Empire State Building

Empire State Building (Empire State Building) That is U.S.A One of the landmark buildings in New York. Located in Manhattan Fifth Avenue No. 350, West 33 street and West 34 street.
Empire State Building
It is to keep the world's tallest building status the longest skyscrapers <i> (1931-1972 41 years)</i> . The Empire State Building, 381 meters high, a total of 103 layers, 1951 added antenna 62 meters high, total height of 443.7 meters, the building consists of Shreeve, Lamb, and design Harmon construction company, is the art deco style building.
The Empire State Building is a multifunctional office building, one of New York's tourist attractions, a large number of tourists every day in the queue waiting for the elevator to climb to the top of the viewing.
In 1955, the American Society of civil engineers will be evaluated as the modern The Empire State Building The seven engineering wonders of the world One of . New York landmarks Commission will be chosen for the New York city landmark in 1986, the building was identified as a national historic landmark.

Empire State Building History

In 1799, New York city will be a space (located on Broadway and sixth avenue to the East, Madison avenue to the west, thirty-third avenue to the north, thirty-sixth avenue to the South) Price of $2600 sold to John Thompson (John Thompson) For the development of the farm.
In 1825, Charles Laughton Thompson sold the farm for $10 thousand (Charles Lawton) . 1827, (William Backhouse Astor Sr.) The price of $20 thousand, to buy the farm, for an investment.
In 1859, John Jacob Astor (John Jacob Astor, Jr.) At Fifth Avenue and thirty-third Street Northwest built a mansion. 1862, At Fifth Avenue and thirty-fourth Street Southwest built a mansion.
1893, (William Waldorf Astor) Remove a mansion in Fifth Avenue and his 34 Street junction, built the first luxury Waldorf Astoria Hotel (Waldorf Astoria 1893).
In 1896, William's cousin, and his neighbors Re built on Park Avenue on the new site, the 42 storey building, is the world's first skyscraper Hotel, was also the highest in the world's largest hotel.
In March 17, 1930, started the construction of The Empire State Building. In the construction company (Shreve, Lamb & Harmon ) Under the leadership of weekly 4 and a half quantity.
In 1951, the controlling shareholder of The Empire State Building (Harry B. Helmsley) Laurence A, Wayne (Lawrence A. Wien) Peter Merkin and his son-in-law (Peter Malkin) For $65 million (about 399 million RMB) Bought a controlling interest in building. This price does not include land, was the highest price of a single building. Laurence - A - Wayne from more than 3000 small investors raised $33 million (about 202 million RMB) . These investors pay only $10 thousand per person (about 61361 yuan RMB) You can get a copy of the The Empire State Building, United Company (EmpireStateBuilding Associates) Shares; while the latter will be leased to the whole building And Laurence A Wayne holding another company. At the same time, the group for $29 million (about 178 million RMB) The building ownership again sold to Baode insurance company. ,
In 1991, Baode insurance company will be building ownership for $42 million (about 258 million RMB) Sold to Oliver Grace (Oliver Grace Jr.) But, he is actually a secret on behalf of the Japanese tycoon To complete the deal. At that time, the hotel is a hotel tycoon because of its fatal fire incident in prison.
In June 1994, the daughter of Yokoi Hideki Nakahara Kiko and the American real estate tycoon And Peter Merkin will this landmark class building into a "high-rise slums". The legal battle lasted 7 years.
Harry Helmsley died in January 4, 1997. A period of 9 years, the battle for control of the prelude. Peter Merkin (Peter L. Malkin) And his son Anthony Merkin (Anthony Malkin) Sue Helmsley's widow (Leona Helmsley) And her husband, a former partner at Real Estate Company Helmsley-Spear.
In 2002, due to the failure to terminate the agreement, cross wells, the Central Plains and their brokers Donald Trump The building ownership for $57 million 500 thousand (about 353 million RMB) Sold to the United Company, partnership organization Merkin The Empire State Building. The same year, Peter Merkin and his son bought the land beneath the The Empire State Building.
In 2006, his son Kim regained control of the building of the Helmsley-Spear company from there.
In 2008, the $550 million building owners (about 3 billion 375 million RMB) The upgrading of the building, and started out hundreds of small tenants, it is like Skanska AB (Skanska) , Lufthansa (Lufthansa) And LinkedIn (LinkedIn) Such a large company can pay a higher rent.
In April 2013, his son Kim The The Empire State Building and 19 other houses together, set up a market value of $5 billion 200 million (about 31 billion 908 million RMB) Known as the "empire of real estate trust company" (Empire State Realty Trust) The agency then publicly listed. Merkin and his son in the new company for $730 million in equity (about 4 billion 479 million RMB) .
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Panorama

