 minutes, remove the two drops of olive oil can.
Nutrition comments: not much vitamin C apples and bananas, so don't worry about heating loss. But the potassium and magnesium, fructose and soluble dietary fiber more, and oats together for cardiovascular health and stable blood sugar, lower blood cholesterol and more benefits. This porridge is very suitable for winter morning to eat, stomach and refreshing. Milk Steamed Egg Custard
10 grams of cheese into fine powder, and 2 tablespoons of oat flour (with oat rice and flour), 1 beaten egg liquid, 1 bags of milk to stir together, poured into a covered bowl, or with high quality plastic film sealing. The steamer after the gas and steam for 10 - 15 minutes.
Nutrition comments: there are children or infirm elderly, can put the oat rice flour made Steamed Egg Custard eat together. Not only nutrition is not loss, better absorption. In addition, in addition to egg rich in quality protein, lecithin and lutein, also contains vitamin D, can help the absorption of calcium in milk and cheese. This dish is good for calcium. Dried fruit fenggao
The oats, corn flour, soybean flour, raisins, medlar mixture, add yeast powder and mix well, and water into a slightly soft dough. Neutralizing the dough after 20 minutes, you can turn off the heat and steam for 25 minutes.
Nutrition comments: oatmeal fenggao after not only increases the total dietary fiber, but also because with raisins and medlar instead of sugar, the fenggao sweetness decreased, but the flavor does not reduce. Oat and maize are deficient in lysine, and yellow powder which is rich in lysine, which can enhance the absorption and utilization of protein.
oats Appropriate to the crowd
Modern workers for oat situation often in tension state, is a kind of healthy food and nutrition balance to get fat. For cardiovascular groups, liver and kidney dysfunction, obesity, middle-aged people, and women want to lose weight is the best of health.
The general population can eat. Suitable for mothers, infants, the elderly and the crew, ship personnel for food; chronic patient, fatty liver, diabetes, edema, habitual constipation eat; suitable body empty spontaneous sweating, sweating, sweat, night sweats are edible; suitable for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis are edible.
oats Edible note
Oats are rich in nutrition, but not easy to digest, so eating oatmeal to grasp "small, often" principle, daily consumption of 40 grams is appropriate, children or the elderly should also be less, otherwise it may cause stomach cramps or abdominal bloating. The elderly or children don't eat a lot of oats food at dinner, even if eating should also choose oatmeal. Using oat flour and oat cake made of potato potato powder, then fried, baked or cooked food is a good choice, good flavor and taste. .
oats Cooking tips
A key is to avoid eating oatmeal cooked at high temperature for a long time, otherwise it will cause the destruction of vitamin. Oatmeal boiled longer, the greater the loss of nutrition. Students need to cook oatmeal 20 ~ 30 minutes; cooked cereal is only 5 minutes; cooked oatmeal with milk boiled together only 3 minutes, the best mixing time .