Empire State Building Design and construction

Empire State Building Design

In 1930s, the U.S. economy is in depression, people's lives more difficult, and the Wall Street bosses are keen to build a skyscraper competition. Millionaire John Jacob Raskob (John Jakob Raskob) In order to show their rich, determined to build a world's tallest building. He found an architect William Ram Can ask, building on high, Rahm thought for a moment and replied, "1050 feet". Raskob was not satisfied with this height, because it is only when New York than the newly built Chrysler building 4 feet high. Then, the architects managed to added a 200 foot high section of the Round Tower, the The Empire State Building, the height of 1250 feet.
The nickname name originates from the New York state building, the Empire State, so the name English intended for the New York state building or the Di Guozhou tower, but the The Empire State Building has been agreed and used for secular translation.
The The Empire State Building is made from Shreve, Lamb & Harmon construction company William F served as the main design. Based on his early design, with reference to the Winston Reynolds building in the Salem and Ohio Prefecture of Cincinnati city caruta, was completed in two weeks to design drawings. Every year, the The Empire State Building staff will be sent to the father's Day cards Reynolds building staff, so that it is used to prototype The Empire State Building. The building is under the self design, Starrett Brothers and Eken is the general contractor. Project funding is mainly funded by John J. Raskob and Pierre S. Du Pont. The main person in charge of the construction company is the former New York governor Alfred E. Smith. James Farley building supply company is responsible for providing building materials. John W. Bowser is responsible for the construction project.
 The Empire State Building construction period The Empire State Building construction period

Empire State Building build

In January 22, 1930, the project started in March 17th of the same year. ( Saint Patrick's Day ) Start building ontology. The project involves 3400 workers, most of the immigrants in Europe, there are hundreds of them in Mohawk iron and steel workers, there are also many from Montreal Canada kahoolawe. According to official statistics, a total of 5 workers killed in the construction process. The The Empire State Building construction speed is 4 and a half week. In the technical level at the time, is amazing.
Building construction, in order to compete for the world's tallest building "title, a fierce competition in New York, the other two to participate in the competition in the construction of the project is the Trump Building and Chrysler building. In April 11, 1931, the The Empire State Building than their height and completed 12 days ahead of schedule, from start to finish only 410 days.
In May 1, 1931, the The Empire State Building officially completed, including the then governor of New York Franklin D. Roosevelt And then, the former governor of Empire State Building Company President Al Fred - E - Smith (Alfred E. Smith) Inside, a total of more than 2000 guests attended the opening ceremony. Governor Smith's grandson was finished building the ribbon. U.S. President Barack Herbert Clark Huff in Washington to press the remote control button, building lights lit. The The Empire State Building became the tallest building in the world. Ironically, tower lights first use of The Empire State Building, in November 1932 next year, to celebrate Franklin Roosevelt in the presidential election victory over Hoover.
In 1950, the installation of a The Empire State Building over antenna tower 200 feet high, making it the height up to 443.7 meters.
In 1956, as a symbol of freedom and welcome visitors, four large rotating lamp is mounted to the top of the building, and called it "the light of freedom".
In 1964, replacing the pharos, floodlight The Empire State Building, to celebrate the New York world expo. Since 1964, the appearance of 30 storey building with upper decorative lanterns, shining all night.
In 1966, the first of more than 80 storey building with a manual speed elevator, replaced by automatic lift.
In 1984, auto color lights installed in the top of the tower, lighting performance become more abundant.
In 1993, the The Empire State Building replaced 6514 windows, by the Landmarks Preservation Commission identified as the largest in the history of the windows installation works, for the unique red sash.
In 1999 -2000 years, in the telecommunications project of The Empire State Building, installed more than 20 miles of fiber and copper wire.
In 2001, the "9 - 11" after the incident, after a short off The Empire State Building eighty-sixth viewing platform to open to the public, and the fence was strengthened. The viewing platform is located in building 1050 feet (about 320 meters) , from which can be seen in the city of New York.
In May 1, 2006, the United States The Empire State Building in New York spent its 75 year old birthday, American newspapers and television have made many reports, but also experienced the vicissitudes of memory building.
By February 2008, the Clinton Climate Initiative (The Clinton Climate Initiative, referred to as CCI) launched the The Empire State Building emission reduction projects started quietly. After half a year, the The Empire State Building renovation completed, a 38% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions than before the transformation.

Empire State Building Statistics

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Panorama
The height is 1.250 feet 102 storey The Empire State Building (318 meters) Plus, 203 feet (62 meters) The spire, the total height of 1453 feet / 8 Sixteen Inches (443.092 meters).
The Empire State Building has 85 floors in total area of 2158000 square feet (200500 square meters) of the office space rental. The viewing platform on the eighty-sixth floor features an indoor and outdoor. The rest of the 16 layer is the Art Deco tower, the 102nd layer is the top of the indoor observatory. It is 62 meters high spire, used as a radio antenna and a lightning rod.
The first The Empire State Building has more than 100 floors of the building, it has 6500 windows and 73 elevator from the ground to the 102nd layer consists of 1860 steps . The total construction area of 2768591 square feet (257211 square meters) . The Empire State Building base area of about 2 acres (8094 square meters) . As of 2007, there are about 21 thousand employees working in the building, to the United States after the The Pentagon's second largest comprehensive office building. The Empire State Building, completed in 1 years and 45 days, it has 64 core elevator, later increased to 73. Take the place do not need 1 minutes to reach the 80 floor, there is a gift shop and a building with information Pavilion . From the 80 floor, visitors can take the elevator or stairs located on the 86 floor on the outdoor viewing platform. The building construction is 70 miles (113 km) long pipeline, 2 million 500 thousand feet (760 km) long wire, and about 9000 taps. The building is on the low pressure steam heating, although it is very high, but only 2 per square inch to 3 pounds (14 to 21 thousand kPa) low pressure steam heating can. The building's weight is about 370000 tons (340000 tons). The building is on the use of Indiana gray board.
The building cost $40948900 ($637172100 in 2016). In order to ensure that the building is not restricted in the future, at the beginning of the design and implement the concept of advanced design, this is evident in the design of circuit system.
The building of the art deco style is a typical architectural style in New York before the Second World War. The lobby of a building of 3 storeys high, and decorated with an antenna tower of the The Empire State Building spire no relief. The North corridor is decorated with eight plate, which is composed of Roy Sparkia and Ren e Nemorov in 1963 in order to meet the 1964 World Expo created, depicting the The Empire State Building is known as the eighth wonders of the world, the other seven are arranged in the next miracle. These light later moved to near the ticket office observatory.
Until 1960s, the hall ceiling is light board decorative art style, later converted into a fluorescent lamp ceiling. Because the original version of the mural was designed by an artist called Leif Neandross, it was damaged after installation of replica instead. More than 50 artists and workers with 15000 square feet of aluminum and 1300 square feet of 23 carat gold pieces for re created murals.
category data category data
Material Science 330 thousand tons Steel products 57000 tons
Window 6500 wire 473 miles (about 761.20 km) long
Elevator. 73 Indiana limestone 200 thousand cubic feet (about 1 million 775 thousand meters)
Steps 1860 order Indiana limestone and granite 5660 cubic meters
Cost 41 million dollars (about 256 million yuan) brick 10 million block
total area 204385 square meters Aluminum and stainless steel 730 tons

Empire State Building Function structure

Empire State Building The 1 floor of the hall

The The Empire State Building hall was in New York a few by the Landmarks Preservation Commission designated as one of the landmarks in the history of interior decoration. In 2009, it took 18 months to restore it to the design style of 1930. The construction of the entire building has only spent 13 months.
The hall features include influenced by art deco style ceiling murals, the pattern is to draw on mechanical gear form of planets and stars, to pay tribute to the mechanical age. Materials for gold sheet and aluminum 24 carat. In the Fifth Avenue Hall of the front wall, decorated with The Empire State Building own light shine wall sculpture.

  
 The first floor of the hall The first floor of the hall

  
 The first floor of the hall The first floor of the hall

  
 The first floor of the hall The first floor of the hall

  
 The first floor of the hall The first floor of the hall
 The first floor of the hall The first floor of the hall
 The first floor of the hall The first floor of the hall

Empire State Building The 2 floor of the visitor center

The 2 floor of the visitor center to buy tickets online and print tickets for tourists. After booking, visitors can through the handheld multimedia equipment to study the building of a scheme of energy saving and emission reduction.

  
 visitor center visitor center

  
 visitor center visitor center

  
 visitor center visitor center
 visitor center visitor center

Empire State Building The 80 floor of the official merchandise store

In order to pay tribute to the building of the art deco style, set up the official gift shop in building 80 floor, The Empire State Building can buy clothing, decorations and other merchandise The Empire State Building.

Empire State Building The 86 floor observation deck

Here is New York city's highest open-air viewing platform. As the viewing platform of the world famous, here is the dozens of films and TV series shooting scenes, but also record the millions of personal moments.
At the top of the viewing platform around the building, can be 360 degrees overlooking the city of New York, you can see the Central Park, the Hudson River and the East River, Brooklyn Bridge, Times Square, Statue of Liberty and so on. The viewing platform is also equipped with hand-held multimedia devices and high performance double tube telescope.

  
 The 86 floor observation deck The 86 floor observation deck

  
 The 86 floor observation deck The 86 floor observation deck

  
 The 86 floor observation deck The 86 floor observation deck

  
 The 86 floor observation deck The 86 floor observation deck
 The 86 floor observation deck The 86 floor observation deck
 The 86 floor observation deck The 86 floor observation deck

Empire State Building The 102 floor observation deck

Take the elevator manually from the 86 layer, can reach the interior of the viewing platform, the 102 layer here, when the weather is good, you can see 80 miles of skyscrapers.

  
 The 102 floor observation deck The 102 floor observation deck

  
 The 102 floor observation deck The 102 floor observation deck

  
 The 102 floor observation deck The 102 floor observation deck
 The 102 floor observation deck The 102 floor observation deck

Empire State Building The main tenant of each layer

Tenant name Floor / room number Reference material
Philippines newspaper reporter One thousand and seven
The World Cultural Heritage Foundation Two thousand four hundred and twelve
Human Rights Watch The 34 floor -
Croatian National Tourist Board Four thousand and three -
boy scouts And the parliament of New York Four hundred and thirty
The American Foundation for human rights Four thousand five hundred and fifteen
Poland Cultural Research Institute Four thousand six hundred and twenty-one
Kaplan International Center The 63 floor
China aviation Six thousand nine hundred and five
Qatar Airways Seven thousand six hundred and thirty

Empire State Building An important event

The morning of July 28, 1945, occurred" The B-25 bomber crash accident The Empire State Building ". A B-25 bomber transition to New Jersey Newark Airport lost in the fog and in New York The Empire State Building seventy-ninth speed of 320 kilometers per hour hit (spread Seventy-eighth layer and 80 layer). 3 people on board and the death of 11 people, the aircraft fuel leaked out, spread to the seventy-fifth layer, but the The Empire State Building structure intact, two days after the accident building normal open. After spending $1 million to repair the building.
In September 11, 1948, New York The Empire State Building suffered a bird from attacks, hundreds of different kinds of birds have hit the The Empire State Building glass window, as if they are running away from what is invisible to predators, crashed into the building as refuge.
In May 2, 1951, the American Broadcasting Company the day began playing color TV programs from the The Empire State Building.
In 1962, 1 of 30 people working group began to clean the The Empire State Building, since this is the first time since the opening of the building. A half year plan.
In November 1973, in response to the energy crisis, temporarily shut down the light until the July 3, 1974 building.
In 1976, tens of thousands of tourists ushered in the fifth The Empire State Building. The same year, to celebrate the 200 anniversary of the United States into independent, The Empire State Building enabled color light in the evening, the color is red, white and blue, which has become a very popular combination of light color later.
In February 15, 1978, marks the inaugural Empire State Building Annual Run-Up.
In 1980, the The Empire State Building has its own zip code 10118.
In May 18, 1981, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission announced that the The Empire State Building is the landmark building.
In December 20, 1982, the The Empire State Building was listed in the national register of historic places and on.
In 1986, approved by the U.S. National Park Service The Empire State Building was under the U.S. Department of the interior as a national historic landmark, and awarded a commemorative plaque.
In February 14, 1994, the The Empire State Building on Valentine's day wedding was held for the first time, more than 250 couples exchanged their vows in the activity. Since 1994, the The Empire State Building became the traditional place of young people to the top of the wedding and New Yorkers to celebrate Valentine's day. The wedding held in the The Empire State Building, can become a member of the club, the annual Valentine's day can be free to return to the The Empire State Building.
stay 9 / 11 After the building is the 3 consecutive month of mourning light blue light.

Empire State Building Related works

In March 2, 1933, the movie " Peter Jackson's King Kong "Release, a gorilla climb on the roof of the building for a gimmick it played the best publicity. In 2004, the The Empire State Building tower lights off 15 minutes, to commemorate the heroine of the movie Fay Wray Death.
By July 25, 1964. Andy Warhol Directed by the silent film " Empire State Building " (Empire) The film released, a total length of 8 hours and 8 minutes, it's only a shot of The Empire State Building.
In March 21, 2013, starring Tang Wei and Wu Xiubo love movie " Beijing in Seattle "In the final two, male and female at the top of The Empire State Building a.

Empire State Building Important activities

From 1978, every year people are going to have a match at the stairs. Participants from the 1 layer board to 86 layers, a total of 1574 ladder. Open the observatory of wind is quite large, sunny day can overlook to 100 kilometers away. Up to 443.7 meters of the Empire
 Help Liuxiaolingtong The Empire State Building Lantern Festival Help Liuxiaolingtong The Empire State Building Lantern Festival
The building, in the above can be like day and night "King Kong" like to look around the horizon. When the weather is sunny, visitors from the 102 floor observation deck and the 86 floor observation deck overlooking the road to walk outside the five states.
From the beginning of 2001, the Chinese city of New York, a large number of overseas Chinese in the annual Spring Festival every year, the The Empire State Building in People's Republic of China National Day during the night light red, yellow two color light auspicious symbol.
In 2014, the Consulate General in New York and New York Chinese The Empire State Building on January 29th jointly held a lighting ceremony to celebrate the Spring Festival and the 35 anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations Chinese. China Consul General in New York Sun Guoxiang and his wife attended the lighting ceremony and The Empire State Building lighting.
From February 5, 2016 to February 10th, "happy Spring Festival and art China exchange" series of activities launched in New York. The morning of February 5, 2016 10, China Consul General in New York, Ms. Zhang Qiyue China artist Mr. Liuxiaolingtong, and chairman and chief operating officer John Kessler The Empire State Building (John B.Kessler) Common light The Empire State Building lighting installations, opened the "happy Spring Festival art Chinese exchange" series of activities. John Kessler said that the design and cooperation with China Central Academy of Fine Arts China the institutions of higher learning, brings the perfect visual presentation for the lighting device on the top floor of the The Empire State Building.

Empire State Building Building evaluation

The Empire State Building was built in 1931, 102 storeys high, once known as the world's tallest commercial building, this record until 1972 was New York's Petronas Twin Towers to replace.
1955, asce The evaluation for the modern The Empire State Building The seven engineering wonders of the world One of。 (Sohu review)
If the building is a The Empire State Building personification, seventy years of age. Around Manhattan, The Empire State Building still ranks in the city, under the city financial district because of the loss of Twin Towers was suddenly dragged back to look like 1960s, a skyline reminiscent of outliving embarrassing situation. (Civil Aviation Resource Net review)
The twin towers, The Empire State Building has become the symbol of New York, to the people of New York have a new saying: not to The Empire State Building, not to New York. (people.com.cn review)